Emissions Form Internal Combustion Engines: European Legislation and Impact upon Technology

  • Jorge Jose Gomes Martins
Conference paper
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 31)


Legislation on motorcar emissions was established in Europe more than 20 years ago. Very strict exhaust emission levels will soon be imposed in Europe and the use of 3 way catalytic converters is the only option to achieve this goal. As these devices need a very precise control of the air-fuel mixture, it is necessary to study various aspects of mixture preparation and fuel injection.


Fuel Injection European Economic Community Intake Valve Fuel Evaporation Inlet Valve 
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  1. Boam DJ, Finlay IC, Martins JJG (1989) A Model for Predicting Engine Torque Response during Rapid Throttle Transients in Port-Injected Spark-Ignition Engines. SAE Technical Paper Series No.890565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Martins JJG, Finlay IC (1990) Heat Transfer to Air-Ethanol and Air-Methanol Sprays Flowing in Heated Ducts and Across Heated Intake Valves. SAE Technical Paper Series No.900583CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jorge Jose Gomes Martins
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Ciencias de EngenhariaUniversidade do MinhoGuimaresPortugal

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