Colonization, Life Cycles and Competition in a Freshwater Sponge Association

  • R. Pronzato
  • R. Manconi


Freshwater sponges have been deeply studied under natural and experimental conditions, with particular attention to life histories, growth sexual, and asexual reproduction, population dynamics, standing crop, clearance rates, feeding, and symbiosis (Simpson and Gilbert 1973, 1974; Van de Vyver and Willenz 1975; Frost and Williamson 1980; Wilkinson 1980; Frost et al. 1982; Harsha et al. 1983; Rader and Winget 1985; Francis and Poirrier 1986; Sailer 1988). In spite of this, little is known about colonization strategies and spatial competition (Frost et al. 1982; De Nagy 1978).


Area Cover Spatial Competition Freshwater Sponge Vegetative Cycle Colonization Strategy 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Pronzato
  • R. Manconi

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