Suppression of Host Resistance by Antigens of Cryptococcus Neoformans

  • T. R. Kozel
Conference paper
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (ASIH, volume 53)


Normal immune fonction is a critical factor in resistance to the opportunistic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans. Disseminated cryptococcosis is most commonly associated with underlying illness which predisposes to disease. Patients with neoplastic disease, particularly chronic lymphatic leukemia, Hodgkin’s disease, chronic myelogenous leukemia and multiple myeloma, are at particular risk. Other risk factors include collagen diseases, sarcoidiosis, and immunosuppression associated with organ transplantation. More recently, the Acquired Immunodeficiency Disease Syndrome (AIDS) has emerged as the most important predisposing condition for development of disseminated cryptococcosis. Patients with AIDS have a number of immunological defects; the specific deficiency that accounts for the high incidence of cryptococcosis in AIDS patient is not known. An area of current interest is the extent to which the yeast is able to modulate the host resistance. the effects of the yeast on host resistance may be a contributing factor to the progression of disease in immunocompromised individuals.


Host Resistance Cryptococcal Meningitis Capsular Polysaccharide Complement Cascade Alternative Complement Pathway 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Asherson GL, Colizzi V, Zembala M (1986) An overview of T-suppressor cell circuits. Ann Rev Immunol 4: 37–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baker PJ, Amsbaugh DF, Stashak PW, Caldes G, Prescott B (1982) Direct evidence for the involvement of T suppressor cells in the expression of low-dose paralysis to type III pneumococcal polysaccharide J Immunol 128: 1059–1062PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Blackstock R, Hall NK, Hernandez NC (1989) Characterization of a suppressor factor that regulates phagocytosis by macrophages in murine cryptococcosis. Infect Immun 57: 1773–1779PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Blackstock R, Hernandez NC (1988) Inhibition of macrophage phagocytosis in cryptococcosis: phenotypic analysis of the suppressor cell. Cell Immunol 114: 174–187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blackstock R, Hernandez NC (1989) Characterization of the macrophage subset affected and its response to a T suppressor factor ( TsFmp) found in cryptococcosis. Infect Immun 57: 2931–2937Google Scholar
  6. Blackstock R, McCormack JM, Hall NK (1987) Induction of a macrophage-suppressive lymphokine by soluble cryptococcal antigens and its association with models of immunologic tolerance. Infect Immun 55: 233–239PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Breen JF, Lee IC, Vogel FR, Friedman H (1982) Cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide-induced modulation of murine immune responses. Infect Immun 36: 47–51PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Cherniak R, Reiss E, Slodki ME, Plattner RD, Blumer SO (1980) Structure and antigenic activity of the capsular polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans. Mol Immunol 17: 1025–1032PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cherniak R, Reiss E, Turner SH (1982) A galactoxylomannan antigen of Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A. Carbohydr Res 103: 239–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Diamond RD, Bennett JE (1973) Disseminated cryptococcosis in man: decreased lymphocyte transformation in response to Cryptococcus neofonnans. J Infect Dis 127: 694–697PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Diamond RD, Bennett JE (1974) Prognostic factors in cryptococcal meningitis: A study of 111 cases. Ann Intern Med 80: 176–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Diamond RD, May JE, Kane M, Frank MM, Bennett JE (1973) The role of late complement components and the alternate complement pathway in experimental cryptococcosis. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 144: 312–315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Diamond RD, May JE, Kane MA, Frank MM, Bennett JE (1974) The role of the classical and alternative complement pathways in host defenses against Cryptococcus neoformans infection. J Immunol 112:2260-.2270Google Scholar
  14. Diamond RD, Erickson NF III (1982) Chemotaxis of human neutrophils and monocytes induced by Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect Immun 38: 380–382PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Dorf ME, Benacerraf B (1984) Suppressor cells and immunoregulation. Ann Rev Immunol 2: 127–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dromer F, Perronne C, Barge J, Vilde JL, Yeni P (1989) Role of IgG and complement component C5 in the initial course of experimental cryptococcosis. Clin Exp Immunol 78: 412–417PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Fidel PL Jr, Murphy JW (1988) Characterization of an in vitro-stimulated, Cryptococcus neoformans-specific second-order suppressor T cell and its precursor. Infect Immun 56: 1267–1272PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Graybill JR, Alford RH (1974) Cell-mediated immunity in cryptococcosis. Cell Immunol 14: 12–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Henderson DK, Bennett JE, Huber MA (1982) Long-lasting, specific immunologic unresponsiveness associated with cryptococcal meningitis. J Clin Invest 69: 1185–1190PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Henderson DK, Kan VL, Bennett JE (1986) Tolerance to cryptococcal polysaccharide in cured cryptococcosis patients: failure of antibody secretion in vitro. Clin Exp Immunol 65: 639–646PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Khakpour FR, Murphy JW (1987) Characterization of a third-order suppressor T cell (Ts3) induced by cryptococcal antigen(s). Infect Immun 55: 1657–1662PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Kozel TR, Cazin J Jr (1974) Induction of humoral antibody response by soluble polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans. Mycopathol Mycol App154: 21–30Google Scholar
  23. Kozel TR, Gulley WF, Cazin J Jr (1977) Immune response to Cryptococcus neoformans soluble polysaccharide: immunological unresponsiveness. Infect Immun 18: 701–707PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Kozel TR, Highison B, Stratton CH (1984) Localization on encapsulated Cryptococcus neoformans of serum components opsonic for phagocytosis by macrophages and neutrophils. Infect Immun 43: 574–579PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Kozel TR, Pfrommer GST (1986) Activation of the complement system by Cryptococcus neoformans leads to binding of iC3b to the yeast. Infect Immun 52: 1–5PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Kozel TR, Wilson MA, Pfrommer GST, Schlageter AM (1989) Activation and binding of opsonic fragments of C3 on encapsulated Cryptococcus neoformans by using an alternative complement pathway reconstituted from six isolated proteins. Infect Immun 57: 1922–1927PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Laxalt KA, Kozel TR (1979) Chemotaxigenesis and activation of the alternative complement pathway by encapsulated and non-encapsulated Cryptococcus neofonnans. Infect Immun 26: 435–440PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Lim TS, Murphy JW, Cauley LK (1980) Host-etiological agent interactions in intranasally and intraperitoneally induced cryptococcosis in mice. Infect Immun 29: 633–641PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Macher AM, Bennett JE, Gadek JE, Frank MM (1978) Complement depletion in cryptococcal sepsis. J Immunol 120: 1686–1690PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Morgan MA, Blackstock RA, Bulmer GS, Hall NK (1983) Modification of macrophage phagocytosis in murine cryptococcosis. Infect Immun 40: 493–500PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Mosley RL, Murphy JW, Cox RA (1986) Immunoabsorption of Cryptococcus-specific suppressor T-cell factors. Infect Immun 51: 844–850PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Murphy JW, Cox RA (1988) Induction of antigen-specific suppression by circulating Cryptococcus neofonnans antigen. Clin Exp Immunol 73: 174–180PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Murphy JW, Cozad GC (1972) Immunological unresponsiveness induced by cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide assayed by the hemolytic plaque technique. Infect Immun 5: 896–901PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Murphy JW, Moorhead JW (1982) Regulation of cell-mediated immunity in cryptococcosis. I. Induction of specific afferent T suppressor cells by cryptococcal antigen. J Immunol 128: 276–283Google Scholar
  35. Murphy JW, Mosley RL (1985) Regulation of cell-mediated immunity in cryptococcosis. III. Characterization of second-order T-suppressor cells (Ts2). J Immunol 134: 577–584PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Murphy JW, Mosley RL, Moorhead JW (1983) Regulation of cell-mediated immunity in cryptococosis. II. Characterization of first-order T-suppressor cells ( Tsl) and induction of second-order suppressor cells. J Immunol 130: 2876–2881Google Scholar
  37. Murphy JW, Mosley RL, Cherniak R, Reyes GH, Kozel TR, Reiss E (1988) Serological, electrophoretic, and biological properties of Cryptococcus neofonmans antigens. Infect Immun 56: 424–431PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Murphy JW (1989) Clearance of Cryptococcus neoformans from immunologically suppressed mice. Infect Immun 57: 1946–1952PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Reiss E, Cherniak R, Eby R, Kaufman L (1984) Enzyme immunoassay detection of IgM to galactoxylomannan of Cryptococcus neofonnans. Diagn Immunol 2: 109–115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Rhodes JC (1985) Contribution of complement component C5 to the pathogenesis of experimental murine cryptococcosis. Sabouraudia 23: 225–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sanford JE, Lupan DM, Schlageter AM, Kozel TR (1990) Passive immunization against Cryptococcus neofonnans with an isotype-switch family of monoclonal antibodies reactive with cryptococcal polysaccharide. Infect Immun 58: 1919–1923PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Schimpff SC, Bennett JE (1975) Abnormalities in cell-mediated immunity in patients with Cryptococcus neofonmans infection. J Allergy Clin Immunol 55: 430–441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Turner SH, Cherniak R, Reiss E (1984) Fractionation and characterization of galactoxylomannan from Cryptococcus neofonnans. Carbohydr Res 125: 343–349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Vartivarian SE, Reyes GH, Jacobson ES, James PG, Cherniak R, Mumaw VR, Tingler MJ (1989) Localization of mannoprotein in Cryptococcus neofonnans. J Bacteriol 171: 6850–6852PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. R. Kozel
    • 1
  1. 1.University of NevadaRenoUSA

Personalised recommendations