Production of Hematopoietic and Immune System Growth Factors After Marrow Transplantation and Their Use in Enhancing Haematopoietic and Immune Reconstitution

  • K. Atkinson


A severe combined cellular and humoral immune deficiency is consistently seen after both autologous and allogeneic marrow transplantation in humans [1], One of the most striking defects is the slow and abnormal return of T lymphocyte numbers, resulting in a long-term deficiency of CD4-positive T cells and a normal or increased number of CD8-positive T cells. Not surprisingly, this results in defects of T cell function including lymphokine production. Lymphokines produced by activated T lymphocytes include growth factors for both the immune system and the hematopoietic system. B cell function is also seriously impaired with absent or minimal antibody production by B cells, both in vitro and in vivo.


Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Abnormal Return Phorbol Myristate Acetate Total Body Irradiation Phorbol Myristate Acetate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Noel DR, Witherspoon RP, Storb R, Atkinson K, Doney K, Mickelson EM, Ochs HD, Warren RP, Wielden PL, Thomas ED (1978) Does graft-versus-host disease influence the tempo of immunologic recovery after allogeneic human marrow transplantation? An observation on 56 long-term survivors. Blood 51: 1087–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Atkinson K, Biggs JC, Noble G, Ashby M, Concannon A, Dodds A (1987) Preparative regimes for marrow transplantation containing Busulphan are associated with haemorrhagic cystitis and hepatic veno-occlusive disease, but a short duration of leucopenia and little oropharyngeal mucositis. Bone Marrow Transplant 2: 358–394Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Atkinson K, Biggs JC, Concannon A, Dodds A, Downs K, Ashby M (1988) A prospective randomised trial of cyclosporin versus methotrexate after HLA-identical sibling marrow transplantation for patients with acute leukemia in first remission: analysis 2.5 years after last patient entry. Aust NZ J Med 18: 594–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brkic S, Tsoi MS, Mori T, Lachman L, Gillis S, Thomas E, Storb R (1985) Cellular interactions in marrow-grafted patients. III. Normal interleukin 1 and defective interleukin 2 production in short term patients and in those with chronic graft-versus-host disease. Transplantation 39: 30–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bentel J, Atkinson K (1989) Cytokine activity after human bone marrow transplantation: production of macrophage procoagulant inducing factor. Br J Haematol 69: 181–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Warren H, Atkinson K, Pembrey R, Biggs JC (1983) T lymphocyte function in human bone marrow allograft recipients: production of and responsiveness to interleukin 2. J Immunol 131: 1771–1775PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cooley M, McLauchlan K, Atkinson K (1989) Cytokine activity after human bone marrow transplantation. III. Defect in IL2 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells is not corrected by stimulation with calcium ionophore plus phorbol ester. Br J Haematol 73: 341–347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Atkinson K, Goehle S, Hansen J, Thomas ED, Storb R (1982) Human T cell subpopulations identified by monoclonal antibodies after bone marrow transplantation. 1. Helper-inducer and cytotoxic-suppressor subsets. Blood 59: 1297–1298Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rozans MK, Smith BR, Burakoff SJ, Miller RA (1986) Long lasting deficit of functional T cell precursors in human bone marrow transplant recipients revealed by limiting dilution methods. J Immunol 136: 1–9Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cooley MA (1987) Cytokine activity after human bone marrow transplantation. Production of interferons by HLA-identical sibling bone marrow transplants. J Immunol 138: 3742–3745PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ault KE, Antin JH, Ginsburg D, Orkin S, Rappeport J, Keohan M, Martin P, Smith B (1985) Phenotype of recovering lymphoid cell populations after marrow transplantation. J Exp Med 161: 1483–1502PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ireland RM, Atkinson K, Concannon A, Dodds A, Biggs JC (1990) Serum erythropoietin changes in autologous and allogeneic bone marrow transplant patients. Br J Haematol 76: 128–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sheridan WP, Morstyn G, Wolf M, Dodds A, Luck J, Maher D, Layton JE, Green MD, Souza L, Fox RM (1989) Granulocyte colony stimulating factor ( G-CSF) and neutrophil recovery following high dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation. Lancet 2: 891–895PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brandt S J, Peters WP, Atwater SK et al. (1988) Effect of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor on hematopoietic reconstitution after high dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation. N Engl J Med 318:869PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Masaoka T, Motoyoshi K, Takaku F, Kato S, Harada M, Kodera Y, Manamaru A, Moriyama Y, Inoue T (1988) Administration of human urinary colony stimulating factor after bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 3: 121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Masaoka T, Takaku F, Kato S, Moriyama Y, Kodera Y, Kanamaru A, Shimosaka A, Shibata H, Nakamura H (1989) Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Exp Hematol 17: 1050Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Atkinson K, Seymour R, Altavilla V, Cooley M, Biggs JC (1992) Cytokine activity after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. IV. Production of mRNA for IL-3 and GM-CSF by mitogen-stimulated circulating mononuclear cells. Bone Marrow Transplant 9: 175PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Atkinson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of HematologySt. Vincent’s HospitalSydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations