Histopathology has long recognized “flat” lesions of the urothelium, a certain percentage of which are missed by gross examination. These lesions may occur in isolation or as an accompaniment to overt inflammatory or neoplastic disease. In this article we shall discuss only those lesions that bear a distinct relationship to urothelial cancer. These flat “preneoplastic” or early neoplastic changes are of major clinical and biologic significance, and they hold the key to understanding the behavior of urothelial carcinomas and their cytologic classification.
KeywordsStratification Lamination Kelly Nite Noma
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