Transducer Needs for Petroleum Acoustics
A variety of acoustic techniques are used for geophysical measurements in oil wells. The frequency used ranges from 10 Hz for the lower end of the seismic range to 1 MHz in the ultrasonic range. Except for the very low frequencies, the sources are located in the well and, as such, are subjected to a harsh environment. The available room and electric power are limited, the pressure and temperature are high (up to 1000 bars and 175° C), and the mud filling the borehole can have unfavorable acoustic properties. Moreover, the time allowed for a measurement is restricted for economical reasons.
KeywordsPermeability Porosity Anisotropy Attenuation Steam
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