Advertisement

Hepadnaviruses pp 141-166 | Cite as

Human Hepatitis Delta Virus

  • J. M. Taylor
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 168)

Abstract

In the past few years significant progress has been made in understanding the structure and replication of hepatitis delta (HDV). Some of this work has been recently reviewed (Bonino et al. 1990; Hoofnagle 1989; Taylor 1990a, b). The present chapter will emphasize those areas in which our perspective has recently changed and those questions about HDV which are (almost) accessible to laboratory research.

Keywords

Hepatitis Delta Virus Genome Replication Woodchuck Hepatitis Virus Hepatitis Delta Virus Infection Delta Antigen 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Banerjee AK (1987) Transcription and replication of rhabdoviruses. Bacteriol Rev 55: 599–629Google Scholar
  2. Bass BL, Weintraub H (1988) An unwinding activity that covalently modifies its double-stranded RNA substrate. Cell 55: 1089–1098PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bass BL, Weintraub H, Cattaneo R, Billeter MA (1989) Biased hypermutation of viral RNA genomes could be due to unwinding/modification of double-stranded RNA. Cell 56: 331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beasley RP (1988) Hepatitis B virus: the major etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma. In: Fortner JG, Rhoads JE (eds) Accomplishments in cancer research: 1987 prize year. Lippincott, Philadelphia pp 80–106Google Scholar
  5. Belinsky M, Dinter-Gottlieb G (1991) Characterizing the self-cleavage of a 135 nucleotide ribozyme from genomic hepatitis delta virus. In: Gerin JL, Purcell RH, Rizzeto M (eds) The hepatitis delta virus. Liss, New York, pp. 265–274Google Scholar
  6. Bergmann KF, Gerin JL (1986) Antigens of hepatitis delta virus in the liver and serum of humans and animals. J Infect Dis 154: 702–705PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Birnstiel ML, Schaufele FJ (1989) Structure and function of minor snRNPs. In: Birnstie ML (ed) Small ribonucleoprotein particles. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 155–182Google Scholar
  8. Bonino F, Hoyer W, Shih JW-K, Rizzetto M, Purcell RH, Gerin JL (1984) Delta hepatitis agent: structural and antigenic properties of the delta-associated particles. Infect Immun 43: 1000–1005PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bonino F, Heermann K-H, Rizzetto M, Gerlich WH (1986) Hepatitis delta virus: protein composition of delta antigen and its hepatitis B virus-derived envelope. J Virol 58: 945–950PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bonino F, Negro F, Baldi M, Brunetto M, Chiaberge E, Capalbo M, Maran E, Lavarini C, Rocca N, Rocca G (1987) The natural history of chronic delta hepatitis. In: Rizzetto M, Gerin JL, Purcell RH (eds). The hepatitis delta virus and its infection. Liss New York, pp 145–152Google Scholar
  11. Bonino F, Negro F, Brunetto MR, Verme G (1990) Hepatitis delta infection. Prog Liver Dis 9: 485–496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Branch AD, Robertson HD (1984) A replication cycle for viroids and small infectious RNAs. Science 223: 450–455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Branch AD, Levine BJ, Baroudy BM, Buckler-White A, Gerin JL, Robertson HD (1991) The novel tertiary structure in delta RNA may function as a ribozyme control element. In: Gerin JL, Purcell RH, Rizzeto M (eds) The hepatitis delta virus. Liss, New York, pp. 257–264Google Scholar
  14. Brown F, Martin SJ (1965) A new model for virus ribonucleic acid replication. Nature 208:861–863PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Buitrago B, Popper H, Hadler SC, Thung SN, Gerber MA, Purcell RH, Maynard JE (1986) Specific histologic features of Santa Marta hepatitis: a severe form of hepatitis δ-virus infection in northern South America. Hepatology 6: 1285–1291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Buzayun JM, Gerlach WL, Bruening G (1986) Non-enzymatic cleavage and ligation of RNAs complementary to a plant virus satellite RNA. Nature 323: 349–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chang M-F, Baker SC, Soe LH, Kamahora T, Keck JG, Makino S, Govindarajan S, Lai MMC (1988) Human hepatitis delta antigen is a nuclear phosphoprotein with RNA binding activity. J Virol 62: 2403–2410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Chao M, Hsieh S-Y, Luo G, Taylor J (1991) The antigen of human hepatitis delta virus: the significance of the two major electrophoretic forms. In: Gerin JL, Purcell RH, Rizzeto M (eds) The hepatitis delta virus. Liss, New York, pp. 257–281Google Scholar
  19. Chen P-J, Kalpana G, Goldberg J, Mason W, Werner B, Gerin J, Taylor J (1986) The structure and replication of the genome of the hepatitis delta virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 8774–8778PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chen P-J, Chen D-S, Chen C-R, Chen Y-Y, Chen H-MH, Lai M-Y, Sung J-L (1988) δ infection in asymtomatic carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen: low prevalence of δ activity and effective suppression of hepatitis B virus replication. Hepatology 8: 1121–1124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Choi S-S, Rasshofer R, Roggendorf M (1988) Propagation of woodchuck hepatitis delta virus in primary woodchuck hepatocytes. Virology 167: 451–457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Choi S-S, Rasshofer R, Roggendorf M (1989) Inhibition of hepatitis delta virus RNA replication in primary woodchuck hepatocytes. Antiviral Res 12: 213–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Davis GL, Baiart LA, Schiff ER, Lindsay K, Bodenheimer HC, Prrillo RP, Carey W, Jacobson IM, Payne J, Dienstag JL, Van Thiel DH, Tamburro C, Lefkowitch J, Albrecht J, Meschievitz C, Ortego TJ, Gibas A, and the Hepatitis International Therapy Group (1989) Treatment of chronic hepatitis C with recombinant interferon alpha: a multicenter randomized, controlled trial. N Eng J Med 321: 1501–1510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Diener TO (1989) Circular RNAS: relics of precellular evolution? Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86: 9370–9374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Diener TO, Prusiner SB (1985) The recognition of subviral pathogens. In: Marmorosch K, McKelvey JJ Jr (eds) Subviral pathogens of plants and animals: viroids and prions. Academic, Orlando, pp 3–20Google Scholar
  26. Dinter-Gottlieb G (1986) Viroids and virusoids are related to group I introns. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 6250–6254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ellens H, Doxey S, Glenn JS, White JM (1989) Delivery of macromolecules into cells expressing a viral membrane fusion protein. Methods Cell Biol 31: 155–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Field HJ, Wildy P (1978) The pathogenicity of thymidine kinase-deficient mutants of herpes simplex virus in mice. J Hyg (Lond) 81: 267–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Forster AJ, Symons RH (1987) Self-cleavage of viroid RNA is performed by the proposed 55-nucleotide active site. Cell 50: 9–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ganem D, Varmus HE (1987) The molecular biology of hepatitis B viruses. Annu Rev Biochem 56: 651–693PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Glenn JS, Taylor JM, White JM (1990) In vitro synthesized hepatitis delta virus RNA initiates genome replication in cultured cells. J Virol 64: 3104–3107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Gowans EJ, Baroudy BM, Negro F, Ponzetto A, Purcell RH, Gerin JL (1988) Evidence for the replication of hepatitis delta virus RNA in nuclei after in vivo infection. Virology 167: 274–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gridelli B, Grendele M, Colledan M, Rossi G, Fassati LR, Feria G, Maggi U, Reggiani P, Doglia M, Lunghi G, Galmarini D (1991) Liver transplantation (LTx) and delta virus (DV) infection. In: Gerin JL, Purcell RH, Rizzeto M (eds) The Hepatitis Delta Virus, Liss, New York, p. 471Google Scholar
  34. Haas B, Klanner A, Ramm K, Sanger HL (1989) The 7S RNA from tomato leaf tissue resembles a signal recognition particle RNA and exhibits a remarkable sequence complementarity to viroids. EMBO J 7: 4063–4074Google Scholar
  35. Hadidi A (1986) Relationships of viroids and certain other plant pathogenic nucleic acids to group I and II introns. Plant Mol Biol 7: 129–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Harders J, Lukàcs N, Robert-Nicoud M, Jovin TM, Riesner D (1989) Imaging of viroids in nuclei from tomato leaf tissue by in situ hybridization and confocal laser scanning microscopy. EMBO J 8: 3941–3949PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Hazeloff J, Gerlach WL (1988) Simple RNA enzymes with new and highly specific endoribonuclease activities. Nature 334: 585–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. He L-F, Ford E, Purcell RH, London WT, Phillips J, Gerin JL (1989) The size of the hepatitis delta agent. J Med Virol 27: 31–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hoofnagle JH (1989) Type D (Delta) hepatitis. JAMA 261: 1321–1325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hutchins CJ, Rathjen PD, Forster AC, Symons RH (1986) Self-cleavage of plus and minus RNA transcripts of avocado sunblotch viroid. Nucleic Acids Res 14: 3627–3640PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hsieh S-Y, Chao M, Coates L, Taylor J (1991) Hepatitis delta virus genome replication: a polyadenylated mRNA for delta antigen. J Virol 64: 3192–3198Google Scholar
  42. Jilbert AR, Gowans EJ, Macnaughton TB, Burrell CJ (1991) Characterization of a subgenomic HDV-specific poly(A) + RNA species isolated from human hepatoma cells supporting HDV RNA replication. In: Gerin JL, Purcell RH, Rizzeto M (eds) The hepatitis delta virus. Liss, New York, pp. 309–314Google Scholar
  43. Keese P, Visvader JE, Symons RH (1988) Sequence variability in plant viroid RNAs. In: Domingo E, Holland JJ, Ahlquist P (eds) RNA genetics, vol III, variability of RNA genomes. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 71–98Google Scholar
  44. Kimelman D, Kirschner MW (1989) An antisense mRNA directs the covalent modification of the transcript encoding fibroblast growth factor in Xenopus oocytes. Cell 59: 687–696PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kos A, Dijkema R, Arnberg AC, Van der Meide PH, Schelleken H (1986) The hepatitis delta virus possesses a circular RNA. Nature 322: 558–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Krug RM, St Angelo C, Broni B, Shapiro G (1987). Transcription and replication of influenza virion RNA in the nucleus of infected cells. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol 52: 353–358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Kuo MY-P, Goldberg J, Coates L, Mason W, Gerin J, Taylor J (1988a) Molecular cloning of hepatitis delta virus RNA from an infected woodchuck liver: sequence, structure and applications. J Virol 62: 1855–1861PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Kuo MY-P, Sharmeen L, Dinter-Gottlieb G, Taylor J (1988b) Characterization of self-cleaving RNA sequences on the genome and antigenome of human hepatitis delta virus. J Virol 62: 4439–4444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Kuo MY-P, Chao M, Taylor J (1989) Initiation of replication of the human hepatitis delta virus genome from cloned DNA: role of the delta antigen. J Virol 63: 1945–1950PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Lai MMC, Chao Y-C, Chang M-F, Lin J-H, Gust I (1991) Functional studies of hepatitis delta antigen and delta virus RNA. In: Gerin JL, Purcell RH, Rizzeto M (eds) The hepatitis delta virus. Liss, New York, pp. 283–292Google Scholar
  51. Lanschulz WH, Johnson PF, McKnight (1989) The leucine zipper: a hypothetical structure common to a new class of DNA binding proteins. Science 240: 1759–1764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Luo G, Chao M, Hsieh S-Y, Sureau C, Nishikura K, Taylor J (1990) A specific base transition occurs on replicating hepatitis delta virus RNA. J Virol 64: 1021–1027PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Macnaughton TB, Gowans EJ, Reinboth B, Jilbert AR, Burrell CJ (1990) Stable expression of the small polypeptide of hepatitis delta virus antigen in a eukaryotic cell line. J Gen Virol 71:1339–1345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Makino S, Chang M-F, Shieh C-K, Kamahora T, Vannier DV, Govindarajan S, Lai MMC (1987) Molecular cloning and sequencing of a human hepatitis delta virus RNA. Nature 329: 343–346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Negro F, Bergmann KF, Baroudy BM, Satterfield WC, Popper H, Purcell RH, Geril JL (1988) Chronic hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection in hepatitis B virus carrier chimpanzees experimentally superinfected with HDV. J Infect Dis 158: 151–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Negro F, Gerin JL, Purcell RH, Miller RH (1989) Basis of hepatitis delta virus disease. Nature 341: 111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Petcu DJ, Aldrich CE, Coates L, Taylor JM, Mason WS (1988) Suramin effectively inhibits in vitro infection by duck hepatitis B virus, Rous sarcoma virus and hepatitis delta virus. Virology 167: 385–392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Pohl C, Baroudy BM, Bergmann KF, Cote PJ, Purcell RH, Hoofnagle J, Gerin JL (1987) A human monoclonal antibody that recognizes viral polypeptides ans in vitro translation products of the genome of the hepatitis delta virus. J Infect Dis 156: 622–629PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ponzetto A, Cote PJ, Popper H, Boyer BH, London WT, Ford EC, Bonino F, Purcell RH, Gerin JL (1984) Transmission of the hepatitis B-associated delta agent to the eastern woodchuck. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81: 2208–221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ponzetto A, Rapicetta M, Forzani B, Smedile A, Hele C, Morace G, Di Rienzo A, Palladino A, Gerin JL (1987) Hepatitis delta virus infection in pekin ducks chronically infected by the duck hepatitis B virus. In: Rizetto M, Gerin JL, Purcell RH (eds) The hepatitis delta virus and its infection. Liss, New York, pp 47–49Google Scholar
  61. Popper H, Thung SN, Gerber MA, Hadler SC, De Monzon M, Ponzetto A, Anzola E, Rivera D, Mondolfi A, Bracho A, Francis DP, Gerin JL, Maynard JE, Purcell RH (1983) Histological studies of severe delta agent infection in Venezuelan Indians. Hepatology 3: 906–912PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Prody GA, Bakos JT, Buzayan JM, Schneider IR, Bruening G (1986) Autolytic processing of dimeric plant virus satellite RNA. Science 231: 1577–1580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Purcell RH, Satterfield WC, Bergmann KF, Smedile A, Ponzetto A, Gerin JL (1987) Experimental hepatitis delta virus infection in the chimpanzee. In: Rizzetto M, Gerin JL, Purcell RH (eds) Hepatitis delta virus and its infection. Liss, New York, pp 27–36Google Scholar
  64. Rizzetto M (1983) The delta agent. Hepatology 3: 729–737PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rizzetto M, Canese MG, Arico J, Crivelli O, Bonino F, Trepo CG, Verme G (1977) Immunofluorescence detection of a new antigen-antibody system (δ-antiδ) associated to the hepatitis B virus in the liver and in the serum of HBsAg carriers. Gut 18: 997–1003PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rizzetto M, Hoyer B, Canese MG, Shih JW-K, Purcell RH, Gerin JL (1980) Delta agent: association of delta antigen with hepatitis B surface antigen and RNA in serum of delta-infected chimpanzees. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77: 6124–6128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Saldanha JA, Thomas HC, Monjardino JP (1987) Cloning and characterization of a delta virus cDNA sequence derived from a human source. J Med Virol 22: 323–331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sänger HL (1987) Viroid replication. In: Diener TO (ed) The viroids. Plenum, New York, pp 117–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Schödel F, Sprengel R, Weimer T, Fernholz D, Schneider R, Will H (1989) Animal hepatitis B viruses. Adv Viral Oncol 8: 73–102Google Scholar
  70. Sharmeen L, Kuo MY-P, Dinter-Gottlieb G, Taylor J (1988) The antigenomic RNA of human hepatitis delta virus can undergo self-cleavage. J Virol 62: 2674–2679PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Sharmeen L, Kuo MY-P, Taylor J (1989) Self-ligating sequences on the antigenome of human hepatitis delta virus. J Virol 63: 1428–1430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Smith CWJ, Porro EB, Patton JG, Nadal-Ginard B (1989) Scanning from an independently specified branch point defines the 3′ splice site of mammalian introns. Nature 342: 243–247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Spiesmacher E, Mühlbach H-P, Tabler M, Sänger HL (1985) Synthesis of ( + ) and ( - ) RNA molecules of potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTV) in isolated nuclei and its impairment by transcription inhibitors. Biosci Rep 5: 251–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Summers J, Mason WS (1982) Replication of the genome of a hepatitis B-like virus by reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Cell 29: 403–415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sureau C, Taylor J, Chao M, Eichberg JE, Lanford RE (1989) Cloned hepatitis delta virus complementary DNA is infectious in the chimpanzee. J Virol 63: 4292–4297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Sureau C, Taylor J, Chao M, Eichberg JW, Lanford RE (1991) In vitro tissue culture system for the study of HDV infectivity. In: Gerin JL, Purcell RH, Rizzeto M (eds) The hepatitis delta virus. Liss, New York, p. 464Google Scholar
  77. Symons RH (1989a) Pathogenesis by antisense. Nature 338: 542–543PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Symons RH (1989b) Self-cleavage of RNA in the replication of small pathogens of plants and animals. TIBS 14:445–450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Symons R, Haseloff J, Visvader JE, Keese P, Murphy PJ, Gill DS, Gordon KHJ, Bruening G (1985) On the mechanism of replication of viroids, virusoids, and satellite RNAs. In: Marmorosch K, McKelvey JJ Jr (eds) Subviral pathogens of plants and animals: viroids and prions. Academic, Orlando, pp 235–263Google Scholar
  80. Taylor JM (1990a) Human hepatitis delta virus: structure and replication of the genome. CTMI (to be published)Google Scholar
  81. Taylor JM (1990b) Structure and replication of hepatitis delta virus. Semin Virol 1: 135–141Google Scholar
  82. Taylor JM, Kuo M, Chen P-J, Kalpana G, Goldberg J, Aldrich A, Coates L, Mason W, Summers J (1987a) Replication of hepatitis delta virus. In: Robinson W, Koike K, Will H (eds) Hepadna Viruses. Liss, New York, pp. 541–548Google Scholar
  83. Taylor JM, Mason W, Summers J, Goldberg J, Aldrich C, Coates L, Gerin J, Gowans E (1987b) Replication of human hepatitis delta virus in primary cultures of woodchuck hepatocytes. J Virol 61: 2891–2895PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Taylor JM, Sharmeen L, Kuo M, Dinter-Gottlieb G (1989) The self-cleaving RNAs of human hepatitis delta virus. In: Cech T (ed) Molecular biology of RNA. Liss, New York, pp 99–108 (ULCA symposia on molecular and cellular biology, new series, vol 94)Google Scholar
  85. Taylor JM, Chao M, Kuo M, Sharmeen L (1990a) The replication of hepatitis delta virus: prospects. In: IV International symposium on “progress in viral hepatitis”, Madrid, January 26–27, 1989, Medscript, London, pp in pressGoogle Scholar
  86. Taylor JM, Chao M, Kuo M, Sharmeen L, Hsieh S-Y (1990b) Human hepatitis delta virus: unique or not unique. In: Proceedings of 2nd international symposium on positive strand viruses A.S.M. Publications, pp. 20–24Google Scholar
  87. Uhlenbeck OC (1987) A small catalytic oligoribonucleotide. Nature 328: 596–600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Usher DA, McHale AH (1976) Nonenzymic joining of oligoadenylates on a polyuridylic acid template. Nature 328: 586–600Google Scholar
  89. Wagner RW, Nishikura K (1988) Cell cycle expression of RNA duplex unwindase activity in cells. Mol Cell Biol 8: 770–777PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Wang K-S, Choo Q-L, Weiner AJ, Ou J-H, Najarian RC, Thayer RM, Mullenbach GT, Denniston KJ, Gerin JL, Houghton M (1986) Structure, sequence and expression of the hepatitis delta viral genome. Nature 323: 508–513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wang K-S, Choo Q-L, Weiner AJ, Ou J-H, Najarian RC, Thayer RM, Mullenbach GT, Denniston KJ, Gerin JL, Houghton M (1987) Corrigendum: structure, sequence and expression of the hepatitis delta viral genome. Nature 328: 456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Weiner AJ, Choo Q-L, Wang K-S, Govindarajan S, Redeker AG, Gerin JL, Houghton M (1988) A single antigenomic open reading frame of the hepatitis delta virus encodes the epitope(s) of both hepatitis delta antigen polypeptides p24δ and p27δ. J Virol 62: 594–599PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Weintraub HM (1990) Antisense RNA and DNA. Sci Am 40–46Google Scholar
  94. Weissman C (1989) Single-strand RNA. Nature 337: 415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wu H-N, Lai MMC (1989) Reversible cleavage and ligation of hepatitis delta virus RNA. Science 243: 652–654PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wu H-N, Lin Y-J, Lin F-P, Makino S, Chang M-F, Lai MMC (1989) Human hepatitis δ virus RNA subfragments contain an autocleavage activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86: 1831–1835PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Young B, Hicke B (1990) Delta virus as a cleaver. Nature 343–28Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin·Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. M. Taylor
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Cancer ResearchFox Chase Cancer CenterPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations