Advertisement

Insomnie

  • G. Hajak
  • E. Rüther
  • P. J. Hauri

Zusammenfassung

Insomnie ist ein Mangel an Schlafqualität oder Schlafquantität. Der Begriff Insomnie suggeriert komplette Schlaflosigkeit. Er beschreibt jedoch zumeist eine graduelle Störung und damit eine Hyposomnie. Eine Insomnie entsteht aus einem defizitären Mißverhältnis zwischen Schlafbedürfnis und Schlafvermögen. Sie ist auch ein subjektives Phänomen und damit die individuelle Wahrnehmung eines gestörten Schlafes (APA 1987; ASDA 1990; ASDC 1979; Buysse u. Reynolds 1990; Kales u. Kales 1984; Parkes 1985; Soldatos et al. 1979). Eine Insomnie bekommt die Wertigkeit einer Diagnose, wenn die Beeinträchtigung des Schlafes die Hauptbeschwerde darstellt, die Insomnie in andere physische oder psychische Störungen überleitet oder diese verschlimmert. Sie wird als manifeste Erkrankung angesehen, wenn sich die Beschwerden innerhalb eines Monats mindestens dreimal pro Woche wiederholen und beim Patienten Einbußen im Wohlbefinden und in der Leistungsfähigkeit am Tage auftreten (APA 1987).

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. Adam K (1984) Are poor sleepers changed into good sleepers by hypnotic drugs? In: Hindmarch, J, Ott H, Roth T (eds) Sleep, benzodiazepines and performance. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoGoogle Scholar
  2. Agnew H, Webb WB, Williams RL (1966) The first night effect: an EEG study on sleep. Psychophysiology 2: 263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Agnew H, Webb WB, Williams RL (1967) Sleep patterns in late middle aged males: an EEG study. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 23: 168–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. American Psychiatric Assosiation (APA) (1987) Diagnostisches und statistisches Manual psychischer Störungen (DSM-III-R). Deutsche Bearbeitung und Einführung von Wittchen H-U, Saß H, Zaudig M, Köhler H, Beltz, Weinheim, S 363–382Google Scholar
  5. American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA) (1990) The International Classification of Sleep Disorders: Diagnostic and Coding Manual. Allen Press, LawrenceGoogle Scholar
  6. Ascher LM, Turner RM (1979) Paradoxical intention and insomnia: an experimental investigation. Behav Res Ther 17: 408–411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Association of Sleep Disorders Centers (ASDC) (1979) Diagnostic classification of sleep and arousal disorders. Sleep 2: 1–137Google Scholar
  8. Ballinger C (1976) Subjective sleep disturbance at the menopause. J Psychosom Res 20: 509–513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Basler K, Largo RH, Molinari L (1980) Die Entwicklung des Schlafverhaltens in den ersten fünf Lebensjahren. Helv Paediat Acta 35: 211–223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Beckmann H (1985) Behandlung von Schlafstörungen in der Praxis. Therapiewoche 35: 5542–5552Google Scholar
  11. Beckmann H, Hippius H (1976) Gebrauch und Mißbrauch von Schlafmitteln aus der Sicht des Psychiaters. Internist 17 (5): 245–252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Berlin RM (1985) Psychotherapeutic treatment of chronic insomnia. Am J Psychother 39 (l): 68–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Berman TM, Nino-Murcia G, Roehrs T (1990) Sleep disorders. Take them seriously. Patient Care 23: 85–113Google Scholar
  14. Bertelson AD, Masch JK (1986) MMPI characteristics among different types of insomnia. Sleep Res 15: 90Google Scholar
  15. Berti LA, Hoffmann SO (1990) Psychogene und Psychoreaktive Störungen des Schlafes. Vorkommen, Typen, Ursachen und Therapie. Nervenarzt 61 (1): 16–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Beutler LE, Thornby JI, Karacan I (1974) Psychological variables in the diagnosis of insomnia. In: Williams RL, Karacan I (eds): Sleep disorders: Diagnosis and treatment. Wiley & Sons, New York Chichester, pp 61–100Google Scholar
  17. Bixler EO, Kales A, Leo, LA, Slye EC (1973) A comparison of subjective estimates and objective sleep laboratory findings in insomniac patients. Sleep Res 2: 143Google Scholar
  18. Bixler EO, Kales A, Soldatos CR, Kales J, Healy S (1979) Prevalence of sleep disorders: a survey of the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Am J Psychiatry 136: 1257–1262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bixler EO, Kales J, Kales A, Jacoby JA, Soldatos CR (1985) Rebound insomnia and elimination half-life: assessment of individual subject response. J Clin Pharmacol 25 (2): 115–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bonnet MH (1984) The restoration of performance following sleep deprivation in geriatric normal and insomniac subjects. Sleep Res 13: 188Google Scholar
  21. Bootzin RR (1972) A stimulus control treatment for insomnia. Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Honolulu, Hawaii, Sept 1–9, pp 395–396Google Scholar
  22. Bootzin RR, Nicassio PM (1978) Behavioral treatments for insomnia. Prog Behav Med 6: 1–45Google Scholar
  23. Bootzin RR, Engle-Friedman M, Hazelwood L (1983) Insomnia. In: Lewinsohn PM, Teri L (eds) Clinical geropsychology: New directions assessment and treatment. Pergamon Press, New York, pp 81–115Google Scholar
  24. Borbely AA (1984 a) Das Geheimnis des Schlafs, dtv, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  25. Borbely AA (1984 b) Schlafgewohnheiten, Schlafqualität und Schlafmittelkonzum der Schweizer Bevölkerung. Ergebnisse einer Repräsentativumfrage. Schweiz Ärztezeitung 34: 1606–1613Google Scholar
  26. Borbely AA (1986) Schlafmittel und Schlaf. Übersicht und therapeutische Richtlinien. Ther Umsch 43: 509–516PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Borkovec TD (1982) Insomnia. J Consult Clin Psychol 50: 880–895Google Scholar
  28. Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF (1990) Insomnia. In: Thorpy MJ (ed) Handbook of sleep disorders. Dekker, New York, pp 375–433Google Scholar
  29. Carskadon MA, Dement WC, Mitler MM, Guilleminault C, Zarcone VP, Spiegel R (1976) Self-reports versus sleep laboratory findings in 122 drug-free subjects with complaints of chronic insomnia. Am J Psychiatry 133: 1382–1388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Carskadon MA, Brown E, Dement WC (1982) Sleep fragmentation in the elderly: relationship to daytime sleep tendency. Neurobiol Aging 3: 321–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Cartwright RD (1983) Rapid eye movement sleep characteristics during and after mood-disturbing events. Arch Gen Psychiatry 40: 197–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Church MW, Johnson LC (1979) Mood and performance of poor sleepers during repeated use of flurazepam. Psychopharmacology 61: 309–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Cirignotta F, Mondini S, Zucconi M, Lenzi PL, Lugaresi E (1985) Insomnia: An epidemiological survey. Clin Neuropharmacol 8 (Suppl l): 49–54Google Scholar
  34. Cleghorn JM, Bellissimo A, Kaplan RD, Szatmari P (1983) Insomnia. II. Assessment and treatment of chronic insomnia. Can J Psychiatry 28 (5): 347–353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Coates TJ, Killen JD, Silverman S, George J, Marchini E, Hamilton S, Thoresen CE (1983) Cognitive activity, sleep disturbance and stage specific differences between recorded and reported sleep. Psychophysiology 20: 243–250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Coursey RD, Buchsbaum M, Frankel BL (1975) Personality measures and evoked responses in chronic insomniacs. J Abnorm Psychol 84: 239–249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Coursey RD, Frankel BL, Gaarder KR, Mott DE (1980) A comparison of relaxation techniques with electrosleep therapy for chronic sleep-onset insomnia. A sleep-EEG-study. Biofeedback Self Regul 5: 57–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Crisp AH, Stonehill E (1976) Sleep, nutrition and mood. Wiley & Sons, LondonGoogle Scholar
  39. Degkwitz R, Helmchen H, Kochott G, Membour W (1979) Diagnoseschlüssel und Glossar psychiatrischer Krankheiten. Korrigiert nach der 9. Revision der ICD (= International Classification of Diseases). Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  40. Dement WC (1983) Rational basis for the use of sleeping pills. Pharmacology 27 (Suppl 2): 3–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Dement WC, Scidel W, Carskadon MA (1982) Daytime alertness, insomnia and benzodiazepines. Sleep 5: 528–545Google Scholar
  42. Dement WC, Scidel W, Carskadon MA (1984) Issues in the diagnosis and treatment of insomnia. Psychopharmacology (Suppl) 1: 11–43Google Scholar
  43. Dettli L (1983) Benzodiazepines in the treatment of insomnia: pharmacokinetic considerations. In: Costa E (ed) The benzodiazepines: From molecular biology to clinical practice. Raven Press, New York, pp 201–223Google Scholar
  44. Dilling H (1985) Schlafstörungen aus psychiatrischer Sicht. Therapiewoche 35: 1713–1722Google Scholar
  45. Dilling H, Weyerer S (1978) Epidemiologie psychischer Störungen und psychiatrische Versorgung. Urban & Schwarzenberg, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  46. Dube S, Jones DA, Bell J, Davies A, Ross E, Sitaram N (1986) Interface of panic and depression: Clinical and sleep EEG correlates. Psychiatry Res 19 (2): 119–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Engel RR, Engel-Sittenfeld P (1980) Schlafverhalten, Persönlichkeit und Schlafmittelgebrauch von Patienten mit chronischen Schlafstörungen. Nervenarzt 51: 22–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Engel RR, Knab B (1985) Theoretische Vorstellungen zur Genese von Schlafstörungen. In: Vaitl D, Knapp TW, Birbaumer N (Hrsg) Psychophysiologische Merkmale klinischer Symptome, Bd I: Psychophysiologische Dysfunktionen. Beltz, Weinheim, S 128–142Google Scholar
  49. Engel-Sittenfeld P, Engel RR, Huber PM, Zangl K (1980) Wirkmechanismen psychologischer Therapieverfahren bei der Behandlung chronischer Einschlafstörungen. Z Klin Psychol 9: 1–19Google Scholar
  50. Erman MK (1989) An overview of sleep and insomnia. Hosp Pract 23 (Suppl 2): 11Google Scholar
  51. Espie CA, Lindsay WR (1985) Paradoxical intention in the treatment of chronic insomnia: Six case studies illustrating variability in therapeutic response. Behav Res Ther 23 (6): 703–709PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Faust V, Hole G (1980) Der gestörte Schlaf (I): Zur Diagnose der Schlafstörungen. Z Allgemeinmed 35 /36: 2423–2436Google Scholar
  53. Feinberg J, Carlson VR (1968) Sleep variables as a function of age in man. Arch Gen Psychiatry 18: 239–250Google Scholar
  54. Feinberg J, Fein G, Floyd T, Aminoff M (1983) Delta (0,5–3 Hz) EEG waveforms during sleep in young and elderly normal subjects. In: Chase M, Weitzman E (eds) Sleep disorders: Basic and clinical research. Spectrum, New York, pp 449–462Google Scholar
  55. Finke J, Schulte W (1979) Schlafstörungen. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  56. Fletcher DJ (1986) Coping with insomnia. Postgrad Med 69: 265–274Google Scholar
  57. Fogle DO, Dyal JA (1978) Paradoxical giving up and the reduction of sleep performance and anxiety in chronic insomniacs. Psychother Theory Res Pract 20: 21–30Google Scholar
  58. Ford DE, Kamerow DB (1989) Epidemiologic study of sleep disturbances and psychiatric disorders. An opportunity for prevention? JAMA 262: 1479–1484PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Frankel BL, Coursey RD, Buchbinder R, Snyder F (1976) Recorded and reported sleep in chronic primary insomniacs. Arch Gen Psychiatry 33: 615–623PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Fredrickson PA, Krüger BR (1989) Insomnia associated with specific Polysomnographie findings. In: Kryger MH, Roth T, Dement WC (eds) Principles and practice of sleep medicine. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 324–331Google Scholar
  61. Freedman R, Hauri PJ, Coursey R, Frankel B (1978) Behavioral treatment of insomnia. A colloborative study. Sleep Res 7: 179Google Scholar
  62. Freedman RR (1986) EEG power spectra in sleep-onset insomnia. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 63 (5): 408–413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Freedman RR, Papsdorf JD (1976) Biofeedback and progressive relaxation treatment of sleep onset insomnia: A controlled all-night investigation. Biofeedback Self Regul 1: 253–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Ganguli R, Reynolds CF, Kupfer DJ (1987) Electroencephalographic sleep in young, never-medicated schizophrenics: A comparison with delusional and nondelusional depressives and with healthy controls. Arch Gen Psychiatry 44: 36–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Gerard P, Collins K, Dore C, Exton-Smith A (1978) Subjective characteristics of sleep in the elderly. Age Aging (Suppl)7: 55–63Google Scholar
  66. Gillin J, Sitaram N, Wehr T et al. (1984) Sleep and affective illness. In: Post R, Ballenger J (eds) Neurobiology of mood disorders. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 157–189Google Scholar
  67. Gnirrs F, Schneider-Helmert D, Schenker J, Winkler V (1978) Schlafstörungen bei psychisch Kranken. Nervenarzt 49: 394–401Google Scholar
  68. Goldfried MR, Davison GC (1979) Klinische Verhaltenstherapie. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  69. Görtelmeyer R (1986) Schlaffragebogen A und B. Selbstbeurteilungsskala. In: Collegium Internationale Psychiatriae Scalarum. Beltz, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  70. Hajak G, Rüther E (1991) Chronische Insomnien. In: Steinberg R (Hrsg) Schlaf. Tilia, Klingenmünster, S 60–64Google Scholar
  71. Hartmann E (1973) The functions of sleep. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  72. Haskell EH, Palca JW, Walker JM, Berger RJ, Heller HC (1981) The effects of high and low ambient temperatures on human sleep stages. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 51: 494–501PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Hauri PJ (1968) Effects of evening activity on early night sleep. Psychophysiology 4 (3): 267–277Google Scholar
  74. Hauri PJ (1979) What can insomniacs tell us about the functions of sleep? In: Drucker-Colin RR, Shkurovich M, Sterman MB (eds) The functions of sleep. Academic Press, New York, pp 251–271Google Scholar
  75. Hauri PJ (1981) Treating psychophysiology insomnia with biofeedback. Arch Gen Psychiatry 38: 752–758PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Hauri PJ (1982) Evaluating disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep (DIMS). In: Guilleminault C (ed) Sleeping and waking disorders. Indications and techniques. Addison Wesley, Menlo Park/CA, pp 225–244Google Scholar
  77. Hauri PJ (1983) A cluster analysis of insomnia. Sleep 6 (4): 326–338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Hauri PJ ( 1989 a) Primary insomnia. In: Kryger MH, Roth T, Dement WC (eds) Principles and practice of sleep medicine. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 442–447Google Scholar
  79. Hauri PJ (1989b) Verhaltenstherapie bei Schlafstörungen. In: Meier-Ewert K, Schulz H (Hrsg) Schlaf und Schlafstörungen. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, S 147–155Google Scholar
  80. Hauri PJ, Hawkins DR (1973) Alpha-Delta-Sleep. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 34: 233–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Hauri PJ, Olmstead E (1980) Childhood-onset insomnia. Sleep 3: 59–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Hauri PJ, Orr WC (1982) Current concepts: The sleep disorders. Upjohn, KalamazooGoogle Scholar
  83. Hauri PJ, Olmstead E (1983) What is the moment of sleep onset for insomniacs. Sleep 6 (1): 10–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Hauri PJ, Fisher J (1986) Persistent psychophysiologic (learned) insomnia. Sleep 9 (1): 38–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Hauri PJ, Percy L, Hellekson C, Hartman E, Russ D (1982) The treatment of psychophysiologic insomnia with biofeedback: a replication study. Biofeedback Self Regul 7: 223–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Hauri PJ, Friedman M, Ravaris CL (1989) Sleep in patients with spontaneous panic attacks. Sleep 12 (4): 323–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Hayashi Y, Otano E, Endo S, Watanabe H (1979) The all-night polygraphics for healthy aged persons. Sleep Res 8: 122Google Scholar
  88. Haynes SN, Adams AE, West S, Kamens L, Safranek R (1982) The stimulus control paradigm in sleep - onset insomnia: A multimethod assessment. J Psychosom Res 26 (3): 333–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Hermann-Maurer EK, Schneider-Helmert D, Zimmermann A, Schönberger GA (1990) Diagnostisches Inventar nach DSM-III bei Patienten mit schweren Schlafstörungen. Nervenarzt 61 (1): 28–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Hindmarch J, Ott H, Roth T (1984) Sleep benzodiapezines and performance. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoGoogle Scholar
  91. Hoff P, Lund R, Nedopil N, Rüther E, Steinberg R, Voigtländer C (1983) Differential diagnosis of chronic hyposomnia. APSS Meeting, Bologna 1983Google Scholar
  92. Hoffmann SO (1980) Psychodynamic und Therapie von Schlafstörungen. Internist Prax 20: 495–500Google Scholar
  93. Hohagen F, Berger M (1989) Differentialdiagnose der Schlafstörungen. In: Hippius H, Lauter H, Greil W (Hrsg) Psychiatrie für die Praxis, Bd 10. Der gestörte Schlaf. MMV, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  94. Hohagen F, Graßhoff U, Schramm E, Riemann D, Weyerer S, Berger M (1991) Häufigkeit von Schlafstörungen in der allgemeinen Praxis. Praxis Klin Verhaltensmed Rehabil 15: 177–182Google Scholar
  95. Hörne JA, Östberg O (1976) A self-assessment questionaire to determine morningness-eveningness in human circadian rhythms. Int J Chronobiol 4: 97–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Hörne JA, Reid AJ (1985) Night-time sleep EEG changes following body heating in a warm bath. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 60 (2): 154–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Hudson J J, Lipinski JF, Frankenburg FR, Grochocinski VJ, Kupfer DJ (1988) Electroencephalographic sleep in mania. Arch Gen Psychiatry 45 (3): 267–273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Insel T, Gillin J, Moore A, Mendelson W, Loewenstein R, Murphy D (1982) The sleep of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 39: 1372–1377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Jacobson E (1938) Progressive relaxation. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  100. Kales A, Scharf MB (1978) Rebound insomnia: A new clinical syndrome. Science 201: 1039–1041PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Kales A, Kales JD (1984) Evaluation and treatment of insomnia. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  102. Kales A, Bixler EO, Scharf MB (1973) A comparison of home telemetry and sleep laboratory recordings with insomniac patients. Sleep Res 2: 178Google Scholar
  103. Kales A, Kales JD, Bixler EO (1974) Insomnia: an approach to management and treatment. Psychiatr Ann 4: 28–43Google Scholar
  104. Kales A, Bixler EO, Caldwell AB, Healy S, Preston TA, Kales JD (1978) Further evaluation of MMPI findings in insomnia: comparison of insomniac patients and normal controls. Sleep Res 7: 189Google Scholar
  105. Kales A, Soldatos CR, Kales JD (1980) Taking a sleep history. Am Fam Physician 22: 101–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Kales A, Kales JD, Soldatos CR (1982) Insomnia and other sleep disorders. Med Clin North Am 66 (5): 971–991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Kales A, Caldwell AB, Soldatos CR, Bixler EO, Kales JO (1983 a) Biopsychobehavioral correlates of insomnia, part II: Pattern specificity and consistancy with the Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory. Psychosom Med 45 (4):341–356Google Scholar
  108. Kales A, Soldatos CR, Bixler EO, Kales JD (1983 b) Early morning insomnia with rapidly eleminated benzodiazepines. Science 220: 95–97Google Scholar
  109. Kales A, Soldatos CR, Bixler EO, Kales JD (1983 c) Rebound insomnia and rebound anxiety: a review. Pharmacology 26: 121–137Google Scholar
  110. Kanfer FM, Goldstein AP (1977) Möglichkeiten der Verhaltensänderung. Urban & Schwarzenberg, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  111. Karacan I, Thornby JI, Anch M, Holzer CH, Warheit G, Schwabe J, Williams R (1976) Prevalence of sleep disturbance in a primarily urban. Florida county. Soc Sci Med 10: 239–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Karasu TB (1978) Psychotherapy with the somatically ill patient. In: Karasu TB, Steinmüller RI (eds) Psychotherapeutics in medicine. Grune & Stratton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  113. Killen J, Coates TJ (1984) The complaint of insomnia: what is it and how do we treat? Franks CM (ed) New developments in behavior therapy: From research to clinical application. Haworth Press, New York, pp 377–408Google Scholar
  114. Knab B (1989) Schlafstörungen. Kohlhammer, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  115. Knab B, Engel RR (1988) Preception of waking and sleeping: implications for the evaluation of insomnia. Sleep 11: 265–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Kripke DF, Simons RN, Garfinkel L, Hammond EC (1979) Short and long sleep and sleeping pills. Is increased mortality associated? Arch Gen Psychiatry 36: 103–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Kripke DF, Ancoli-Israel S, Mason W (1983) Sleep related mortality and morbidity in the aged. In: Case MH, Weitzman EG (eds) Sleep disorders basic and clinical research, vol 8. MTP Press, Lancaster, pp 415–429Google Scholar
  118. Kubicki ST, Engfer A (1988) Schlaf- und Schlafmittelforschung. Vieweg, BraunschweigGoogle Scholar
  119. Lacks P ( 1987 ) Behavioral treatment for persistent insomnia. Pergamon Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  120. Lacks P, Rotert M (1986) Knowledge and practice of sleep hygiene techniques in insomniacs and good sleepers. Behav Res Ther 23 (3): 365–368Google Scholar
  121. Lacks P, Bertelson AD, Gans L, Kunkel J (1983 a) The effectiveness of three behavioral treatments for different degrees of sleep-onset insomnia. Behav Ther 14: 593–605Google Scholar
  122. Lacks P, Bertelson AD, Sugerman J, Kunkel J (1983 b) The treatment of sleep-maintenance insomnia with stimulus-control techniques. Behav Res Ther 21 (3):291–295Google Scholar
  123. Ladouceur R, Gros-Louis Y (1986) Paradoxial intention vs stimulus control in the treatment of severe insomnia. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 17 (4): 267–269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Leutner V (1990) Schlaf, Schlafstörungen, Schlafmittel. Editiones Roche, BaselGoogle Scholar
  125. Levin B, Bertelson AD, Lacks P (1984) MMPI differences among mild and severe insomniacs and good sleepers. J Pers Assess 48 (2): 126–129Google Scholar
  126. Levy AB, Dixon KN, Schmidt H (1988) Sleep architecture in anorexia nervosa and bulimia. Biol Psychiatry 23 (1): 99–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Lichstein KL, Fischer SM (1985) Insomnia. In: Hersen M, Bellaek AS (eds) Handbook of clinical behavior therapy with adults. Plenum Press, New York, pp 319–352Google Scholar
  128. Lindemann H (1975) Überleben im Streß. Autogenes Training. Mosaik Verlag, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  129. Linkowski P, Kerkhofs M, Rielaert C, Mendlewicz J (1986) Sleep during mania in manic-depressive males. Eur Arch Psychiatr Neurol Sci 235 (6): 339–341Google Scholar
  130. Lugaresi E, Zucconi M, Bixler EO (1987) Epidemiology of sleep disorders. Psychiatric Ann 17: 446–453Google Scholar
  131. Lund R, Hoff P (1985) Umgang mit dem schlafgestörten Patienten. In: Helmchen H, Hippius H (Hrsg) Psychiatrie für die Praxis, Bd 1. MMV, München, S 45–49Google Scholar
  132. Lund R, Rüther E (1984) Medikamentöse Behandlung von Schlafstörungen. Internist 25: 543–546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Lund R, Rüther E (1985) Chronische Hyposomnie. In: Faust V (Hrsg) Schlafstörungen. Hippokrates, Stuttgart, S 76–83Google Scholar
  134. Marchini EJ, Coates TJ, Magistad JG, Waldum SJ (1983) What do insomniacs do, think and feel during the day? A preliminary study. Sleep 6 (2): 147–155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. McGhie A, Russell SM (1962) The subjective assessment of normal sleep patterns. J Ment Sci 108: 642–654Google Scholar
  136. Meichenbaum D (1979) Cognitive-behavior modification: An integrative approach. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  137. Meier-Ewert K (1989) Tagesschläfrigkeit. Edition Medizin, VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  138. Mellinger GD, Baiter MB, Uhlenhut EH (1985) Insomnia and its treatment. Prevalence and correlates. Arch Gen Psychiatry 42: 225–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Mendelson WB (1980) The use and misuse of sleeping pills. A clinical guide. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  140. Mendelson WB ( 1987 a) Human sleep: Research and clinical care. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  141. Mendelson WB (1987b) Pharmacotherapy of insomnia. Psychiatr Clin North Am 10 (4): 555–563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Mendelson WB (1990) Hypnotics in the treatment of chronic insomnia. In: Thorpy MJ (ed) Handbook of sleep disorders. Dekker, New York, pp 737–753Google Scholar
  143. Mendelson WB, Garnett D, Gillin JC, Weingartner H (1984a) The experience of insomnia and daytime and nighttime functioning. Psychiatry Res 12 (3): 235–250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Mendelson WB, Garnett D, Linnoila M (1984 b) Do insomniacs have impaired daytime functioning. Biol Psychiatry 19 (8):1261–1264Google Scholar
  145. Mendelson WB, James SP, Garnett D, Sack DA, Rosenthal NE (1986) A psychophysiological study of insomnia. Psychiatry Res 19 (4): 267–284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Merlotti L, Roehrs F, Zorick E, Stepanski E, Russo L, Roth R (1988) Rebound insomnia, duration of administration, and individual differences. Sleep Res 17: 52Google Scholar
  147. Miles L (1982) Sleep questionaire. In: Guilleminault C (ed) Sleeping and waking disorders. Indication and techniques. Addison-Wesley, Menlo Park/CA, pp 383–413Google Scholar
  148. Miles LE, Dement WC (1980a) Sleep and aging. Sleep 3: 119–220Google Scholar
  149. Miles LE, Dement WC (1908 b) Objective sleep parameters in elderly men and women. Sleep 3 (2):131–151Google Scholar
  150. Morin CM, Kwentus JA (1990) Behavioral and pharmacological treatments for insomnia. Am Behav Med 10: 91–110Google Scholar
  151. National Institute of Mental Health (MIMH) (1984) Consensus conference report: drugs and insomnia - the use medication to promote sleep. JAMA 251: 2410–2414Google Scholar
  152. Nedopil N, Rüther E (1984) Medikamentöse Therapie von Schlafstörungen. Münch Med Wo- chenschr 126: 290–291Google Scholar
  153. Nedopil N, Rüther E (1985) Medikamentöse Behandlung von Schlafstörungen. In: Helmehen H, Hippius H (Hrsg) Psychiatrie für die Praxis, Bd 1. MMV, München, S 41–44Google Scholar
  154. Nicassio PM, Bootzin R (1974) A comparison of progressive relaxation and autogenic training as treatments for insomnia. J Abnorm Psychol 83: 253–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Nicassio PM, Buchanan DC (1981) Clinical application of behavior therapy for insomnia. Compr Psychiatry 22: 512–521PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Nicassio PM, Boylan MB, McCabe TG (1982) Progressive relaxation, EMG biofeedback and biofeedback placebo in the treatment of sleep-onset insomnia. Br J Med Psychol 55: 159–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Nicassio PM, Pate JK, Mendlowitz DR, Woodward N (1985) Insomnia: nonpharmacologic management by private practice physicians. South Med J 78 (5): 556–560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Nicholson AN, Stone BM (1980) Heterocyclic amphetamine derivates and caffeine on sleep in man. Br J Clin Pharmacol 9: 105–203Google Scholar
  159. Parkes JD (1985) Sleep and its disorders. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  160. Parson M (1986) Fits and other causes of loss of consciousness while driving. QJ Med 227: 295–303Google Scholar
  161. Partinen M, Eskelinen L, Tuomi K (1984) Complaints of insomnia in different occupations. Scand J Work Environ Health 10: 467–469PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Pelzer E, Lund R, Rüther E (1987) Twenty-four-hour investigations on neuroendocrine rhythmus in chronic insomnia. 5th Int Congress of Sleep Research, Copenhagen (Abstract Book 559 )Google Scholar
  163. Pena de la A (1978) Toward a psychophysiologic conceptualization of insomnia. In: Williams RL, Karacan I (eds) Sleep disorders, diagnosis and treatment: Wiley & Sons, New York, Chichester, pp 101–144Google Scholar
  164. Pena de la A, Flickinger R, Mayfield D (1977) Reverse first-night effect in chronic poor sleepers. Sleep Res 6: 166–167Google Scholar
  165. Piel E (1985) Schlafschwierigkeiten und soziale Persönlichkeit. Einige sozialempirische Daten. In: Faust V (Hrsg) Schlafstörungen. Hippokrates, Stuttgart, S 14–26Google Scholar
  166. Prinz PN (1977) Sleep patterns in the healthy aged: relationship with intellectual function. J Gerontol 32: 179–186Google Scholar
  167. Prinz PN, Raskind M (1978) Aging and sleep disorders. In: Williams R, Karacan I (eds) Sleep disorders: Diagnosis and treatment. Wiley & Sons, New York, Chichester, pp 303–321Google Scholar
  168. Puder R, Lacks P, Bertelson AD, Storandt M (1983) Short term stimulus control treatment of insomnia in older adults. Behav Ther 14: 424–429Google Scholar
  169. Rapaport J, Elkins R, Langer D et al. (1981) Childhood obsessive compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 138: 1545–1554Google Scholar
  170. Rechtschaffen A, Kales A (1968) A manual for standard terminology, techniques and scoring system for sleep stages of human subjects. Public Health Service, US Government, Printing Office, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  171. Regestein QR (1987) Specific effects of sedative hypnotic drugs in the treatment of incapacitating chronic insomniacs. Am J Med 83 (5): 909–916PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Regestein QR, Reich P (1983) Incapacitating childhood-onset insomnia. Compr Psychiatry 24 (3): 244–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Reynolds CF, Kupfer DJ (1987) Sleep research in affective illness: State of the art circa 1987. Sleep 10 (3): 199–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Reynolds CF, Kupfer DJ, Taska LS, Hoch CL, Sewitch DE, Spiker DG (1985) Sleep of healthy seniors: a revisit. Sleep 8 (1): 20–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Roehrs TA, Zorick FJ, Sicklesteel R, Wittig RM, Roth T (1983) Excessive daytime sleepiness associated with insufficient sleep. Sleep 6 (4): 319–325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Roehrs TA, Zorick FJ, Wittig RM, Roth T (1986) Dose determinants of rebound insomnia. Br J Clin Pharmacol 22 (2): 143–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Roffwarg HP, Muzio JN, Dement WC (1966) Ontogenetic development of the human sleep-dream cycle. Science 152: 604–619PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Rudestam KE (1980) Methods of Self-Change. Brooks/Cole Publ Monterey/CA, pp 1–255Google Scholar
  179. Rudolf GA (1985) Der Schlaf bei endogenen Psychosen. In: Faust V (Hrsg) Schlafstörungen. Hippokrates, Stuttgart, S 94–100Google Scholar
  180. Rudolf GA (1990) Der Stellenwert der in Behandlung von Schlafstörungen verwendeten Hypnotika. In: Rudolf GA, Engfer A (Hrsg) Schlafstörungen in der Praxis. Diagnostische und therapeutische Aspekte. Vieweg, Braunschweig, S 48–61Google Scholar
  181. Rüther E (1984) Wann Schlafmittel? Arzneimittelverordnung in der Praxis 5 /84Google Scholar
  182. Rüther E (1986) Benzodiazepine zur Behandlung von Schlafstörungen. In: Hippius H, Engel RR, Laakmann G (Hrsg) Benzodiazepine. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, S 101–107Google Scholar
  183. Rüther E, Engfer A (1988) Schlafstörungen: Häufigkeit - Ursachen - medikamentöse Behandlung. In: Kubicki ST, Engfer A (Hrsg) Schlaf- und Schlafmittelforschung. Neue Ergebnisse und therapeutische Konsequenzen. Vieweg, Braunschweig, S 9–20Google Scholar
  184. Schindler L, Hohenberger E (1985) Verhaltenstherapie als Alternative zur Behandlung von Schlafstörungen. In: Faust V (Hrsg) Schlafstörungen. Hippokrates, Stuttgart, S 137–143Google Scholar
  185. Schneider-Helmert D (1985) Klassifikation und Differentialdiagnose der verschiedenen Schlafstörungen. In: Faust V (Hrsg) Schlafstörungen. Hippokrates, Stuttgart, S 9–13Google Scholar
  186. Schubert FC (1986) Kognitive Therapie psychogener Schlafstörungen: Ein Erklärungs- und Handlungsansatz. Psychiatr Prax 13 (1): 1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Sewitch DE (1987) Slow wave sleep deficiency insomnia: A problem in thermo-down regulation at sleep onset. Psychophysiology 24 (2): 200–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Shapiro CM, Warren PM, Trinder J, Paxton SJ, Oswald I, Flenley PC, Catterall JR (1984) Fitness facilitates sleep. Eur J Appl Physiol 53 (1): 1–4Google Scholar
  189. Soldatos CR, Kales A, Kales JD (1979) Management of insomnia. Ann Rev Med 30: 301–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Soldatos CR, Kales JD, Tjiavw-Ling T, Kales A (1987) Classification of sleep disorders. Psychiatr Ann 17: 454–458Google Scholar
  191. Spiegel R (1981) Sleep and sleeplessness in advanced age. Spectrum, New York Spiegel R (1987) Sehlaf-Wach-Funktionen im höheren Lebensalter. In: Hippius H, Rüther E, Sehmauß M (Hrsg) Schlaf-Wach-Funktionen. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, S 77–89Google Scholar
  192. Spiegel R, Köberle S, Allen SR (1986) Significance of slow wave sleep: considerations from a clinical viewpoint. Sleep 9 (1): 66–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Spielman A J, Saskin P, Thorpy MJ (1983) Sleep restriction treatment of insomnia. Sleep Res 12: 286Google Scholar
  194. Spielman A J, Saskin P, Thorpy MJ (1984) Sleep restriction therapy for chronic insomnia. Outcome as a function of pre-treatment total sleep time. Sleep Res 13: 167Google Scholar
  195. Spielman A J, Caruso LS, Glovinsky PB (1987 a) A behavioral perspective on insomnia treatment. Psychiatr Clin North Am 10 (4):541–553Google Scholar
  196. Spielman A J, Saskin P, Thorpy MJ (1987 b) Treatment of chronic insomnia by restriction of time in bed. Sleep 10 (l):45–56Google Scholar
  197. Steinberg R, von Oefele K (1985) Differentialdiagnose von Schlafstörungen. In: Helmchen H, Hippius H (Hrsg) Psychiatrie für die Praxis, Bd 1. MMV, München, S 33–40Google Scholar
  198. Steinberg R, Einhäupl K, Hippius H, Hoff P, Nedopil N, von Oefele K, Rüther E (1984a) Chronische Hyposomnien in der Schlafambulanz. Nervenarzt 55 (9): 471–476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Steinberg R, Hippius H, Nedopil N, Rüther E (1984b) Aspekte der modernen Schlafforschung. Nervenarzt 55 (9): 461–470PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Steinberg R, Brenner PM, Lund R, Rüther E (1987) Behandlung chronischer Insomnien. In: Hippius H, Rüther E, Sehmauß M (Hrsg) Schlaf-Wach-Funktionen. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, S 131–143Google Scholar
  201. Steinmark SW, Borkovec TD (1954) Active and placebo treatments effects on moderate insomnia and positive demand instructions. J Abnorm Psychol 83: 157–163Google Scholar
  202. Sterman MB (1981) EEG biofeedback. Physiological behavior modification. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 5: 405–412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Sugarman JL, Stern JA, Walsh DR (1985) Daytime alterness in subjective and objective insomnia: Some preliminary findings. Biol Psychiatry 20: 741–750Google Scholar
  204. Sussmann N (1988) Anxiety disorders. Psychiatr Ann 18: 134–189Google Scholar
  205. Tan TL, Kales JD, Soldatos CR, Bixler EO (1984) Biopsychobehavioral correlates of insomnia IV. Diagnosis based on DSM-III. Am J Psychiatry 141: 357–363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Thiessen GJ, Lapointe AC (1983) Effect of continous traffic noise on percentage of deep sleep, waking and sleep latency. J Acoust Soc Am 73: 225–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Thoresen CE, Coates TJ, Kirmil-Gray K, Rosekind MR (1981a) Behavioral self-management in treating sleep-maintenance insomnia. J Behav Med 4: 41–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Thoresen CE, Rosekind MR, Burnett KF, Stavosky J, Jacobsen S, Dexter G, Miles L (1981 b) Ambulatory, physiological monitoring in the natural environment of normal and sleep disturbed subjects with latency, maintenance and combined complaints. Sleep Res 10: 237Google Scholar
  209. Thorpy MJ (1990) Disorders of arousal. In: Thorpy MJ (ed) Handbook of sleep disorders. Dekker, New York, pp 531–549Google Scholar
  210. Trinder J (1988) Subjective insomnia without objective findings: a pseudo diagnostic classification? Psychol Bull 103 (1): 87–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Tune GS (1968) Sleep and wakefulness in normal human adults. Br J Med Psychol 2: 269Google Scholar
  212. Tune GS (1969) The influence of age and temperament on the adult human sleep-wakefulness pattern. Brit J Psychol 60: 431–441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Turner RM, Ascher LM (1979) Controlled comparison of progressive relaxation, stimulus control and paradoxical intention therapies for insomnia. J of Cons and Clin Psychol 47: 500–508Google Scholar
  214. Vitiello MV, Prinz NP, Halter JB (1983) Sodium-restricted diet increases nighttime plasma norepinephrine and impairs sleep patterns in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 56 (3): 553–556PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Wagner DR (1990) Circadian rhythm sleep disorders. In: Thorpy MJ (ed) Handbook of sleep disorders. Dekker, New York, pp 493–527Google Scholar
  216. Walsh BT, Goetz R, Roose SP, Fingeroth S, Glassman AM (1985) EEG monitored sleep in anorexia nervosa and bulimia. Biol Psychiatry 20 (9): 947–956PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Webb WB, Bonnet MH (1978) The sleep of “morning” and “evening” types. Biol Psychol 7: 29–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Webb WB, Campbell S (1980) Awakenings and the return to sleep in an older population. Sleep 3: 41–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. WHO Center for Classification of Diseases for North America (1978) International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). National Center for Health Statistics. Edward Brothers Inc, Ann HarbourGoogle Scholar
  220. Williams RL (1978) Sleep disturbances in various medical and surgical conditions. In: Williams RL, Karacan I (eds) Sleep disorders: Diagnosis and treatment. Wiley & Sons, New York, Chichester, pp 285–301Google Scholar
  221. Williams RL, Karacan I, Hursch C (1974) Electroencephalography (EEG) of human sleep: Clinical applications. Wiley & Sons, New York, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  222. Zarcone V (1989) Sleep abnormalities in schizophrenia. In: Kryger MH, Roth T, Dement WC (eds) Principles and practice of sleep medicine. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 422–423Google Scholar
  223. Zepelin H (1973) A survey of age differences in sleep patterns and dream recall among well-educated men and women. Sleep Res 2: 81Google Scholar
  224. Zwart CA, Lisman SA (1979) Analysis of stimulus control treatment of sleep-onset insomnia. J Consult Clin Psychol 47: 113–118PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Hajak
  • E. Rüther
  • P. J. Hauri

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations