ras Oncogenes in Myelodysplastic Syndromes

  • D. M. Layton
  • C. R. Bartram
Conference paper


A milestone in the quest to understand the molecular basis of human cancer was the recognition that proto-oncogenes altered by somatic mutation might act in a dominant fashion in cellular transformation. Such a process may involve illegitimate recombination of proto-oncogenes with distant genomic sequences through chromosomal rearrangement resulting in formation of a novel gene-fusion product, the prototypic examples being the 210- and 190-kDa bcr-abl tyrosine kinases in Philadelphia-positive chronic myeloid and acute lymphoblastic leukaemias [1] or deregulation of proto-oncogene expression, for example, that of c-myc when juxtaposed with the immunoglobulin gene loci in the reciprocal translocations which characterize Burkitts’ lymphoma [2]. Alternatively, overexpression may result from an increase in gene copy number (amplification). With few exceptions, the most striking being those of N-myc and erb-B2 in childhood neuroblastoma [3] and breast cancer [4], respectively, proto-oncogene amplification is consistently detected in few human cancers and may reflect a relatively late event in tumour evolution.


Myelodysplastic Syndrome Acute Myeloid Leukaemia Refractory Anaemia Murine Sarcoma Virus Myeloid Neoplasia 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. M. Layton
    • 1
  • C. R. Bartram
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Haematological MedicineKing’s College College School of Medicine and DentistryLondonUK
  2. 2.Section of Molecular Biology, Department of Paediatrics IIUniversity of UlmUlmGermany

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