Antagonists of Platelet-Activating Factor as Potential Therapeutic Agents in Shock

  • David Hosford
  • Pierre Braquet
Conference paper

Summary

Shock, sepsis and trauma are conditions which can often prove life-threatening. Although the cause and evolution of these conditions may be different, in all cases the final underlying pathology consists of endothelial injury, excessive blood cell infiltration and vascular leakage. Hence, many types of shock and trauma are characterized by hemodynamic alterations and edema formation. Among the various mediators implicated in shock conditions, there is much evidence to suggest that, together with various cytokines, leukotrienes, thromboxane and proteases, the inflammatory and chemotactic autacoid, platelet-activating factor (PAF), plays an important role. Indeed, studies on several animal models have shown that infusion of PAF mimicks the shock state, that markedly increased levels of PAF are produced in shock and that PAF antagonists afford significant protection against diverse forms of shock. The precise mechanism by which PAF antagonists protect against shock conditions remains unclear, however, it is becoming apparent that in shock a complex interaction occurs between PAF, proteases and cytokines, which if uncontrolled, leads to circulatory collapse. We propose that PAF antagonists may be effective in counteracting shock and sepsis because of their indirect anti-protease activity and their ability to inhibit deleterious PAF/cytokine auto-generated feedback processes.

Keywords

Permeability Ischemia Lactate Sludge Beach 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adnot S, Lefort J, Lagente V, Braquet P, and Vargaftig BB (1986) Interference of BN 52021, a PAF-acether antagonist with endotoxin-induced hypotension in the guinea-pig. Pharmacol Res Commun 18: 197–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barnes PJ, Chung KF, Evans TW, and Rogers DF (1986) Increased airway vascular permeability induced by platelet-activating factor: effect of specific antagonism and platelet depletion. Br J Pharmacol 89: 764.Google Scholar
  3. Beijer L, Botting J, Crook P, Oyekan AO, Page CP and Rylander R (1988) The involvement of platelet activating factor in endotoxin-induced pulmonary platelet recruitment in the guinea-pig. Br J Pharmacol 92: 803–808.Google Scholar
  4. Berkow, RL, Wang, D, Larrich, JW, Dodson, RW and Howard, TH (1987) Enhancement of neutrophil superoxide production by preincubation with recombinant human tumor necrosis factor. J. Immunol. 139: 3783–3791.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Beutler, B, Milsark, IW and Cerami, AC (1985) Passive immunisation against cachectin/tumor necrosis factor protects mice from lethal effects of endotoxin. Science. 229: 869–871.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bessin P, Bonnet J, Appfel D, Soulard C, Desgroux L, Pelas I, and Benveniste J (1983) Acute circulatory collapse caused by platelet-activating factor (PAF-acether) in dogs. Eur J Pharmacol. 86: 403–413.Google Scholar
  7. Bonavida, B, Mencia-Huerta, JM and Braquet, P (1989a) Effect of platelet-activating factor (PAF) on monocyte activation and production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF). Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. 88: 157–160.Google Scholar
  8. Bonavida, B, Mencia-Huerta, JM and Braquet, P (1989b) Priming and synergistic effects of PAF and IFN-q on human peripheral blood monocytes, J. Lipid Mediators. In press.Google Scholar
  9. Bourgain, RH, Maes, L, Braquet, P, Andries, R, Touqui, L and Braquet, M (1985) The effect of l-0-alkyl-2- acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PAF-acether) on the arterial wall. Prostaglandins. 30: 185–97.Google Scholar
  10. Braquet, P and Rola-Pleszczynski, M (1987) Platelet-activating factor and cellular immune responses. Immunology Today. 8: 345–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Braquet P, Vidal RF, Braquet M, Hamard H, and Vargaftig BB (1984) Involvement of leukotrienes and PAF-acether in the increase microvascular permeability of the rabbit retina. Agents Actions 15: 82–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Braquet, P, Touqui, L, Shen, TS. and Vargaftig, BB (1987a) Perspectives in platelet-activating factor research. Pharmacol Reviews. 39: 97–145.Google Scholar
  13. Braquet, P, Chabrier, PE and Mencia-Huerta, JM (1987b) The promise of PAF antagonists. Adv. Inflammation Res. 16: 179–98.Google Scholar
  14. Braquet P, Paubert-Braquet M, Bessin P, and Vargaftig BB (1987c) Platelet-activating factor, a potential mediator of shock, in: Samuelsson, B, Paoletti, R and Ramwell, P. (eds) Advances in Prostaglandin, Thromboxane and Leukotriene Research, vol 17, New York, Raven Press, pp 822–827Google Scholar
  15. Braquet, P, Hosford, D, Paubert-Braquet, M, Bourgain, R and Bussolino, F (1989a) Role of cytokines and platelet-activating factor in microvascular immune injury. Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol. 88: 88–100.Google Scholar
  16. Braquet, P, Paubert-Braquet, M, Koltai, M, Bourgain, R, Bussolino, F and Hosford, D (1989b) Is there a case for PAF antagonists in the treatment of ischemic states ? Trends in Pharmacol. Sci. 10: 23–30.Google Scholar
  17. Braquet, P, Paubert-Braquet, M, Bourgain, R, Bussolino, F and Hosford, D (1989c) PAF/cytokine autogenerated feedback networks in microvascular immune injury: consequences in shock, ischemia and graft rejection. J. Lipid Mediators. 1: 75–112.Google Scholar
  18. Burhop, KE, Garcia, JGN, Selig, WM, Lo, SK, van der Zee, H, Kaplan, JE and Malik, AB (1986a) Platelet-activating factor increases lung vascular permeability to protein. J Appl Physiol. 61: 2210–2217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Burhop, KE, van der Zee, H, Bizios, R, Kaplan, JE and Malik, AB (1986b) Pulmonary responses to platelet- activating factor in awake sheep and the role of cyclooxygenase metabolites. Am Rev Resp Dis. 134: 548–554.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bussolino, F, Aglietta, M, Sanavio, F, Stacchini, A, Lauri, D and Cammusi, G (1985) Alkyl-ether phosphoglycerides influence calcium fluxes into human endothelial cells. J Immunol. 135: 2748–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bussolino, F, Camussi, G, Aglietta, M, Braquet, P, Bosia, A, Pescarmona, G, Sanavio, F, d’Urso, N and Marchisio, PC (1987a) Human endothelial cells are a target for platelet-activating factor. J Immunol. 139: 2439–2446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bussolino, F, Porcellini, MG, Varese, L and Bosia, A (1987b) Intravascular release of platelet-activating factor in children with sepsis. Thromb Res. 48: 619–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bussolino, F, Camussi, G and Baglioni, C (1988) Synthesis and release of platelet-activating factor by human vascular endothelial cells treated with tumor necrosis factor or interleukin la. J. Biol. Chem. 263: 11856–11861.Google Scholar
  24. Buxton D, Hanaham DJ, and Olson MS (1984) Stimulation of glycogenolysis and platelet-activating factor production by heat aggregated immunoglobulin G in the perfused rat liver. J Biol Chem 259: 13758–13761.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Buxton DB, Fisher RA, Hanahan DJ, and Olson MS (1986) Platelet-activating factor-mediated vasconstriction and glycogenolysis in the perfused rat liver. J Biol Chem 261: 644–649.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Cannistra, SA, Vellenga, E, Groshek, P, Rambaldi, A and Griffin, JD (1988) Human granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor and interleukin 3 stimulate monocyte cytotoxicity through a tumor necrosis factor-dependent mechanism. Blood. 71: 672–676.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Camussi, G, Pawlowski, I, Saunders, R, Brentjens, J and Andres, G (1987) A receptor antagonist of platelet-activating factor inhibits inflammatory injury induced by in situ formation of immune complexes in renal glomeruli and in the skin. J Lab Clin Med. 110: 196–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Camussi, G, Tetta, C, Bussolino, F and Baglioni, C (1988) Synthesis and release of platelet-activating factor is inhibited by plasma a1-proteinase inhibitor or a1-antichymotrypsin and is stimulated by proteinases. J Exp Med. 168: 1293–1306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Caridis DT, Reinhold RB, Woodruff PW, and Fine J (1972) Endotoxemia in man. Lancet 1: 1381–1385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Casals-Stenzel J, Muacevic G, and Hueer H (1986) Inhibition of platelet-activating factor (PAF) induced effects in vitro and in vivo by WEB 2086, a new and specific PAF antagonist. In: Second International Conference on Platelet Activating Factor and structurally related alkyl ether lipids. Gatlinburg, Tennessee. Oct 26–29: p. 107 (abst).Google Scholar
  31. Chang SW, Feddersen CO, Henson PM, and Voelkel NF (1987) Platelet-activating factor mediates hemodynamic changes and lung injury in endotoxin-treated rats. J Clin Invest 79: 1498–1509.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Christman BW, Lefferts P, Snapper J (1987) Effect of a platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist (SRI 63-441) on the sheep’s response to endotoxin. Am Rev Respir Dis 135: 82 (Abst).Google Scholar
  33. Cox, CP, Mojarad, M, Attiah, A and Said, SI (1984) Platelet-activating factor (PAF) increases pulmonary vascular permeability in awake sheep. Am Rev Resp Dis. 129: 334–339, 1984.Google Scholar
  34. Dahinden CA, Zirgg, I, Malif, FE and de Week, AL (1988) Leukotriene production in human neutrophils primed by recombinant human granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor and stimulated with the complement component C5A and FMLP as second signals. J Exp Med. 167: 1281–1295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. DiPersio JF, Billing P, Williams, R and Gasson JC (1988) Human granulocyte-macrophage colony-st imulat ing factor and other cytokines primes human neutrophils for enhanced arachidonic acid release and leukotriene B4 synthesis. J Immunol. 140: 4315–4322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Doebber TW, Wu MS, Robbins JC, Choy BM, Chang MN and Shen TY (1985) Platelet activating factor (PAF) involvement in endotoxin-induced hypotension in rats. Studies with PAF receptor antagonist kadsurenone. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 127: 799–808.Google Scholar
  37. Earnest MA, DiSimone AG, and Fletcher JR (1989) The effects of BN 52021, a PAF receptor antagonist, in canine endotoxemia. in: Braquet, p. (ed) The Ginkgolides: Chemistry, Biology, Pharmacology and Clinical Perspectives, Vol. 2, Barcelona, Prous Science, In press.Google Scholar
  38. Ekstsrom-JodaL B, Haggendal J, Larsson LE, and Westerlind A (1982a) Cerebral blood flow and oxygen uptake in endotoxin shock. An experimental study in dogs. Acta Anaesthesiol Scan 26: 163–170.Google Scholar
  39. Ekstsrom-Jodal, B, Haggendal J, Larsson LE, and Westrelind A (1982b) Cerebral hemodynamics, oxygen and cerebral arteriovenous differences of catecholamines following E. coli endotoxin in dogs. Acta Anasthesiol Scan 26: 446–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Etienne A, Hecquet F, Soulard C, Spinnewyn B, Clostre F, and Braquet P (1985) In vivo inhibition of plasma protein leakage and Salmonella enter idis-induced mortality in the rat by a specific PAF acether antagonist: BN 52021. Agents Actions 17: 368–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Etienne A, Hecquet F, Guilmard C, Soulard C, and Braquet P (1987) A potential link between platelet-activating factor and plasma protease activity in endotoxemia. Int J Tiss Reac 9: 19–26.Google Scholar
  42. Evans TW, Rogers DF, Dent G, Aursudkil B, Chung K,F and Barnes PJ (1987) Effects of platelet-activating factor (PAF) antagonist WEB 2086 on airway microvascular leakage induced by PAF and antigen. Am Rev Resp Dis 135: 160 (abst).Google Scholar
  43. Feuerstein G, Leader P, Siren AL, and Braquet P (1987) Protective effect of a PAF antagonist, BN 52021, in trichothecene toxicosis. Toxicology Lett. 38: 271–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fitzgerald MF, Mocada S, and Parente L (1986) The anaphylactic release of platelet-activating factor from perfused guinea-pig lungs. Br J Pharmacol 88: 149–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Fletcher JR, Di Simone BS, Earnest MA, and Braquet P (1988) Platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonist, BN 52021, improves survival and inhibits prostaglandin release in endotoxemia. In: Am. Assoc. for the Study of Trauma. Newport Beach CA. Oct 21–23, 1988 (abst)Google Scholar
  46. Fletcher JR, Di Simone AG, and Earnest MA (1989) The effects of BN 52021, a PAF receptor antagonist, on survival and hemodynamic events in endotoxemia. in: Faist, E. (ed) The immune consequences of shock and trauma. Heidelburg, Springer Verlag, In press.Google Scholar
  47. Fry DE, Pearltein RL, Fulton HC, and Polk Jr (1980) Multiple system organ failure. The role of uncontrolled infection. Arch Surg 115: 136.Google Scholar
  48. Gilbert RP (1960) Mechanisms of the hemodynamic effects of endotoxin. Physiol Rev. 40: 245–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Gonzalez-Crussi F, Hsueh W (1983) Experimental model of ischemic bowel necrosis. The role of platelet-activating factor and endotoxin. Am J Path 112: 127–135.Google Scholar
  50. Ha B, Tolins JP, Vercellotti G, Jacob HS and Raij L (1988) The role of platelet-activating factor in endotoxemic acute renal failure in the rat. Kidney Int. 33: 358A.Google Scholar
  51. Handley DA, Van Valen RG, Melden MK, and Saunders RN (1984), Evaluation of dose and route effects of platelet activating factor-induced extravasation in the guinea-pig. Thromb Haemost. 52: 34–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Handley DA, Van Valen RG, and Saunders RN (1986) Vascular responses of platelet-activating factor in the Cebus apella primate and inhibitory profile of antagonists SR 63-072 and 63-119. Immunopharmacology 11: 175–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Heuer, H and Letts, G (1989) Priming of effects of PAF in vivo by tumor necrosis factor and endotoxin. J. Lipid Mediators. In press.Google Scholar
  54. Hosford, D, Mencia-Huerta, JM, Page, C and Braquet, P (1988a) Natural antagonists of platelet-activating factor. Phytotherapy Res. 2: 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hosford, D, Mencia-Huerta, JM and Braquet, P (1988b) The role of platelet-activating factor and structurally related alkyl phospholipids in immune and cytotoxic processes, in: Nigham, S. and Slater, T.F., (eds). Eicosanoids, Lipid peroxidation and Cancer. Heidelburg, Springer Verlag, pp. 53–55.Google Scholar
  56. Howat, D, Desa, F, Chander, C, Moore, A and Willoughby, DA (1989) The synergism between PAF and interleukin--1 on cartilage breakdown, J. Lipid Mediators. In press.Google Scholar
  57. Hsueh W, Gonzalez-Crussi F, and Arroyave JL (1987) Platelet-activating factor: an endogenous mediator for bowel necrosis in endotoxemia. FASEB J. 1: 403–405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Hwang SB, Lam MH, Lee CL, Shen TY (1986) Release of platelet activating factor and its involvement in the first phase of carrageenin-induced rat foot edema. Eur J Pharmacol 120: 33–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Inarrea P, Alonso F, and Sanchez-Crespo M. (1983) An effector substance of the vasopermeability changes induced by infusion of immune aggregates in the mouse. Immunopharmacology 6: 7–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Inarrea V, Gomez-Cambronero J, Pascual J, Ponte MC, Hernando L, and Sánchez-Crespo M (1985) Synthesis of PAF-acether and blood volume changes in gram-negative sepsis. Immunopharmacology 9: 45–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Jancar S, De Giaccobi G, Mariano M. Sirois P, and Braquet P (1988) Involvement of platelet-activating factor in acute immune-complex-induced pancreatitis. in: Braquet/ P. (ed) The role of platelet-activating factor in immune disorders. New trends in lipid mediators research, Basel, Karger, pp. 194–198Google Scholar
  62. Kenzora JL, Perez JE, Bergman SR, and Lange LG (1984) Effects of acetyl glyceryl ether phosphorylchline (platelet-activating factor) on ventricular preload, afterload and contractility in dogs. J Clin Invest. 74: 1193–1203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lagente V, Lidbury P, Steel G, Vargaftig BB, Wallace J, and Whittle B (1987) Role of PAF as the mediator of endotoxin-induced gastro intestinal damage. Br J Pharmacol 90: 114 (abst)Google Scholar
  64. Lang CH and Dobrescu C (1989) Attenuation of burn-induced changes in hemodynamics and glucose metabolism by the PAF antagonist, SRI 63 - 675. Eur J Pharmacol. In press.Google Scholar
  65. Lang CH, Dobrescu C, Hargrove DM, Bagby G and Spitzer JJ (1988) Attenuation of endotoxin-induced increase in glucose metabolism by platelet-activating factor antagonist. Circulatory Shock 23: 179–188.Google Scholar
  66. Lopez-Diez, F, Nieto, ML, Fernandez-Gallardo, S, Gijon, MA and Sanchez Crespo, M (1989) Occupancy of platelet receptors for platelet-activating factor in patients with septicemia. J Clin Invest. In press.Google Scholar
  67. Malech, HL and Gallin, JI (1987) Neutrophils in human diseases. New Eng J Med. 11: 687–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. McColl, SH, Drump, E, Naccache, PH, Poubelle, PE, Braquet, P and Borgeat, P (1989) Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor enhances the synthesis of leukotriene B4 by human neutrophils in response to PAF-acether. Blood. In press.Google Scholar
  69. Miyamoto T, Ohno H, Yano T, Okada T, Hamasaka N, Nawasaki A (1985) A new potent antagonist of platelet- activating factor, in: Hayaishi, 0 and Yamamot, S. (eds) Advances in Prostaglandin, Thromboxane and Leukotriene Research, vol 15, New York, Raven Press, pp 719–720Google Scholar
  70. Morley J, Page CP, and Paul W (1983) Inflammatory actions of platelet-activating factor (PAF-acether) in guinea-pig skin. Br J Pharmacol 80: 503–509.Google Scholar
  71. Nijkamp FP, Braquet P, Van Heuven-Nolsen V (1988) BN 52021 inhibits the endotoxin-induced tracheal hyperactivity to histamine in the guinea-pig but not the increased response to histamine in the heart and coronary vessels In: 1st International congress on the immune consequences of trauma, shock and sepsis, March 3–5, Munich, (abst).Google Scholar
  72. Paubert-Braquet, M, Koltz, P, Longchamp, MO, Guilbaud, J, Hosford, D and Braquet, P (1989a) TNF-induced superoxide release by human neutrophils is amplified by platelet-activating factor (PAF). J. Lipid Mediators. In press.Google Scholar
  73. Paubert-Braquet, M, Hosford, D, Koltz, P, Guilbaud, J and Braquet, P (1989b) Two structurally unrelated PAF antagonists, BN 52021 and BN 52111, partially inhibit TNF-induced superoxide release by human neutrophils, in: Crastes de Paulet, L. Douste Blazy and Paoletti R. (eds). Free Radicals, Lipoproteins and Membrane Lipids. London, Plenum Press. In press.Google Scholar
  74. Paubert-Braquet, M, Guilbaud, J, Hosford, D and Braquet, P (1989c) Granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor primes PAF-induced superoxide production by human neutrophils. J. Lipid Mediators. 1989.Google Scholar
  75. Pignol, B, Henane, S, Mencia-Huerta, JM, Rola-Pleszczynski, M and Braquet, P (1987) Effect of PAF-acether (platelet-activating factor) and its specific antagonist, BN 52021, on interleukin 1 (IL 1) synthesis and release by rat monocytes. Prostaglandins 33: 931–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Pignol, B, Henane, S, Sorlin, B, Rola-Pleszczynski, M, Mencia-Huerta, JM and Braquet, P (1988) Effect of long-term in vivo treatment with platelet-activating factor on interleukin 1 and interleukin 2 production by rat splenocytes. in: Braquet, P. (ed) New Trends in Lipid Mediators Research, vol. 1. Basel, Karger, pp. 38–43.Google Scholar
  77. Purvis, AW, Christman, C, McPherson, CD, Miller, RF, Lefferts, PL, Snapper, JR (1988) WEB 2086, a platelet activating factor receptor antagonist, attenuates the response to endotoxin in awake sheep. Am Rev Resp Dis. 137: 99.Google Scholar
  78. Redl, H, Gasser, H, Bahrami, S and Schlag, G (1989) The role of PAF in an ovine model of endotoxin shock, in: Braquet, P. (ed) The Ginkgolides: Chemistry, Biology, Pharmacology and Clinical Perspectives. Vol 2. Barcelona, J.R. Prous Science Publishers. In press.Google Scholar
  79. Rola-Pleszczynski, M, Pignol, B, Pouliot, C and Braquet, P (1987) Inhibition of human lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin 2 production by platelet-activating factor (PAF-acether): reversal by a specific antagonist, BN 52021. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 142: 754–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Rosam AC, Wallace JL, and Whittle BJ (1986) Potent ulcerogenic actions of platelet activating factor on the stomach. Nature. 319: 54–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rylander R, and Beijer L (1987) Inhalation of endotoxin stimulates alveolar macrophage production of platelet-activating factor. Am Rev Respir Dis 135: 83–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Sanchez-Crespo M, Alonso F, and Egido J (1980) Platelet-activating factor anaphylaxis and phagocytosis. I. Release from human peripheral polymorphonuclears and monocytes during the stimulation of ionophore A23187 and phagocytosis but not from degranulating basophils. Immunology 10: 645–655.Google Scholar
  83. Sanchez-Crespo M, Alonso F, Inarrea P, Alvarez V, and Egido J (1982) Vascular actions of synthetic PAF-acether (a synthetic platelet activating factor in the rat: evidence for a platelet independent mechanism. Immunopharmacology 4: 173–185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Sanchez-Crespo M, Fernandez-Gallardo S, Nieto ML, Baranes J, and Braquet P (1985) Inhibition of the vascular actions of IgG aggregates by BN 52021, a highly specific antagonist of PAF-acether. Immuno-pharmacology 10: 69–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sanchez-Crespo M, Fernandez Gallardo S, Nieto ML, and Braquet P (1986) Effect of a series of ginkgolides on the processing and the pathophysiological responses initiated by soluble aggregates of immunoglobulin G. In: 6th Int. Conference on Prostaglandins, Florence. 3–5 June (abst).Google Scholar
  86. Sardesai VM, Rosenburg JC (1974) Proteolysis and bradykinin turnover in endotoxin shock. J Trauma. 14: 945–949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sessler, CN, Glauser, FL, Signal/ B, Davis, D and Fowler, A (1987) SRI 63-441, a platelet-activating factor antagonist, prevents endotoxin induced pulmonary and hypoxemia in anesthetized sheep. Am Rev Resp Dis. 135: 187 (abst)Google Scholar
  88. Shen TY, Hwang SB, Doebber TW, Biftu T, Ponpipom MM, Bugianesl RL, Beattie TR, and Chang MN (1986) Lignan derivatives as PAF-acether antagonists. In: Second international conference on platelet-activating factor and structurally related alkyl ether lipids. Gatlinburg, Tennesse 26–29 Oct 1986, p. 34 (abst).Google Scholar
  89. Shimokawa, H, Aarhus, LL, Vanhoutte, PM (1987) Porcine coronary arteries with regenerated endothelium have a reduced endothelium-dependent responsiveness to aggregating platelets and serotonin. Cir. Res. 61: 256–270.Google Scholar
  90. Siebeck, M, Weipert, J, Jochum, M, Mryka, J, Keser, C, Kempe ER and Schweiberer, L (1989) A new triazolo-diazepine platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist reduces pulmonary dysfunction in endotoxin shock of the pig. Am Rev Resp Dis. 139: 20 (abst).Google Scholar
  91. Silberstein, DJ, Owen, WF, Gasson, JC, DiPersio, JF, Golde, DW, Bina, JC,Soberman, R, Austen, KF and David, JR (1986) Enhancement of human eosinophil cytotoxicity and leukotriene synthesis by biosynthetic (recombinant) granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. J Immunol. 137: 3290–3294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Sirois, MG, Plante, GE, Oppenheim, JJ, Braquet, P and Sirois, P (1989) Tumor necrosis factor primes the effects of platelet activating factor on rat vascular permeability, J. Lipid. Mediators. In press.Google Scholar
  93. Stahl GL, Bitterman H, Terashita Z, and Lefer AM (1988) Beneficial effects of platelet-activating factor receptor antagonists in traumatic shock. Circulatory Shock. 24: 241, (abst)Google Scholar
  94. Strosberg, AM, Johnson, LG, Wood, L, O’Hara, M, and Sandler, H (1989) Cardiovascular effects of interleukin-lb in anesthetized rhesus monkeys, FASEB J. 3: 317 (abst).Google Scholar
  95. Sturk, A, Ten-Cate, JW, Hosford, D, Mencia-Huertaf JM and Braquet, P (1989) Synthesis, catalobism and pathophysiological role of platelet-activating factor, in Paoletti, R. and Kritchevsky, D.(eds.) Advances in Lipid Research, vol. 23. London, Academic press. In press.Google Scholar
  96. Sun, X and Hsueh, W (1988) Bowel necrosis induced by tumor necrosis factor in rats is mediated by platelet-activating factor. J Clin Invest. 81, 1328–1331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sybertz EJ, Watkins RW, Baum T, Pula K, and Rivelli M (1985) Cardiac, coronary and peripheral vascular effects of acetyl glyceryl ether phosphorylcholine in anesthetized dogs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 232: 156–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Terashita, Z, Imura Y, Nishikawa K, and Sumida S (1985) Is platelet activating factor (PAF) a mediator of endotoxin shock ? Eur J Pharmacol 109: 257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Thorn, R (1975) Structural stability and morphogenesis (trans. D.H. Fowler), New York, Benjamin-Addison Wesley.Google Scholar
  100. Tollins, JP (1989) The role of PAF in endotoxemic acute renal failure in the rat: protection by BN 52021. in: Braquet, P. (ed) The Ginkgolides: Chemistry, Biology, Pharmacology and Clinical Perspectives. Vol 2, Barcelona, J.R. Prous Science Publishers. In press.Google Scholar
  101. Touvay C, Vilain B, Carré C, Mencia-Huerta JM, and Braquet P (1988) Role of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in bronchopulmonary alterations induced by endotoxin. Effects on beta-adrenoceptors. in: Braquet, P. (ed) The Ginkgolides: Chemistry, Biology, Pharmacology and Clinical Perspectives, vol 1, Barcelona, J.R. Prous Science Publishers, pp. 477–486.Google Scholar
  102. Toyofuku/ T, Kubo, K, Kobayashi, T and Kusama, S (1986) Effects of ONO-6240, a platelet-activating factor antagonists on endotoxin shock in unanesthestized sheep. Prostaglandins. 31: 271–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Tracey, KJ, Beutler, B, Lowry, SF, Merryweather, J, Milsark, IW, Hariri, RJ, Fahey, TJ, Zentella, A, Albert, JD, Shires, T and Cerami, A (1986) Shock and tissue injury induced by recombinant human cachectin. Science 234: 470.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Van Lambalgen AA, Bronsweld W, Van Den Bos GC, and Thus, LG (1984) Distribution of cardiac output, oxygen consumption and lactate production in canine endotoxic shock. Cardiovasc Res 18: 195–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Van Valen RG, Melden MK, Lee MK, Saunders RN, and Handley, DA (1987) Reversal by SRI 63-072 of endotoxin and immune aggregate-induced hypotension in the rat. in: Winslow, CM and Lee, ML. (eds) Proceedings of the first Sandoz research symposium, “New horizonsin platelet-activating factor research”, London, J. Wiley, pp. 123–130Google Scholar
  106. Vargaftig, BB and Braquet, P (1987) PAF-acether to day: relevance for acute experimental anaphylaxis. Brit. Med. Bull. 43: 312–335Google Scholar
  107. Vargaftig BB, Lefort J, Chignard M, and Benveniste J (1981) Platelet-activating factor induces a platelet-dependent bronchoconstriction unrelated to the formation of prostaglandin derivatives. Eur J Pharmacol. 65: 185–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Vercellotti, GM, Yin, HQ, Gustafson, KS, Nelson, PO and Jacob, HS (1988). Platelet activating factor primes neutrophil responses to agonists: role in promoting neutrophil-mediated endothelial damage. Blood. 71: 1100–06.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Wallace JL, Whittle BJR (1986) Prevention of endotoxin-induced gastrointestinal damages by CV 3988, an antagonist of platelet- activating factor. Eur J Pharmacol 124: 209–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Wallace JL, Steel G, B.J.R. Whittle BJR, Lagente V, and Vargaftig BB (1987) Evidence for platelet-activating factor as a mediator of endotoxin-induced gastrointestinal damage in the rat. Effects of three platelet-activating factor antagonists. Gastroenterology 93: 765–773.Google Scholar
  111. Wang, J and Dunn, MJ (1987) Platelet-activating factor mediates endotoxin induced acute renal insufficiency in rats. Am J Physiol. 253: 1283–1289.Google Scholar
  112. Wardlaw, AJ and Kay, AB (1986) PAF-acether is a potent chemotactic factor for human eosinophils. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 77: 236–242.Google Scholar
  113. Wedmore CV and Williams TJ (1981) Platelet-activatin factor ( AF), a secretory product of polymorpho-nuclear leucocytes, increases vascular permeability in rabbit skin. Br J Pharmacol: 916P–917 P.Google Scholar
  114. Weinberg, JR, Wright, DJM, and Guz, A (1988) Interleukin-lb and tumor necrosis factor cause hypotension in the conscious rabbit, Clin. Sci. 75: 251–254.Google Scholar
  115. Whatley, RE, Zimmerman, GA, Mclntyre, TM and Prescott, SM (1988) Endothelium from diverse vascular sources synthesizes platelet-activating factor. Arteriosclerosis. 8: 321–331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Zeeraan, EC (1972) A catastrophe machine, in: Waddington, CH (ed) Towards a theoretical biology. Vol. 4, Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, pp 276–282.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Hosford
    • 1
  • Pierre Braquet
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute Henri BeaufourLe Plessis RobinsonFrance

Personalised recommendations