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Effects of the Medium

  • Vladimir I. Minkin
  • Boris Ya. Simkin
  • Ruslan M. Minyaev

Abstract

Most organic reactions occur in solution and, naturally, any comprehensive analysis of the mechanism, kinetics, and thermodynamics of a given reaction must take account of effects of the medium, in other words, of the solvent effects. The number of publications is very great devoted to experimental research into the multifarious effects a solvent has on the rate and mechanism of organic reactions which were first detected about one hundred years ago by Menshutkin. How essential the effect of a solvent can be shows, for example, a comparison between the reaction of alkali hydrolysis of alkylhalogenides and esters in water and in the gas phase. The rate of the gas-phase reaction is by 20 orders of magnitude faster than in solution (see Sect. 5.1.1.4).

Keywords

Solvent Molecule Point Charge Solute Molecule Solvation Shell Electrostatic Energy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vladimir I. Minkin
    • 1
  • Boris Ya. Simkin
    • 1
  • Ruslan M. Minyaev
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Physical and Organic ChemistryRostov UniversityRostov on DonUSSR

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