Hormonal Modulation of Baroreceptor Reflexes

  • V. S. Bishop
  • R. E. Shade
  • J. R. Haywood


Mechanisms involved in the regulation of the cardiovascular system include fluid homeostasis, central neural mechanisms and local vasoregulatory processes. The relative importance of each mechanism is still controversial. This is due, in part, to the view that the regulation of the cardiovascular system involves both short- and long-term regulatory systems and that long-term mechanisms may be more important in maintaining homeostasis. However, as we learn more about the interaction between the various regulatory mechanisms, the distinction between short- and long-term regulatory mechanisms appears to be arbitrary. For example, fluid and local vascular regulatory mechanisms, which are effective regulators over the long term, are influenced by sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) to the specific organs. On the other hand, the arterial baroreflexes which are considered to be involved only in the short-term regulation respond rapidly to perturbations and have a high gain. Thus in many instances, regulation is initiated by neural mechanisms before the so called long-term mechanisms come into play. However, changes in neurohormonal drive are likely to elicit alterations in fluid and vascular regulatory processes. Accordingly, it is difficult to distinguish between the relative importance of these three regulatory systems.


Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Nucleus Tractus Solitarius Atrial Natriuretic Factor Lower Body Negative Pressure Area Postrema 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. S. Bishop
    • 1
  • R. E. Shade
    • 2
  • J. R. Haywood
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PharmacologyThe University of Texas Health Science CenterSan AntonioUSA
  2. 2.Department of PhysiologySouthwest Foundation for Biomedical ResearchSan AntonioUSA

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