Biological Effects Associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation, 1982–83, on Northern Elephant Seals Breeding at Año Nuevo, California
Direct effects on mortality and distribution of adults caused by a rise in sea surface level, high coastal winds, high surf, and winter storms associated with El Niño (Fahrbach et al., this Vol.), and
Indirect or long-term effects on mortality, reproduction, and foraging effort associated with fluctuations in water currents, upwelling, and water temperature—perturbations that might have caused changes in the composition, distribution, abundance, and availability of the food base of these phocids (Arntz et al., this Vol.).
KeywordsBreeding Season Elephant Seal White Shark Northern Elephant Seal Sampie Size
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