Crustal Hydrothermal Fluids and Mesothermal Mineral Deposits

  • Franco Pirajno


In this chapter we examine a broad category of hydrothermal mineral deposits whose principal characteristic is their strong structural control, and whose genesis is attributed to the action of deep-circulating crustal fluids. The mineralisation is hosted in a variety of lithologies metamorphosed to lower-upper greenschist facies, and less commonly to lower amphibolite facies. In all cases, however, the mineralising events post-date peak metamorphism. The deposits are found within high strain zones in brittle (lower greenschist facies) to brittle-ductile structures (mid-upper greenschist facies). Nesbitt (1988) and Nesbitt and Muehlenbachs (1989) refer to these deposits, in which Au is the chief economic metal, as “mesothermal lode gold”. In the literature these are also referred to as metamorphogenic or metamorphic vein deposits (Groves and Phillips 1987; Groves et al. 1987; Nesbitt and Muehlenbachs 1989), or solution-remobilisation ores (Boyle 1979, Guilbert and Park 1986). Here we adopt Nesbitt and Muehlenbachs’ terminology and use for all of these deposits the general term mesothermal ore deposits. Within this broad category are included the mineralised quartz vein systems in Archean granite-greenstone terranes (Archean lode Au deposits), the quartz vein lode Ag deposits of Idaho (USA), the lode Au deposits of Pilgrim’s Rest in South Africa and turbidite-hosted Au deposits. The latter are generally of Phanerozoic age, and examples are found in the Canadian Cordillera, Nova Scotia and Alaska in North America, Victoria in Australia, and Otago-Marlborough in New Zealand.


Shear Zone Fluid Inclusion Gold Deposit Hydrothermal Fluid Quartz Vein 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anhaeusser C R (1976a) The geology of the Sheba Hills area of the Barberton Mountain Land, South Africa, with particular reference to the Eureka Syncline. Trans Geol Soc S Afr 79: 253–280Google Scholar
  2. Anhaeusser C R (1976b) The nature and ditsribution of Archean gold mineralization in Southern Africa. Minerals Sci Eng 8: 46–84Google Scholar
  3. Anhaeusser C R (1981) Barberton Excursion Guide Book. Geocongress ’81 Geol Soc S AfrGoogle Scholar
  4. Anhaeusser C R (ed) (1983) Contributions to the geology of the Barberton Mountain Land. National geodynamics programme. Geol Soc S Afr Spec Publ No 9Google Scholar
  5. Anhaeusser C R (1984) The nature and distribution of Archaean gold mineralization in the Barberton Mountain Land. In: Abstr Archean Gold - Barberton Centenary Symp, BarbertonGoogle Scholar
  6. Anhaeusser C R, Viljoen M J (1986) Archean metallogeny of Southern Africa. In: Anhaeusser C R, Maske S (eds) Mineral Deposits of southern Africa, vol 1. Geol Soc S Afr, pp 33–42Google Scholar
  7. Anhaeusser C R, Wilson J F (1981) The granitic-gneiss greenstone shield of Southern Africa. In: Hunter D R (ed) Precambrian in the southern hemisphere. Developments in Precambrian geology 2. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 423–499Google Scholar
  8. Ash J P, Tyler N (1986) Preliminary investigation of fluid inclusions in the Pilgrim’s Rest goldfield, Eastern Transvaal. Econ Geol Res Unit, Inf Circ 180, Univ WitwatersrandGoogle Scholar
  9. Barley M E, Eisenlohr B N, Groves D I, Perring C S, Vearncombe J R (1989) Late Archean convergent margin tectonics and mineralization: a new look at the Norseman-Wiluna belt, Western Australia. Geology 17: 826–829Google Scholar
  10. Badenhorst F P (1987) Lithostratigraphy of the Damara Sequence in the Omaruru area of the northern Central Zone of the Damara orogen and a proposed correlation across the Omaruru Lineament. Comm Geol Surv SW Afr/Namibia 3: 3–8Google Scholar
  11. Binns R A, Eames J C (1989) Geochemistry of wall rocks at the Clunes gold deposit, Victoria. Econ Geol Monogr 6:310–3(19Google Scholar
  12. Bishop D G (1972) Progressive metamorphism from the prehnite-pumpellyite to greenschist facies in the Dansey Pass area, New Zealand. Geol Soc Am Bull 83:3177–3(197Google Scholar
  13. Boulter C A, Fotios M G, Phillips G N (1987) The Golden Mile, Kalgoorlie: a giant gold deposit localized in ductile shear zones by structurally induced infiltration of an auriferous metamorphic fluid. Econ Geol 82: 1661–1678Google Scholar
  14. Bonnemaison M, Marcoux E (1990) Auriferous mineralization in some shear zones: a three-stage model of metallogenesis. Mineral Depos 25: 96–104Google Scholar
  15. Boyle R W (1979) The geochemistry of gold and its deposits. Geol Surv Can Bull 280: 584 ppGoogle Scholar
  16. Brathwaite R L (1988) The tectonic setting and control of gold deposits in New Zealand. In: Bicentennial Gold ’88. Geol Soc Aust Abstr Ser 22: 191–196Google Scholar
  17. Brathwaite R L, Pirajno F (in prep) Metallogenic Map of New Zealand. NZ Geol Surv Bull, Govt PrinterGoogle Scholar
  18. Burrows D R, Spooner ETC (1987) Generation of a magmatic H2O-CO2 fluid enriched in Mo Au and W within an Archean sodic granodiorite stock, Mink Lake, northwestern Ontario. Econ Geol 82: 1931–1957Google Scholar
  19. Burrows D R, Spooner ETC (1989) Relationships between Archean goldquartz vein-shear zone mineralization and igneous intrusions in the Val d’Or and Timmins areas, Abitibi Subprovince, Canada. Econ Geol Monogr 6: 424–444Google Scholar
  20. Burrows D R, Wood P C, Spooner ETC (1986) Carbon isotope evidence for a magmatic origin for Archean gold-quartz vein ore deposits. Nature (London) 321: 851–854Google Scholar
  21. Cameron E M, Hattori K (1985) The Hemlo gold deposit, Ontario: a geochemical and isotopie study. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 49: 2041–2050Google Scholar
  22. Cameron E M Hattori K (1987) Archean gold mineralization and oxidised hydrothermal fluids. Econ Geol 82: 1177–1191Google Scholar
  23. Colvine A C (1989) An empirical model for the formation of Archean gold deposits: products of final cratonization of the Superior Province, Canada. Econ Geol Monogr 6: 37–53Google Scholar
  24. Condie K C (1981) Archean greenstone belts. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 434 ppGoogle Scholar
  25. Coney P J (1980) Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes: an overview. Mem Geol Soc Am 153: 7–31Google Scholar
  26. Corfu F, Muir T L (1989) The Hemlo-Heron Bay greenstone belt and Hemlo Au-Mo deposit, Superior Province, Ontario, Canada. 2. Timing of metamorphism, alteration and Au mineralization from titanite, rutile and monazite U-Pb geochronology. Chem Geol Isotope Geoscie Sec 79: 201–223Google Scholar
  27. Cox S F, Etheridge M A, Wall V J (1986) The role of fluids in syntectonic mass transport, and the location of metamorphic vein-type ore deposits. Ore Geol Rev 2: 65–86Google Scholar
  28. Craw D, Koons P O (1988) Technically induced gold mineralisation adjacent to major fault zones. In: Bicentennial Gold ’88. Geol Soc Aust Abst Ser 22: 338–343Google Scholar
  29. Craw D, Koons P O (1989) Tectonically induced hydrothermal activity and gold mineralization adjacent to major fault zones. Econ Geol Monogr 6: 471–478Google Scholar
  30. Craw D, Rattenbury M S, Johnstone R D (1987) Structural geology and vein mineralisation in the Callery River headwaters, Southern Alps, New Zealand. NZ J Geol Geophys 30: 273–286Google Scholar
  31. Dahlkamp F J (1978) Geologic appraisal of the Key Lake U-Ni deposits, Northern Saskatchewan. Econ Geol 73: 1430–1449Google Scholar
  32. De Ronde C E J, Kamo S, Davis D W, de Witt M J, Spooner E T C (1991) Field, geochemical and U- Pb isotopie constraints from hypabyssal felsic intrusions within the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa: Implications for tectonics and the timing of gold mineralization. Precambrian Res 49: 261–280Google Scholar
  33. De Witt M J (1982) Gliding and overthrust nappe tectonics in the Barberton greenstone belt. J Struct Geol 4: 117–136Google Scholar
  34. De Witt M J (1983) Notes on a preliminary 1:25000 geological map of the southern part of the Barberton greenstone belt. Geol Soc S Afr Spec Pubi 9: 185–187Google Scholar
  35. Duane M J, de Witt M J (1988) Pb-Zn ore deposits of the northern Caledonides: Products of continental-scale fluid mixing and tectonic expulsion during continental collision. Geology 16: 999–1002Google Scholar
  36. Dubé B, Guha J, Rocheleau M (1987) Alteration patterns related to gold mineralization and their relation to CO2/H2O ratios. Mineral Petrol 37: 267–291Google Scholar
  37. Economic Geology (ed) (1978) Special Issue devoted to Uranium Geology.Vol 73, 8Google Scholar
  38. Eisenlhor B N, Groves DI Partington G A (1989) Crustal-scale shear zones and their significance to Archean gold mineralization in Western Australia. Mineral Depos 24: 1–8Google Scholar
  39. Etheridge M A, Wall V J, Vernon R H (1983) The role of the fluid phase during regional metamorphism and deformation. J Metamorph Geol 1: 205–226Google Scholar
  40. Etheridge M A, Wall V J, Cox F S, Vernon R H (1984) High fluid pressure during regional metamorphism and deformation: implications for mass transport and deformation mechanisms. J Geophys Res 89: 4344–4388Google Scholar
  41. Evans E L (ed) (1986) Uranium deposits of Canada. Can Inst Min Metall Spec Vol 33Google Scholar
  42. Ferguson J, Goleby A B (eds) (1980) Uranium in the Pine Creek geosyncline. IAEA ViennaGoogle Scholar
  43. Ferry J M (1983) regional metamorphism of the Vassalboro Formation, south-central Maine, USA: a case study of the role of fluid in metamorphic petrogenesis. J Geol Soc London 140: 551–576Google Scholar
  44. Ferry J M (1984) A biotite isograd in South-Central Maine, USA: mineral reactions, fluid transfer, and heat transfer. J Petrol 25: 871–893Google Scholar
  45. Frimmel H E (1990) Ore mineralization in platform sediments - passive or active continental margin features ? In: Abstr Geocongress ’90 Cape Town. Geol Soc S Afr, pp 165–168Google Scholar
  46. Fripp REP (1976) Stratabound gold deposits in Archean banded iron formation, Rhodesia. Econ Geol 71: 58–75Google Scholar
  47. Fyfe W S, Kerrich R (1984) Gold: natural concentration processes. In: Foster R P (ed) Gold ’82: The geology, geochemistry and genesis of gold deposits. Geol Soc Zimbabwe Spec Pubi 1: 199–127Google Scholar
  48. Fyfe W S, Price N J, Thompson A B (1978) Fluids in the Earth’s crust. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 383 ppGoogle Scholar
  49. Fyon J A, Troop D G, Marmont S, Macdonald A J (1989) Introduction of gold into Archean crust, Superior Province, Ontario - Coupling between mantle-initiated magmatism and lower crustal thermal maturation. Econ Geol Monogr 6: 479–490Google Scholar
  50. Gee R D (1979) Structure and tectonic style of the Western Australian shield. Tectonophysics 58: 327–369Google Scholar
  51. Glover J E, Groves DI (eds) (1981) Archaean geology. In: 2nd Int Symp Geol Soc Aust Spec Publ 7, 515 ppGoogle Scholar
  52. Goldfarb R J, Leach D L, Pickthorn W J, Paterson C J (1988) Origin of lode gold deposits of the Juneau gold belt, southeastern Alaska. Geology 16: 440–443Google Scholar
  53. Goldfarb R J, Leach D L, Rose S C, Landis G P (1989) Fluid inclusion geochemistry of gold-bearing quartz veins of the Juneau gold belt, southeastern Alaska: implications for ore genesis. Econ Geol Monogr 6: 363–375Google Scholar
  54. Goldie R (1985) The sinters of the Ohaki and Champagne pools, New Zealand: possible modern analogues of the Hemlo gold deposits, Northern Ontario. Geosci Can 12: 60–64Google Scholar
  55. Green D, Milkereit B, Mayrand L J, Ludden R, Hubert C, Jackson S L, Sutcliffe M, West G F, Verpaelst P, Simard A (1990) Deep structure of an Archeaen greenstone terrane. Nature (London) 344: 327–330Google Scholar
  56. Groves D I, Batt W D (1984) Spatial and temporal variations of Archean metallogenic associations in terms of evolution of granite-greenstone terrains with particular emphasis on the Western Australian shield. In: Kroner A, Hanson G H, Goodwin A M (eds) Archaean Geochemistry. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, pp 73–98Google Scholar
  57. Groves D I, Phillips G N (1987) The genesis and tectonic control on Archean gold deposits–A metamorphic replacement model. Ore Geol Rev 2: 287–322Google Scholar
  58. Groves D I, Phillips G N, Ho S E, Houston S M, Standing C A (1987) Craton-scale distribution of Archean greenstone gold deposits; predictive capacity of the metamorphic model. Econ Geol 82: 2045–2058Google Scholar
  59. Groves D I, Barley M E, Ho S E (1989) Nature, genesis, and tectonic setting of mesothermal gold mineralization in the Yilgarn Block, Western Australia. Econ Geol Monogr 6: 71–85Google Scholar
  60. Groves D I, Foster R P (1991) Archaean lode gold deposits. In: Foster R P (ed) Gold metallogeny and exploration. Blackie, Glasgow, London, pp 63–103Google Scholar
  61. Guilbert J M, Park C F (1986) The geology of ore deposits. Freeman, San Francisco, New York, 985 PPGoogle Scholar
  62. Haack U, Heinrichs H, Bones N, Schneider A (1984) Loss of metals from pelites during regional metamorphism. Contrib Mineral Petrol 85: 116–132Google Scholar
  63. Harris D C (1986) Mineralogy and geochemistry of the main Hemlo gold deposit, Hemlo, Ontario, Canada. In: Macdonald A J (ed) Proc Gold ’86, Montreal, pp 297–310Google Scholar
  64. Harris D C (1989) The mineralogy and geochemistry of the Hemlo gold deposit, Ontario. Geol Surv Can Rep 38: 88 ppGoogle Scholar
  65. Hegge M R, Rowntree J C (1978) Geologic setting and concepts on the origin of uranium deposits in the East Alligator River region, N.T., Australia. Econ Geol 73: 1420–1429Google Scholar
  66. Henley R W (1973) solubility of gold in hydrothermal chloride solutions. Chem Geol 11:73–87Google Scholar
  67. Henley R W, Adams J (1979) On the evolution of giant gold placers. Trans Inst Min Metall 88: B41–B50Google Scholar
  68. Henley R W, Norris R J, Paterson C J (1976) Multistage ore genesis in the New Zealand geosyncline, a history of post-metamorphic lode emplacement. Mineral Depos 11: 180–186Google Scholar
  69. Hodgson C J (1989) The structure of shear-related, vein-type gold deposits: a review. Ore Geol Rev 4: 231–273Google Scholar
  70. Hodgson C J, Hamilton J V (1989) Gold mineralization in the Abitibi greenstone belt: End-stage results of Archean collisional tectonics? Econ Geol Monogr 6: 86–100Google Scholar
  71. Hoeve J, Sibbald TII (1978) On the genesis of Rabbit Lake and other unconformity-type uranium deposit in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada Econ Geol 73: 1450–1473Google Scholar
  72. Höll R, Maucher A, Westenberger H (1972) Synsedimentary-diagenetic ore fabrics in the strata- and time-bound scheelite deposits of Kleinarltal and Felbertal in the Eastern Alps. Mineral Depos 7: 217–226Google Scholar
  73. Hugon H (1986) The Hemlo gold deposit, Ontario, Canada: A central portion of a large scale, wide zone of heterogeneous ductile shear. In: Macdonald A J (ed) Proc Gold ’86, Montreal, pp 379–387Google Scholar
  74. Hutton C O, Turner F J (1936) Metamorphic rocks in northwest Otago. Trans R SocNZ 65: 405–406Google Scholar
  75. Jemielita R A, Davis D W, Krogh T E (1990) U-Pb evidence for Abitibi gold mineralization postdating greenstone magmatism and metamorphism.Nature (London) 346: 831–834Google Scholar
  76. Johnstone R D, Craw D, Rattenbury M S (1990) Southern Alps Cu-Au hydrothermal system, Westland, New Zealand. Mineral Depos 25: 118–125Google Scholar
  77. Keays R R (1984) Archean gold deposits and their source rocks: the upper mantle connection. In: Foster R P (ed) Gold ’82: The geology, geochemistry and genesis of gold deposits. Geol Soc Zimbabwe Spec Publ 1: 17–51Google Scholar
  78. Keays R R (1987) Principles of mobilization (dissolution) of metals in mafic and ultramafic rocks. The role of immiscible magmatic sulphides in the generation of hydrothermal gold and volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits. Ore Geol Rev 2: 47–63Google Scholar
  79. Keppie D J, Boyle R W, Haynes S J (eds) (1986) Turbidite-hosted gold deposits. Geol Ass Can Spec Pap 32: 186 ppGoogle Scholar
  80. Kerrich R (1986) Fluid transport in lineaments. Phil Trans R Soc London Ser A 317: 219–251Google Scholar
  81. Kerrich R, Fryer B J (19790 Archaean precious-metal hydrothermal systems, Dome Mine, Abitibi greenstone belt. II. REE and oxygen isotope relations. Can J Earth Sci 16: 440–458Google Scholar
  82. Kerrich R, Fryer B J (1981) The separation of rare elements from abundant base metals in Archean lode gold deposits: implications of low water/rock source regions. Econ Geol 76: 160–166Google Scholar
  83. Kerrich R, Fyfe W S (1981) The gold-carbonate association: source of CO2 and CO2-fixation reactions in Archaean lode deposits. Chem Geol 33: 265–294Google Scholar
  84. Kerrich R, Wyman D (1990) Geodynamic setting of mesothermal gold deposits: An association with accretionary tectonic regimes. Geology 18: 882–885Google Scholar
  85. Kuhns R J, Kennedy P, Cooper P, Brown P, Mackie B, Kusins R, Friesen R, (1986) Geology and mineralization associated with the Golden Giant deposit, Hemlo, Ontario, Canada. In: Macdonald A J (ed) Proc Gold ’86, Montreal, pp 327–339Google Scholar
  86. Landefeld L A (1988) The geology of the Mother Lode Gold Belt, Sierra Nevada foothills metamorphic belt, California. In: Bicentennial Gold ’88. Geol Soc Aus Abstr Series 22: 167–172Google Scholar
  87. Landefeld L A, Silberman M L (1987) Geology and geochemistry of the Mother Lode Gold Belt, California, compared with Archean lode gold deposits. In: Johnson J L (ed) Bulk mineable precious metal deposits of the Western U.S. Guidebook for field trips. Geol Soc Nev, Reno, pp 213–222Google Scholar
  88. Langseth M G, Moore C J (1990a) Introduction to special section on the role of fluids in sediment accretion, deformation, diagenesis and metamorphism in subduction zones. J Geophys Res 95: 8737–8741Google Scholar
  89. Langseth M G, Moore C J (1990b) Fluids in accretionary prisms. EOS Am Geophys Un 71: 245–247Google Scholar
  90. Lee M C, Batt W D, Robinson P C (1989) The Round-Hill gold-scheelite deposit, Macraes Flat, Otago, New Zealand. Australas Inst Min Metall Monogr 13. Parkville, Victoria, pp 173–180Google Scholar
  91. Leach D L, Landis G P, Hofstra A H (1988) Metamorphic origin of the Coeur d’Alene base- and precious metal-veins in the Belt Basin, Idaho and Montana. Geology, 16: 122–125Google Scholar
  92. Light T D, Brew D A, Ashley R P (1990) The Alaska-Juneau Treadwell lode gold systems, southeastern Alaska. US Geol Surv Bull 1857: D27–D36Google Scholar
  93. Louw D R, Byerly G R, Ransom B, Land B, Nocita B W (1985) Stratigraphioc and sedimentological evidence bearing on structural repetition in early Archean rocks of the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa. Precambrian Res 27: 165–186Google Scholar
  94. Marmont S (1987) Unconformity-type uranium deposits Ore deposit models 13. Geosci Can 14: 219–229Google Scholar
  95. Mawer C K (1986) The bedding-concordant gold-quartz veins of the Meguma Group, Nova Scotia. Geol Ass Can Spec Pap 32: 135–148Google Scholar
  96. Minter W E L (1989) Problems with the placer model for Witwatersrand gold (Comment on paper by Phillips et al (1988). Geology 16: 1153–1154Google Scholar
  97. Muff R, Saager R (1979) Metallogenic interpretations from a mineragraphic and geostatistic study of antimony ores of the Murchison greenstone belt. Geol Soc S Afr Spec Publ 5: 167–179Google Scholar
  98. Muir T L (1982a) Geology of the Hemlo area, District of Thunder Bay. Ont Geol Surv Rep 217:65 PPGoogle Scholar
  99. Muir T L (1982b) Geology of the Heron Bay area, District of Thunder Bay. Ont Geol Surv Rep 218: 89 ppGoogle Scholar
  100. Muir T L, Elliott C G, Corfu F (1988) The tectono-stratigraphic setting of the Hemlo Au-Mo deposit, Ontario, Canada. In: Bicentennial Gold ’88. Geol Soc Aust Abstr Series 23: 95–97Google Scholar
  101. Mutch A R (1969) The scheelite resources of the Glenorchy District, West Otago. NZ Geol Surv Rep 40: 68 ppGoogle Scholar
  102. Nash J T, Granger H C, Adams S S (1981) Geology and concepts of genesis of important types of deposits. Econ Geol 75th Anniv Vol, pp 63–116Google Scholar
  103. Nesbitt B E (1988) Gold deposit continuum: A genetic model for lode Au mineralization in the continental crust. Geology 16: 1044–1048Google Scholar
  104. Nesbitt B E, Muehlenbachs K (1989) Evidence for ore formation from evolved meteoric water. Econ Geol Monogr 6: 553–563Google Scholar
  105. Nesbitt B E, Murowchick J B, Muehlenbachs K (1986) Dual origin of lode gold deposits in the Canadian Cordillera. Geology 14: 506–509Google Scholar
  106. Norris R J, Henley R W (1976) Dewatering of a metamorphic pile. Geology 80: 333–336Google Scholar
  107. Nutt C J (1989) Chloritization and associated alteration at the Jabiluka unconformity-type uranium deposit, Northern Territory, Australia. Can Mineral 27: 41–58Google Scholar
  108. Oliver J (1986) Fluids expelled technically from orogenic belts: Their role in hydrocarbon migration and other geological phenomena. Geology 14: 99–102Google Scholar
  109. Pagel M, Poty B, Sheppard S M F (1980) Contribution to some Saskatchewan uranium deposits mainly from fluid inclusion and isotope data. In: Ferguson J, Goleby A B (eds) Uranium in the Pine Creek Geosyncline. IAEA, Vienna, pp 639–654Google Scholar
  110. Paris I, Stanistreet I G, Hughes M J (1985) Cherts of the Barberton greenstone belt interpreted as products of submarine exhalative activity. J Geol 93: 111–129Google Scholar
  111. Paterson C J (1986) Controls on gold and tungsten mineralization in metamorphic-hydrothermal systems, Otago, New Zealand. Geol Ass Can Spec Pap 32: 25–39Google Scholar
  112. Paterson C J, Rankin P C (1979) Trace element distribution in the schist surrounding a quartz-scheelite lode, Glenorchy, New Zealand. NZ J Geol Geophys 22: 329–338Google Scholar
  113. Pearton T N (1978) The geology and geochemistry of the Monarch orebody and environs, Murchison Range, northeast Transvaal. Geol Soc S Afr Spec Publ 4: 77–86Google Scholar
  114. Pearton T N (1979) A geochemical investigation of the carbonate and associated rocks on the Monarch antimony mine, Murchison Range. Geol Soc S Afr Spec Publ 5: 159–166Google Scholar
  115. Perring C S, Barley M E, Cassidy K F, Groves D I, McNaughton N J, Rock N M S, Bettenay L F, Golding S D, Hallberg J A (1989) The association of linear orogenic belts, mantle-crust magmatism, and Archean gold mineralization in the eastern Yilgarn Block of Western Australia. Econ Geol Monogr 6: 571–584Google Scholar
  116. Phillips G N (1985) Interpretation of Big Bell/Hemlo-type gold deposits: Precursor, metamorphism, melting and genetic constraints. Trans Geol Soc S Afr 88: 159–173Google Scholar
  117. Phillips G N (1986) Geology and alteration in the Golden Mile, Kalgoorlie. Econ Geol 81: 779–808Google Scholar
  118. Phillips G N (1987) Metamorphism of the Witwatersrand gold fields: conditions during peak metamorphism. J Metamorph Geol 5: 307–322Google Scholar
  119. Phillips G N (1988) Widespread fluid infiltration during metamorphism of the Witwatersrand gold fields: generation of chloritoid and pyrophyllite. J Metamorph Geol 6: 311–332Google Scholar
  120. Phillips G N, Myers R E (1989) The Witwatersrand gold fields: Part II. An origin for Witwatersrand gold during metamorphism and associated alteration. Econ Geol Monogr 6: 598–608Google Scholar
  121. Phillips G N, Myers R E, Law J D M, Bailey A C, Cadle A B, Beneke S D, Giusti L (1989) The Witwatersrand gold fields: Part I. Postdepositional history, synsedimentary processes, and gold distribution. Econ Geol Monogr 6: 585–597Google Scholar
  122. Phillips G N, Law J D M, Myers R E (1990) The role of fluids in the evolution of the Witwatersrand basin. S Afr J Geol 93: 54–69Google Scholar
  123. Pirajno F (1979) Geology, geochemistry and mineralisation of the Endeavour Inlet antimony-gold prospect, Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand. NZ J Geol Geophys 22: 227–237Google Scholar
  124. Pirajno F, Jacob R E (in press) Gold mineralisation in the intracontinental branch of the Damara Orogen, Namibia: a preliminary survey. J Afr Earth Scie 13Google Scholar
  125. Pirajno F, Jacob R E, Petzel V F W (1990) Marble-hosted sulphide and gold mineralisation at Onguati-Brown Mountain, Southern Central Zone of the Damara Orogen, Namibia. In: Abstr Geocongress ’90 Cape Town. Geol Soc S Afr, pp 443–446Google Scholar
  126. Pirajno F, Jacob R E, Petzel V W F (1991) Distal skarn-type gold mineralization in the Central Zone of the Damara orogen, Namibia. In: Ladeira E A (ed) Proc Brazil ’91, Belo Horizonte. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 95–100Google Scholar
  127. Ramsay J G (1980) Shear zone geometry: a review. J Struct Geol 2: 83–100Google Scholar
  128. Reimer T O, Mossman D J (1990) The Witwatersrand controversy revisited. Econ Geol 85: 337–343Google Scholar
  129. Robert F (1990) Dating old gold deposits. Nature (London) 346: 792–793Google Scholar
  130. Rock N M S (1987) The nature and origin of lamprophyres: An overview. Geol Soc London Spec Publ 30: 191–226Google Scholar
  131. Rock N M S, Groves DI (1988) Do lamprophyres carry gold as well as diamonds? Nature (London) 332: 253–255Google Scholar
  132. Rock N M S, Groves D I, Perring C S (1988) Gold, porphyries and lamprophyres: a new genetic model. In: Bicentennial Gold ’88. Geol Soc Aust Abstr Ser 22: 307–312Google Scholar
  133. Rock N M S, Groves D I, Perring C S, Golding S D (1989) Gold, lamprophyres, and porphyries: what does their association mean? Econ Geol Monogr 6: 609–625Google Scholar
  134. Rossiter R D (1988) The geology of Fairview gold mine, Barberton, South Africa. In: Bicentennial Gold ’88. Geol Soc Aust Abstr Ser 23: 116–118Google Scholar
  135. Sandiford M, Keays R R (1986) Structural and tectonic constraints on the origin of gold deposits in the Ballarat Salte Belt, Victoria. Geol Ass Can Spec Pap 32: 15–24Google Scholar
  136. Seward T M (1973) Thio complexes of gold and the transport of gold in hydrothermal ore solutions. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 37: 379–399Google Scholar
  137. Seward T M (1984) The transport and deposition of gold in hydrothermal systems. In: Foster R P (ed) Gold ’82. The geology, geochemistry and genesis of gold deposits. Geol Soc Zimbabwe Spec Publ 1: 165–181Google Scholar
  138. Seward T M (1989) The hydrothermal chemistry of gold and its implications for ore formation: boiling and conductive cooling as examples. Econ Geol Monogr 6: 398–404Google Scholar
  139. Seward T M (1991) The hydrothermal geochemistry of gold. In: Foster R P (ed) Gold metallogeny and exploration. Blackie, Glasgow, London, pp 137–62Google Scholar
  140. Sheppard S M F (1986) Characterization and isotopic variations in natural waters. Reviews in mineralogy, vol 16. Min Soc Am, pp 165–183Google Scholar
  141. Sighinolfi G P, Santos A M (1976) Geochemistry of gold in Archean granulite facies terranes. Chem Geol 17: 113–123Google Scholar
  142. Smith H S, O’Neil J R, Erlank A J (1984) Oxygen isotope compositions of minerals and rocks and chemical alteration patterns in pillow lavas from the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa. In: Kroner A, Hansen G N, Goodwin AM (eds) Archaean Geochemistry. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, pp 115–137Google Scholar
  143. South African Journal of Geology (ed) (1990) Special issue on the origin and evolution of the Witwatersrand Basin and its mineralization. Econ Geol Res Unit, Dep Geol, Univ Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. S Afr J Geol 93, 1Google Scholar
  144. Storey M, Mahoney J J, Kroenke L W, Saunders A D (1991) Are oceanic plateaus sites of komatiite formation? Geology 19: 376–379Google Scholar
  145. Tankard A J, Erikson K A, Hobday D R, Hunter D R, Minter W E L (1982) Crustal evolution of southern Africa - 3.8 billion years of earth history. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 523 ppGoogle Scholar
  146. Taylor H P (1979) Oxygen and hydrogen isotope relationships in hydrothermal mineral deposits. In: Barnes H L (ed) Geochemistry of hydrothermal ore deposits, 2nd edn. John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp 236–277Google Scholar
  147. Tomich S A (1974) A new look at Kalgoorlie Golden Mile geology. Proc Australas Inst Min Metall 251: 27–35Google Scholar
  148. Tomich S A (1986) An outline of the economic geology of Kalgoorlie, Western Australia. Trans Geol Soc S Afr 89: 35–55Google Scholar
  149. Tomlison K M, Wilson C J L, Hazeldene R, Lohe E M (1988) Structural control on gold mineralization at Walhalla, Victoria. Aust J Earth Scie 35: 421–444Google Scholar
  150. Torgersen T (1990) Crustal scale fluid transport — magnitude and mechanisms. EOS Am Geophys Un 71: 11–13Google Scholar
  151. Travis G A, Woodall R, Bartram G D (1971) The geology of the Kalgoorlie goldfield. Geol Soc Aust Spec Publ 3: 175–190Google Scholar
  152. Turner F J (1935) Metamorphism of the Te Anau Series in the region northwest of Lake Wakatipu. Trans R Soc NZ 65: 329–349Google Scholar
  153. Tyler N (1986) The origin of gold mineralzation in the Pilgrim’s Rest goldfield, Eastern Transvaal. Econ Geol Res Unit, Inf Circ 179 Univ Witwatersrand, JohannesburgGoogle Scholar
  154. Valiant R I, Bradbrook C J (1986) Relationship between stratigraphy, faults and gold deposits, Page-Williams Mine, Ontario, Canada. In: Macdonald A J (Ed) Proc Gold ’86, Montreal, pp 355–361Google Scholar
  155. Van der Berg M A (1984) The geological setting of gold mineralisation at the Sheba Mine. In: Abstr Archean Gold. Barberton Centenary Symp, BarbertonGoogle Scholar
  156. Viljoen M J (1979) The geology and geochemistry of the Antimony Line in the United Jack complex, Murchison range. Geol Soc S Afr Spec Publ 5: 133–158Google Scholar
  157. Viljoen M J, Viljoen R P (1969a) The geology and geochemistry of the lower ultramafic unit of the Onverwacht group and a proposed new class of igneous rocks. Geol Soc S Afr Spec Publ 2: 55–86Google Scholar
  158. Viljoen M J, Viljoen R P (1969b) An introduction to the geology of the Barberton granite-greenstone terrain. Geol Soc S Afr Spec Publ 2: 9–28Google Scholar
  159. Viljoen M J, Van Vuuren C J J, Pearton T N, Minnitt RCA, Muff R, Cilliers P (1978) The regional geological setting of mineralization in the Murchison range with particular reference to antimony. Geol Soc S Afr Spec Publ 4: 55–86Google Scholar
  160. Walford P, Stephens J, Skrecky G, Barnett R (1986) The geology of the “A” zone, Page-Williams Mine, Hemlo, Ontario, Canada. In: Macdonald A J (ed) Proc Gold ’86, Montreal, pp 362–378Google Scholar
  161. Wallis R H, Saracoglu N, Brummer J J, Golightly J P (1986) The geology of the McClean uranium deposits, northern Saskatchewan In: Evans E L (ed) Uranium deposits of Canada. Can Inst Min Metall Spec Vol 33: 193–217Google Scholar
  162. Watchorn R B, Wilson C J L (1989) Structural setting of the gold mineralization at Stawell, Victoria, Australia. Econ Geol Monogr 6: 292–309Google Scholar
  163. Weir R H, Kerrich D M (1987) Mineralogic, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope studies of several gold mines in the Mother Lode, Tuolumne and Mariposa Counties, California. Econ Geol 82: 328–344Google Scholar
  164. Wilde A R, Wall V J (1987) Geology of the Nabarlek uranium deposit, Northern Territory, Australia. Econ Geol 82: 1152–1168Google Scholar
  165. Wilde A R, Bloom M S, Wall V J (1989) Transport and deposition of gold, uranium and platinum-group elements in unconformity-related uranium deposits. Econ Geol Monogr 6: 637–660Google Scholar
  166. Williams J G (1974) Economic Geology of New Zealand, 2nd edn. Australas Inst Min Metall Monogr 4. Parkville, Victoria, 490 ppGoogle Scholar
  167. Windley B F (1984) The evolving continents. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 399 ppGoogle Scholar
  168. Winkler H G F (1976) Petrogenesis of metamorphic rocks. 4th edn. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 334 ppGoogle Scholar
  169. Wood P C, Burrows D R, Thomas A V, Spooner ETC (1986) The Hollinger-Mclntyre Au-quartz vein system, Timmins, Ontario, Canada: geologic characteristics, fluid properties and light stable isotope geochemistry. In: MacDonald A J (ed) Proc Gold ’86, Montreal, pp 56–80Google Scholar
  170. Woodall R (1965) Structure of the Kalgoorlie goldfield. In: Modigan R T (ed) 8th Common Min Metall Cong Aust & NZ, vol 1. Australas Inst Min Metall, Parkville, Victoria, pp 71–79Google Scholar
  171. Wyman D, Kerrich R (1989) Archean shoshonitic lamprophyres associated with Superior Province gold deposits: distribution, tectonic setting, noble metal abundances and significance for gold mineralization. Econ Geol Monogr 6: 661–667Google Scholar
  172. Ypma P J M, Fuzikawa K (1980) Fluid inclusion and oxygen isotope studies of the Nabarlek and Jabiluka uranium deposits, Northern Territory, Australia. In: Ferguson J, Goleby A B (eds) Uranium in the Pine Creek geosyncline. IAEA, Vienna, pp 375–395Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Franco Pirajno
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Geology Mineral ExplorationRhodes UniversityGrahmstownSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations