Endosonographic Staging of Neoplastic Lesions of Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

  • T. L. Tio
Conference paper

Abstract

Endoscopic ultrasound combines endoscopy and ultrasound in one instrument, in which the function of endoscopy is to localize mural lesions and to position the transducer, while the function of ultrasound is to assess the submucosal extent and to visualize the surrounding structures and organs. Since 1983 we have been using nonendoscopic ultrasound with a flexible or transesophageal echoprobe. Both techniques, nonendoscopic and endoscopic ultrasonography, are referred to as endosonography (ES). The latest development in the Olympus echoendoscope is an instrument with a lateral-view objective with the capacity to perform endoscopic ultrasonography, guided cytology, puncture, or biopsy. In the case of tight stenosis we have been using a nonflexible instrument with a diameter of 10 mm.

Keywords

Peri Noma 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Hermanek P, Sobin LH (eds) (1987) TNM classification of malignant tumours, 4th edn. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Tio TL (1990) Endosonography in gastroenterology: clinical TNM staging. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Tio TL, Schouwink MH, Cikot RJLM, Tytgat GNJ (1989) Preoperative TNM classification of gastric carcinoma by endosonography in comparison with the pathological TNM system: A prospective study of 72 cases. Hepatogastroenterology 36: 51–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Tio TL, Cohen P, Coene PPLO, Udding J, den Hartog Jager, Tytgat GNJ (1989) Endosonography and computed tomography of esophagal carcinoma: Preoperative classification compared to the new (1987) TNM system. Gastroenterology 96: 1478–1486PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. L. Tio

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations