The Role of Complement in Host Defence and Immune Response

  • R. Burger
Conference paper

Abstract

The immune system might be compared with a domino: There are individual elements which have to interact in a certain sequence. The sequence might vary considerably, depending on the point of view of the given investigator. These crucial elements within the immune response include antigen, antibody, T- and B-lymphocytes, MHC, cytokines and the complement system. Complement is one example of those pieces which one could place very well in different steps within the sequence. It contributes in the preimmune phase to non-specific host defence and inflammation. Alternatively, complement might be regarded as an early component during the induction of the specific immune response and it acts also in final, i.e. effector phase of the immune reaction. Complement is clearly a major humoral defence system. It represents a kind of endegenous immunomodulator or immunoregulatory system. In the following, a short overview of this protein system is given focussing on the role of the complement protein C3. C3 clearly represents a crucial component within the complement system.

Keywords

Pneumonia Pancreatitis Serotonin Arginine Histamin 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Auerbach HS, Burger R, Dodds A, Colten HR (1990) Molecular basis of complement C3 deficiency in guinea pigs. J Clin Invest, in press.Google Scholar
  2. Bitter-Suermann D, Burger R (1986) Guinea pigs deficient in C2, C4 or C3 receptor. Progr Allergy 39: 134Google Scholar
  3. Bitter-Suermann D. (1988) The anaphylatoxins. In: Rother K. and Till G (eds) The Complement System, Springer, New York, p 367Google Scholar
  4. Bitter-Suermann D, Burger R (1990) C3 deficiencies. Curr Topics Microbiol Immunol 153: 223Google Scholar
  5. Böttger EC, Metzger S, Bitter-Suermann D, Stevenson G, Kleindienst S, Burger R (1986) Impaired humoral immune response in complement C3-deficient guinea pigs: absence of secondary antibody response. Eur J Immunol 16: 1231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Böttger EC, Bitter-Suermann D (1987) Complement and the regulation of humoral immune responses. Immunol today 8: 261–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Burger R, Deubel U, Hadding U, Bitter-Suermann D (1982) Identification of functionally relevant determinants of the complement component C3 with monoclonal antibodies. J Immunol 129: 2042PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Burger R, Gordon J, Stevenson G, Ramadori G, Zanker B, Hadding U, Bitter-Suermann D (1986) An inherited deficiency of the third component of complement C3 in guinea pigs. Eur J Immunol 16: 7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burger R (1987a) The complement component C3 as a mediator of the inflammatory reaction. Progr appl Microcirc 12: 108Google Scholar
  10. Burger R, Bader A, Kirschfink M, Rother U, Schrod L, Wörner I, Zilow G (1987b) Functional analysis and quantification of the complement C3 derived anaphylatoxin C3a with a monoclonal antibody. Clin Exp Immunol 68: 703PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Burger R, Zilow G, Bader A, Friedlein A, Naser W (1988) The C terminus of the anaphylatoxin C3a generated upon complement activation represents a neoantigenic determinant with diagnostic potential. J Immunol 141: 553PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Caporale LH, Tippett PS, Erickson BW (1980) The active site of C3a anaphylatoxin. J Biol Chem 235: 10758Google Scholar
  13. Chenoweth DE (1986) Anaphylatoxin formation in extracorporeal circuits. Complement 3: 152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Dalmasso AP (1986) Complement in the pathophysiology and diagnosis of human diseases. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 24: 123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hack CE, Nuijens JH, Felt-Bersma RJF, Schreuder WO, EerenbergBelmer AJM, Paardekooper J, Bronsveld W, Thijs LG (1987) Elevated plasma levels of the anaphylatoxins C3a and C4a are associated with a fatal outcome in sepsis. Amer J Med 86: 20–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Haeffner-Cavaillon N, Cavaillon JM, Laude M, Kazatchkine MD (1987) Ca (C3a-desArg) induces production and release of interleukin 1 by cultured human monocytes. J Immunol 139: 794–799PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Hartung HP, Hadding, U (1983a) Synthesis of complement by macrophages and modulation of their functions through complement activation. Springer Semin Immunopathol 6: 283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hartung HP, Bitter-Suermann D, Hadding U (1983b) Induction of thromboxane release from macrophages by anaphylatoxic peptide C3a of complement and synthetic hexapeptide C3a 72–77. J Immunol 130: 1345–1349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Huber R, Scholze H, Paques EP, Deisenhofer J (1980) Crystal structure analysis and molecular model of human C3a anaphylatoxin. Hoppe-Seylers Z Physiol Chem 361: 1389–1399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hugli TE (1984) Structure and function of the anaphylatoxins. Springer Semin Immunopathol 7: 193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hugli TE (1986) Biochemistry and biology of anaphylatoxins. Complement 3: 111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Hugli, TE (1990) Structure and function of C3a anaphylatoxin. Current Topics Microbiol Immunol 153: 181Google Scholar
  23. Köhler V, Schäfer H, Kleindienst S, Stevenson G, Burger R (1989) The role of C3 in immune-response: analysis in C3-deficient guinea pigs. Abstracts, 7. Intl. Congress of Immunology, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  24. Klos A, Ihring V, Messer M, Grabbe J, Bitter-Suermann, D (1988) Detection of native human complement component C3 and C5a and their primary activation peptides C3a and C5a (anaphylatoxic peptides) by ELISA with monoclonal antibodies. J Immunol Methods 111: 241–252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lambris, JD (ed) (1990) The third component of complement-chemistry and biology. Springer, Berlin, 1990Google Scholar
  26. Lawley TJ, Bielory L, Gascon P, Yancey KB, Young NS, Frank MM (1984) A prospective clinical and immunologic analysis of patients with serum sickness. N Engl J Med 311: 1407PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Levine RP, Dodds AW (1990) The thioester bond of C3. Current Topics Microbiol Immunol 153: 73Google Scholar
  28. Melchers F, Erdei A, Schulz T, Dierich MP (1985) Growth control of activated, synchronized murine B cells by the C3d fragment of human complement. Nature 317: 264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Meuer S, Ecker U, Hadding U, Bitter-Suermann D (1981) Platelet-serotonin release by C3a and C5a: Two independent pathyways of activation. J Immunol 126: 1506PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Müller-Eberhard HJ (1988) Molecular organization of the complement system. Ann Rev Biochem 57: 321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Morgan EL, Weigle WO, and Hugli TE (1982) Anaphylatoxin mediated regulation of the immune response. I. C3a-mediated suppression of human and murine humoral immune responses. J Exp Med 155: 1412PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rinaldo JE, Rogers RM (1982) Adult respiratory-distress syndrome, Changing concepts of lung injury and repair. N Engl J Med 306: 900PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rinaldo JE, Rogers RM (1986) Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome. New Engl J Med 315: 578–580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ross SC, Densen P (1984) Complement deficiency states and infection: epidemiology, pathogenesis and consequences of neisserial and other infections in an immune deficiency. Medicine 63: 243–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schifferli JA, Yin CNG (1988) The role of complement in the processing of immune complexes. Baillieres Clin. Immunol. Allergy 2: 319–334Google Scholar
  36. Vogt W (1986) Anaphylatoxins: possible roles in disease. Complement 3: 177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Weigle WO, Goodman MG, Morgan EL, Hugli TE (1983) Regulation of immune response by components of the complement cascade and their activated fragments. Springer Semin Immunopathol 6: 173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zilow G, Joka T, Rother U, Kirschfink M (1988) Anaphylatoxin generation in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid ( BAL) in polytrauma patients. Complement 5: 200Google Scholar
  39. Zilow G, Naser W, Rutz R, Burger R (1989a) Quantitation of the anaphylatoxin C3a in the presence of C3 by a novel sandwich ELISA using monoclonal antibody to a C3a neoepitope. J Immunol Meth 121: 261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zilow G, Burger R, Naser W, Kleine TO (1989b) Indication for activation of the complement system in CSF during inflammation or haemorrhages of the CNS. J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 27: 929Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Burger
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of ImmunologyRobert Koch-Institut, BGABerlin 65W. Germany

Personalised recommendations