Intraoperative cholangioscopy represents one of the most reliable methods in the study of intraluminal lesions of the biliary tract. Its uses can be divided into diagnostic, control, and operative. The first instrumental inspection of the common bile duct was performed in 1923 by Bakes , who utilized a modified laryngoscope. Since then many other instruments have been developed to explore the biliary tract, but lighting and irrigation resulted inadequate or faulty . In 1941 McIver  successfully designed and experimented with a new model of cholangioscope; similar to a cystoscope, this instrument had a continuous irrigation system and permitted the first photographs of choledochal stones. In 1953 Wildegans  and in 1967 Simon-Weidner  contributed to the development of a rigid cholangioscope with a 60° arm and a lighting system consisting of a miniature light bulb placed on the distal tip. However, even this improved model was very difficult to handle, the quality of images was poor, and the heat from the light bulb could damage the choledochal mucosa.
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