Influence of Fungicides on Fungal Fine Structure

  • Sigrun Hippe


Different strategies of antimicrobial therapy in plant, human, and veterinary medicine have been developed to protect biological tissue from fungal infection and damage. The discovery of systemic fungicides has been an important advance in the development of new chemical therapies. Unlike protective, nonsystemic, and in most cases nonspecific compounds, systemic fungicides are characterized by mobility in plant tissue and selective activity against the pathogen at the infection site. The selectivity is based on structural and physiological differences between host and fungal parasite. For a comprehensive understanding of the mode of action of antifungal agents, biochemical and cellular aspects have to be taken into account. Electron microscopy can provide unique information concerning the influence of fungicides on the fine structure of the pathogen and host. The present review gives a current view of the ultrastructure research in the pharmacology of selectively acting agents.


Powdery Mildew Systemic Fungicide Melanin Biosynthesis Trichophyton Mentagrophytes Colletotrichum Lindemuthianum 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Barug D, Samson RA, Kerkenaar A (1983) Microscopic studies of Candida albicans and Torulopsis glabrata after in vitro treatment with bifonazole. Light and scanning electron microscopy. Drug Res 33: 528–537Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Buchenauer H, Zeun R, Schinzer U (1985) Wirkung von Tricyclazol auf das Myzelwach-stum sowie die Entwicklung und Pigmentierung der Sklerotien von Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Z Pflanzenkrankh Pflanzenschutz 92: 17–26Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cartwright DW, Langcake P, Ride JP (1980) Phytoalexin production in rice and its enhancement by a dichlorocyclopropane fungicide. Physiol Plant Pathol 17: 259–267Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Casperson G, Lyr H (1982) Wirkung von Pentochlornitrobenzol (PCNB) auf die Ultrastruktur von Mucor mucedo und Phytophthora cactorum. Z Allg Mikrobiol 22: 219–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Coffey MD, Young LH (1984) Responses to metalaxyl of sensitive and resistant isolates of Phytophthora infestans. Phytopathology 74: 615–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dahmen H, Hoch HC, Staub T (1988) Differential effects of sterol inhibitors on growth, cell membrane permeability, and ultrastructure of two target fungi. Phytopathology 78:1033–1042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Davidse LC (1986) Benzimidazole fungicides: mechanism of action and biological impact. Annu Rev Phytopathol 24: 43–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Davidse LC (1987) Biochemical aspects of phenylamide fungicides—action and resistance. In: Lyr H (ed) Modern selective fungicides—properties, application, mechanisms of action, VEB Gustav Fischer Verlag Jena, Jena, pp 275Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Grohmann U, Hoffmann GM (1982) Licht- und elektronenoptische Untersuchungen zur Wirkung von Metalaxyl bei Pythium- und Phytophthora Arten. Z Pflanzenkr Pflanzenschutz, 89:435–446Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Heath IB (1982) The effect of nocodazole on the growth and ultrastructure of the fungus, Saprolegnia fer ax: evidence against a simple mode of action. In: Cappuccinelli P, Ronald Morris N (eds) Microtubules in microorganisms, Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 275Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Heath MC (1988) Effect of fungal death or inhibition induced by oxycarboxin or polyoxin D on the interaction between resistant or susceptible bean cultivars and the bean rust fungus. Phytopathology 78: 1454–1462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Heller A, Frenzel B, Grossmann F, Hippe S (1990) Effects of ethirimol and propiconazole on morphology and ultrastructure of Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei Can J Botany 1990 (in press)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hippe S, Buchenauer H, Grossmann F (1980) Einfluß von Triadimefon auf die Feinstruktur der Sporidien von Ustilago avenae. Z Pflanzenkr Pflanzenschutz 87: 423–426Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hippe S (1983) Morphology of Ustilago avenae after treatment with systemic fungicides as studied by scanning electron microscopy. Phytopathol Z 106: 321–328Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hippe S (1984) Electron microscopic investigations on the cytology of Ustilago avenae influenced by the systemic fungicides triadimefon, nuarimol and imazalil-nitrate: a thin-section and freeze-fracture study. Pestic Biochem Physiol 21: 170–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hippe S (1985) Hexagonal clustering of intramembrane particles in the plasmalemma of Ustilago avenae after fungicide treatment. Pestic Biochem Physiol 24: 161–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hippe S (1985) Ultrastructure of haustoria of Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei preserved by freeze-substitution. Protoplasma 129: 52–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hippe S Lüth H (1986) A simple physical model for fungicide induced hexagonal clustering of intramembrane particles in the plasmalemma of Ustilago avenae. J Theor Biol 21: 351–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hippe S (1987) Combined application of low temperature preparation and electron microscopic autoradiography for the localization of systemic fungicides. Histochemistry 87: 309–315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hippe S, Giesen U (1988) The effect of triadimenol on the cytology and growth of sensitive and resistant strains of Ustilago avenae. Ann Appl Biol 112: 79–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hippe S Hermanns M (1988) Intracellular localization of the systemic fungicide triadimenol in phytopathogenic fungi. J Phytopathol 122: 13–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Howard RJ, Aist JR (1980) Cytoplasmic microtubules and fungal morphogenesis: ultrastructural effects of methyl benzimidazole–2-ylcarbamate determined by freeze-substitution of hyphal tip cells. J Cell Biol 87: 55–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ishizaki H, Kohno M, Kunoh H (1977) Effect of polyoxin on fungi VIII. Microscopic observation of bursting of the bulbous germ tubes of polyoxin-treated Alternaria kikuchiana Tanaka in pear leaf extract. Ann Phytopathol Soc Jpn 43: 471–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lyr H (1987) Modern selective fungicides. VEB Gustav Fischer, JenaGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lyr H, Werner P (1982) On the mechanism of action of the fungicide chloroneb. Pestic Biochem Physiol 18: 69–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Meingassner JG, Sleytr U, Petranyi G (1981) Morphological changes induced by naftifine, a new antifungal agent, in Trichophyton mentagrophytes. J Invest Dermatol 77:444–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pring RJ, Richmond DV (1976) An ultrastructural study of the effect of oxycarboxin on Uromyces phaseoli infecting leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris. Physiol Plant Pathol 8: 155–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Richmond DV, Pring RJ (1971) The effect of benomyl on the fine structure of Botrytis fabae. J Gen Microbiol 66: 79–94Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sancholle M, Dargent R, Weete JD, Rushing AE, Miller KS, Montant C (1988) Effects of triazoles on fungi. VI. Ultrastructure of Taphrina deformans. Mycologia 80: 162–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Smolka S, Ebrahim-Nesbat F, Wolf G (1988) Elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen zur Beeinflussung der Wirt-Parasit-Beziehung Gerste-Mehltau durch Triadimenol (Baytan). Z Pflanzenkr Pflanzenschutz 95: 270–284Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Steel CC, Baloch RI, Mercer EI, Baldwin BC (1989) The intracellular location and physiological effects of abnormal sterols in fungi grown in the presence of morpholine and functionally related fungicides. Pestic Biochem Physiol 33: 101–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Stössel P, Lazarovitis G, Ward EWB (1982) Light and electron microscopy of Phytophthora rot in soybeans treated with metalaxyl. Phytopathology 72: 106–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Trigiano RN, Van Dyke CG, Spurr HW (1984) Effects of metalxyl on Peronospora tabacina infecting tabacco. Phytopathology 74: 1034–1040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Trinci APJ, Ryley JF (1984) Mode of action of antifungal agents. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wolkow PM, Sisler HD, Vigil EL (1983) Effect of inhibitors of melanin biosynthesis on structure and function of appressoria of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Physiol Plant Pathol 22: 55–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Woloshuk, Sisler GD, Vigil EL (1983) Action of the antipenetrant, tricyclazole, on appressoria of Pyricularia oryzae. Physiol Plant Pathol 22: 245–259Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sigrun Hippe
    • 1
  1. 1.Botanisches Institut, BiologiezentrumChristian-Albrechts-Universität KielKiel 1Germany

Personalised recommendations