Intraoperative cholangioscopy represents one of the most reliable methods in the study of intraluminal lesions of the biliary tract. Its uses can be divided into diagnostic, control, and operative. The first instrumental inspection of the common bile duct was performed in 1923 by Bakes , who utilized a modified laryngoscope. Since then many other instruments have been developed to explore the biliary tract, but lighting and irrigation resulted inadequate or faulty . In 1941 McIver  successfully designed and experimented with a new model of cholangioscope; similar to a cystoscope, this instrument had a continuous irrigation system and permitted the first photographs of choledochal stones. In 1953 Wildegans  and in 1967 Simon-Weidner  contributed to the development of a rigid cholangioscope with a 60° arm and a lighting system consisting of a miniature light bulb placed on the distal tip. However, even this improved model was very difficult to handle, the quality of images was poor, and the heat from the light bulb could damage the choledochal mucosa.
KeywordsCommon Bile Duct Biliary Tract Flexible Instrument Intraluminal Lesion Choledochal Stone
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Bakes J (1923) Die Choledocopapilloskopie. Arch KIM Chir 126: 473–83Google Scholar
- 2.Berci G (1981) Incidence of retained stones. In: Berci G, Hamlin JA (eds) Operative biliary radiology. Williams and Wilkins, Boston, pp 7–12Google Scholar
- 3.Berci G (1981) Unsuspected stones. In: Berci G, Hamlin JA (eds) Operative biliary radiology. Williams and Wilkins, Boston, pp 13–18Google Scholar
- 5.Berci G, Morgenstern L, Paz-Partlow M (1988) The impact of electronic imaging in intraoperative biliary endoscopy (choledochoscopy). Surg End Ultrastruct Intervent Tech 213: 167–171Google Scholar
- 7.Finnis D, Rowntree (1977) Choledochoscopy in exploration of the common bile duct. Br J Surg 64: 661Google Scholar
- 9.Hellemberg HG, Eikner WC, Springs C (1937) Cholecystoscopy. Surgery 2: 37–38Google Scholar
- 10.Leggeri A, Liguori G (1977) Endoscopia intraoperatoria delle vie biliari. Relazione della Tavola Rotonda: `Problemi diagnostici e terapeutici delle vie biliari in rapporto alle piu’ recenti tecnologie endoscopiche. 7th National Congress of the Società Italiana di Endoscopia Digestiva, PalermoGoogle Scholar
- 11.Leggeri A, Liguori G (1972) La coledocoscopia intraoperatotoria. Atti 80th Congresso Società Italiana Chirurgia 1978, vol 1: 361–375Google Scholar
- 12.McIver MA (1941) An instrument for visualizing the interior of the common duct at operation. Surgery 9: 112–114Google Scholar
- 13.Montori A, Risa L, Masoni L, Piccione M (1985) La coledocoscopia intraoperatoria. Atti 7th Congresso Nazionale CICD, pp 578–583Google Scholar
- 16.Shore JM, Lippman HL (1963) Choledoscopy. Am Surg 29: 731–736Google Scholar
- 18.Simon-Weidner R (1969) Wesen and Bedeutung der Cholengioskopie, 155–156, Endoskopie: Methoden and Ergebnisse. I. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Endoskopie 1967. Werk-Verlag E. Banaschgewski, MünchenGoogle Scholar
- 20.Yamakawa T, Kamaki F (1977) Non-surgical removal of intrahepatic stones by the choledochofiberscope. Its clinical significance. J Adult Dis 7: 759Google Scholar