The Role of NO3 and NH4+ Ions in the Regulation of Nitrate Reductase in Higher Plants

  • A. Oaks
  • D. M. Long
  • M. Zoumadakis
  • X.-Z. Li
  • C. Hertig
Conference paper


After its identification by Evans and Nason (1953), nitrate reductase (NR) was shown to be a substrate inducible enzyme by Tang and Wu (1957). In 1960 Hageman and Flesher demonstrated further that both light and NO3 were required for the appearance of nitrate reductase activity (Hageman and Flesher 1960). Since that time there have been many reports confirming the initial observations with light and NO3 and conflicting reports concerning the repression of the induction of NR by NH4 + (Beevers and Hageman 1972; Ullrich 1987).


Nitrate Reductase Nitrate Reductase Activity Neurospora Crassa Hydroponic System Reversible Inactivation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Amy NR, Garrett RG (1979) Immunoelectrophoretic determination of nitrate reductase in Neurospora crassa. Anal Biochem 95: 97–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aryan AP, Batt RG, Wallace W (1983) Reversible inactivation of nitrate reductase by NADH and the occurrence of partially inactive enzyme in wheat leaf. Plant Physiol 71: 582–587PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beevers L, Hageman RH (1972) The role of light in nitrate metabolism in higher plants. Photophysiology 7: 85–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Campbell WH (1987) Regulation of nitrate reductase in maize: An immunological approach. In: Ullrich WR, Aparicio PJ, Syrett PJ, Castillo F (eds) Inorganic Nitrogen Metabolism. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 99–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Campbell WH, Remmler JL (1986) Regulation of corn leaf nitrate reductase. I. Immunological methods for analysis of the enzyme’s protein component. Plant Physiol 80: 435–441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Crawford NM, Smith M, Bellissimo D, Davis RW (1988) Sequence and nitrate regulation of the Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA encoding nitrate reductase, a metalloflavoprotein with three functional domains. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85: 5006–5010PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Evans HJ, Nason A (1953) Pyridine nucleotide-nitrate reductase from extracts of higher plants. Plant Physiol 28: 233–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Galangau F, Daniel-Vedele F, Moureaux T, Dorbe M-F, Leydecker M-T, Caboche M (1988) Expression of leaf nitrate reductase genes from tomato and tobacco in relation to light dark regimes and nitrate supply. Plant Physiol 88: 383–388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hageman RH, Flesher D (1960) Nitrate reductase activity in corn seedlings as affected by light and nitrate contents of nutrient media. Plant Physiol 35: 700–708PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Losada M, Paneque A, Aparicio PJ, Vega JM, Cardenas J, Herrera J (1970) Inactivation and repression by ammonium of the nitrate reducing system in Chlorella. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 38: 1009–1015PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Melzer JM, Kleinhofs A, Warner RL (1989) Nitrate reductase regulation: Effects of nitrate and lighton nitrate reductase mRNA accumulation. Mol Gen Genet 217: 341–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Oaks A, Poulle M, Goodfellow VJ, Cass LA, Deising H (1988) The role of nitrate and ammoniumions and light on induction of nitrate reductase in maize leaves. Plant Physiol 88: 1067–1072PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Palacian E, de la Rosa F, Castillo F, Gomez-Moreno C (1974) Nitrate reductase from Spinacia oleracea: Reversible inactivation by NAD(P)H and by thiols. Arch Biochem Biophys 161: 441–447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Pistorius EK, Gewitz HS, Voss H, Vennesland B (1976) Reversible inactivation of nitrate reductase in Chlorella vulgaris in vivo. Planta 128: 73–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Remmler JL, Campbell WR (1986) Regulation of nitrate reductase. II. Synthesis and turnover of the enzyme’s activity and protein. Plant Physiol 80: 442–447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Solomonson LP (1975) Purification of NADH-nitrate reductase by affinity chromatography. Plant Physiol 56: 853–855PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Somers DA, Kuo T-M, Kleinhofs A, Warner RL, Oaks A (1983) Synthesis and degradation of barley nitrate reductase. Plant Physiol 72: 949–952PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Tang PS, Wu HY (1957) Adaptive formation of nitrate reductase in rice seedlings. Nature 179: 1355–1356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ullrich WR (1987) Nitrate and ammonium uptake in green algae and higher plants: Mechanism and relationship with nitrate metabolism. In: Ullrich WR, Aparicio PJ, Syrett PJ, Castillo F (eds), Inorganic Nitrogen Metabolism. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 32–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Oaks
    • 1
    • 2
  • D. M. Long
  • M. Zoumadakis
  • X.-Z. Li
  • C. Hertig
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of BiologyMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  2. 2.Department of BotanyUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada
  3. 3.Institut für PflanzenbiologieZürichGermany

Personalised recommendations