Advertisement

Poxviruses pp 93-123 | Cite as

The Enzymology of Poxvirus DNA Replication

  • P. Traktman
Conference paper
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 163)

Abstract

DNA replication is arguably the most fundamental of biological processes and serves as a pivotal element in the poxvirus life cycle. Replication generates progeny genomes and initiates the transition to late gene expression. Unraveling the mechanism of poxvirus replication and identifying the panoply of enzymatic activities which it requires has been a focus of much recent research. The intent of this chapter is to move beyond previous reviews (McFadden and Dales 1982; Holowczak 1983) and focus on viral proteins whose participation in DNA replication is presumed on the basis of genetic or biochemical data. Implicit in this discussion was the choice of a broad definition of DNA replication, one which centers on DNA synthesis but also encompasses regulation of the topology of genomic DNA and its assembly into a nucleoprotein complex.

Keywords

Vaccinia Virus Thymidine Kinase Ribonucleotide Reductase Nonpermissive Temperature Late Gene Expression 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andrake M, Guild N, Hsu T, Gold L, Tuerk C, Karam J (1988) DNA polymerase of bacteriophage T4 is an autogenous translational repressor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85: 7942–7946PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ball LA (1987) High-frequency homologous recombination in vaccinia virus DNA. J Virol 61: 1788–1795PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Baroudy BM, Venkatesan S, Moss B (1982) Incompletely base-paired flip-flop terminal loops link the two DNA strands of the vaccinia virus genome into one uninterrupted polynucleotide chain. Cell 28:315–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bauer WR, Ressner EC, Kates J, Patzke JV (1977) A DNA nicking-closing enzyme encapsidated in vaccinia virus: partial purification and properties. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74: 1841–1845PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bernad A, Zaballos A, Salas M, Blanco L (1987) Structural and functional relationships between prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA polymerases. EMBOJ 6: 4219–4225Google Scholar
  6. Berns KI, Silverman C, Weissbach A (1969) Separation of a new deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase from vaccinia-infected HeLa cells. J Virol 4: 15–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Binns MM, Stenzler L, Tomley FM, Campbell J, Boursnell MEG (1987) Identification by a random sequencing strategy of the fowlpoxvirus DNA polymerase gene, its nucleotide sequence and comparison with other viral DNA polymerases. Nucleic Acids Res 15: 6563–6573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Boyle DB, Coupar BE, Gibbs AJ, Seigman LJ, Both GW (1987) Fowlpox virus thymidine kinase: nucleotide sequence and relationships to other thymidine kinases. Virology 156: 355–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Buller RM, Smith GL, Cremer K, Notkins AL, Moss B (1985) Decreased virulence of recombinant vaccinia virus expression vectors is associated with a thymidine kinase-negative phenotype. Nature 317: 813–815PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Campbell JL (1986) Eukaryotic DNA replication. Annu Rev Biochem 55: 733–771PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Challberg MD, Englund PT (1979a) Purification and properties of the deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase induced by vaccinia virus. J Biol Chem 254: 7812–7819PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Challberg MD, Englund PT (1979b) The effect of template secondary structure on vaccinia DNA polymerase. J Biol Chem 254: 7820–7826PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Citarella RV, Muller R, Schlabach A, Weissbach A (1972) Studies on vaccinia virus-directed deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase. J Virol 10: 721–729PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Condit RC, Motyczka A (1981) Isolation and preliminary characterization of temperature sensitive mutants of vaccinia virus. Virology 113: 224–241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Condit RC, Motyczka A, Spizz G (1983) Isolation, characterization and physical mapping of temperature sensitive mutants of vaccinia virus. Virology 128: 429–443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Dahl R, Kates JR (1970) Intracellular structures containing vaccinia DNA: isolation and characterization. Virology 42: 453–462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. DeFilippes FM (1984) Effect of aphidicolinon vaccinia virus: isolation of an aphidicolin-resistant mutant. J Virol 52: 474–482PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. DeLange AM (1989) Identification of temperature-sensitive mutants of vaccinia virus that are defective in conversion of concatemeric replicative intermediates to the mature linear DNA genome. J Virol 63: 2437–2444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. DeLange AM, McFadden G (1986) Sequence-nonspecific replication of transfected plasmid DNA in poxvirus-infected cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 614–618PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. DeLange AM, Reddy M, Scraba D, Upton C, McFadden G (1986) Replication and resolution of cloned poxvirus telomeres in vivo generates linear minichromosomes with intact viral hairpin termini. J Virol 59: 249–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Dorsky DI, Crumpacker CS (1988) Expression of herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA polymerase gene by in vitro translation and effects of gene deletions on activity. J Virol 62: 3224–3232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Earl PL, Jones EV, Moss B (1986) Homology between DNA polymerase of poxviruses, herpesviruses and adenoviruses: nucleotide sequence of the vaccinia virus DNA polymerase gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 3659–3663PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Ensinger M (1982) Isolation and genetic characterization of temperature-sensitive mutants of vaccinia virus WR. J Virol 43: 778–790PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Ensinger MJ (1987) Phenotypic characterization of temperature-sensitive mutants of vaccinia virus with mutations in a 135,000-Mr subunit of the virion-associated DNA-dependent RNA polymerase. J Virol 61: 1842–1850PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Ensinger M, Rovinsky M (1983) Marker rescue of temperature sensitive mutations of vaccinia virus WR: correlation of genetic and physical maps. J Virol 48: 419–428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Esteban M, Holowczak JA (1977a) Replication of vaccinia DNA in mouse L cells. IL In vitro DNA synthesis in cytoplasmic extracts. Virology 78: 76–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Esteban M, Holowczak JA (1977b) Replication of vaccinia DNA in mouse L cells. III. Intracellular forms of viral DNA. Virology 82: 308–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Esteban M, Holowczak JA (1978) Replication of vaccinia in mouse L cells. IV. Protein synthesis and viral DNA replication. Virology 86: 376–390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Evans E, Traktman P (1987) Molecular genetic analysis of a vaccinia virus gene with an essential role in DNA replication. J Virol 61: 3152–3162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Evans DH, Stuart D, McFadden G (1988) High levels of genetic recombination among contransfected plasmid DNAs in poxvirus-infected mammalian cells. J Virol 62: 367–375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Fathi Z, Sridhar P, Pacha RF, Condit RC (1986) Efficient targeted insertion of an unselected marker into the vaccinia virus genome. Virology 155: 97–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Fogelsong PD, Bauer WR (1984) Effects of ATP and inhibitory factors on the activity of vaccinia virus type I topoisomerase. J Virol 49: 1–8Google Scholar
  33. Franke CA, Roseman NA, Hruby DE (1985) Expression and regulation of the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase gene in non-permissive cells. Virus Res 3: 13–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Geballe AP, Mocarski ES (1988) Translational control of cytomegalovirus gene expression is mediated by upstream AUG codons. J Virol 62: 3334–3340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Hanggi M, Bannwarth W, Stunnenberg HG (1986) Conserved TAAAT motif in vaccinia virus late promoters: overlapping TATA box and site of transcription initiation EMBOJ 5: 1071–1076Google Scholar
  36. Hiller G, Weber K (1982) A phosphorylated basic vaccinia virion polypeptide of molecular weight 11,000 is exposed on the surface of mature particles and interacts with actin-containing cytoskeletal elements. J Virol 44: 647–657PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Holowczak JA (1983) Poxvirus DNA replication. In: Becker Y (ed) Replication of viral and cellular genomes. Martinus Nijhoff Boston pp 205–236Google Scholar
  38. Hooda-Dhingra U, Thompson CL, Condit RC (1989) Detailed phenotypic characterization of five temperature-sensitive mutants in the 22- and 147-kDa subunits of vaccinia virus DNA-dependent RNA polymerase. J Virol 63: 714–729PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Hruby DE (1985) Inhibition of vaccinia virus thymidine kinase by the distal products of its own metabolic pathway. Virus Res 2: 151–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Hruby DE, Ball LA (1981) Control of expression of the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase gene. J Virol 40: 456–464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Hruby De, Ball LA (1982) Mapping and identification of the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase gene. J Virol 43: 403–409PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hruby DE, Maki RA, Miller DB, Ball LA (1983) Fine structure analysis and nucleotide sequence of the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80: 3411–3415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Joklik WK, Becker Y (1964) The replication and coating of vaccinia DNA. J Mol Biol 10: 452–474PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Jones EV, Moss B (1984) Mapping of the vaccinia virus DNA polymerase gene by marker rescue and cell-free translation of selected RNA. J Virol 49: 72–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Kao SY, Bauer WR (1987) Biosynthesis and phosphorylation of vaccinia virus structural protein VP11. Virology 159: 399–407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Kao S, Ressner E, Kates J, Bauer WR (1981) Purification and characterization of a superhelix binding protein from vaccinia virus. Virology 111: 500–508PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Kerr SM, Smith GS (1989) Vaccinia virus encodes a polypeptide with DNA ligase activity. Nucleic Acids Res 17: 9039–9050PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Kouzarides T, Bankier AT, Satchwell SC, Weston K, Tomlinson P, Barrell BG (1987) Sequence and transcription analysis of the human cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase gene. J Virol 61: 125–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Künzi MS, Traktman P (1989) Genetic evidence for involvement of vaccinia virus DNA-dependent ATPase I in intermediate and late gene expression. J Virol 63: 3999–4010PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Lakritz N, Foglesong D, Reddy M, Baum S, Hurwitz J, Bauer WR (1985) A vaccinia virus DNase preparation which cross-links superhelical DNA. J Virol 53: 935–943PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Lambert DM, Magee WE (1977) Characterization of vaccinia virus DNA replication in vitro. Virology 79: 342–354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Larder BA, Kemp SD, Darby G (1987) Related functional domains in virus DNA polymerases. EMBOJ 6: 169–175Google Scholar
  53. Magee WE, Miller OV (1967) Immunological evidence for the appearance of a new DNA polymerase in cells infected with vaccinia virus. Virology 31: 64–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. McFadden G, Dales S (1980) Biogenesis of poxviruses: preliminary characterization of conditional lethal mutants of vaccinia virus defective in DNA synthesis. Virology 103: 68–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. McFadden G, Dales S (1982) Organization and replication of poxvirus DNA. In: Kaplan AS (ed) Organization and replication of viral DNA. CRC Boca Raton pp 173–190Google Scholar
  56. Merchlinsky M, Moss B (1986) Resolution of linear minichromosomes with hairpin ends from circular plasmids containing vaccinia virus concatemer junctions. Cell 45: 879–884PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Merchlinsky M, Moss B (1989) Resolution of vaccinia virus DNA concatemer junctions requires lategene expression. J Virol 63: 1595–1603PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Merchlinsky M, Garon CF, Moss B (1988) Molecular cloning and sequence of the concatemer junction from vaccinia virus replicative DNA. J Mol Biol 199: 399–413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Morgan JR, Cohen LK, Roberts BE (1984). Identification of the DNA sequences encoding the large subunit of the mRNA-capping enzyme of vaccinia virus. J Virol 52: 206–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Moss B, Cooper N (1982) Genetic evidence for vaccinia virus encoded DNA polymerase: isolation of phosphonoacetic acid resistant enzyme from the cytoplasm of cells infected with mutant virus. J Virol 673–678Google Scholar
  61. Moyer RW, Graves RL (1981) The mechanism of cytoplasmic orthopoxvirus DNA replication. Cell 27: 391–401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Nakano E, Panicali D, Paoletti E (1982) Molecular genetics of vaccinia virus: demonstration of marker rescue. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79: 1593–1596PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Niles EG, Condit RC, Caro P, Davidson K, Matusick L, Seto J (1986) Nucleotide sequence and genetic map of the 16kb vaccinia virus HindIII D fragment. J Virol 153: 96–112Google Scholar
  64. Nowakowski M, Kates J, Bauer W (1978a) Isolation of two DNA binding proteins from the intracellular replication complex of vaccinia virus. Virology 84: 260–267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Nowakowski M, Bauer W, Kates J (1978b) Characterization of a DNA-binding phosphoprotein from vaccinia virus replication complex. Virology 86: 217–225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Pedrali-Noy G, Spadari S (1980) Mechanism of inhibition of herpes simplex virus and vaccinia virus DNA polymerases by aphidicolin, a highly specific inhibitor of DNA replication. J Virol 36: 457–464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Person-Fernandez A, Beaud G (1986) Purification and characterization of a protein synthesis inhibitor associated with vaccinia virus. J Biol Chem 261: 8283–8289PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Pizzagalli A, Valsasnini P, Plevani P, Lucchini G (1988) DNA polymerase I gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: nucleotide sequence mapping of a temperature-sensitive mutation, and protein homology with other DNA polymerases. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85: 3772–3776PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Poddar SK, Bauer WR (1986) Type I topoisomerase activity after infection of enucleated, synchronized mouse L cells by vaccinia virus. J Virol 57: 433–437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Pogo BG (1977) Elimination of naturally occurring crosslinks in vaccinia virus DNA after viral penetration into cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74: 1739–1742PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Pogo BGT, Dales S (1969) Two deoxyribonuclease activities within purified vaccinia virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 63: 820–827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Pogo BGT, O’Shea MT (1977) Further charcterization of deoxyribonucleases from vaccinia virus. Virology 77: 56–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Pogo BGT, Katz JR, Dales S (1975) Biogenesis of poxviruses: synthesis and phosphorylation of a basic protein associated with the DNA. Virology 64: 531–543PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Pogo BGT, O’Shea M, Freimuth P (1981) Initiation and termination of vaccinia virus DNA replication. Virology 108: 241–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Pogo BGT, Berkowitz EM, Dales S (1984) Investigation of vaccinia virus DNA replication employing a conditional lethal mutant defective in DNA. Virology 132: 436–444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Polisky B, Kates J (1972) Vaccinia virus intracellular DNA-protein complex: biochemical characteristics of associated protein. Virology 49: 168–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Polisky B, Kates J (1975) Viral-specific polypeptides associated with newly replicated vaccinia DNA. Virology 66: 128–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Polisky B, Kates J (1976) Interaction of vaccinia DNA-binding proteins with DNA in vitro. Virology 69: 143–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Reddy MK, Bauer WR (1989) Activation of the vaccinia virus nicking-joining enzyme by trypsinization. J Biol Chem 264: 443–449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Rempel RE, Anderson MK, Traktman P (1990) Temperature-sensitive vaccinia virus mutants identify a gene with an essential role in viral replication. J Virol 64: 574–583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Rosel J, Earl PL, Weir J, Moss B (1986) Conserved TAAATG sequence at the transcriptional and translational initiation sites of vaccinia virus late genes deduced by structural and functional analysis of the HindIII H genome fragment. J Virol 60: 436–449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Roseman NA, Hruby DE (1987) Nucleotide sequence and transcript organization of a region of the vaccinia virus genome which encodes a constitutively expressed gene required for DNA replication. J Virol 61: 1398–1406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Rosemond-Hornbeak H, Moss B (1973) Phosphoprotein components of vaccinia virus. J Virol 11: 961–970Google Scholar
  84. Rosemond-Hornbeak H, Moss B (1974) Single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid-specific nuclease from vaccinia virus. Endonucleolytic and exonucleolytic activities. J Biol Chem 249: 3292–3296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Rosemond-Hornbeak H, Paoletti E, Moss B (1974) Single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid-specific nuclease from vaccinia virus. Purification and characterization. J Biol Chem 249: 3287–4391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Salzman NP, Shatkin AJ, Sebring ED (1963) Viral protein and DNA synthesis in vaccinia virus-infected HeLa cell cultures. Virology 19: 542–550PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Sambrook J, Shatkin AJ (1969) Polynucleotide ligase activity in cells infected with simian virus 40, polyoma virus or vaccinia virus. J Virol 4: 719–726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Sarov I, Joklik WK (1973) Isolation and characterization of intermediates in vaccinia virus morphogenesis. Virology 52: 223–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Shaffer RS, Traktman P (1987) Vaccinia encapsidates a novel topoisomerase with the properties of a eucaryotic type I enzyme. J Biol Chem 262: 9309–9315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Shuman S, Moss B (1987) Identification of a vaccinia virus gene encoding a type I DNA topoisomerase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84: 7478–7482PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Shuman S, Golder M, Moss B (1988) Characterization of vaccinia virus DNA topoisomerase I expressed in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem 263: 16401–16407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Shuman S, Golder M, Moss B (1989) Insertional mutagenesis of the vaccinia virus gene encoding a type I topoisomerase: evidence that the gene is essential for virus growth. Virology 170: 302–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Slabaugh MB, Mathews CK (1984) Vaccinia virus-induced ribonucleotide reductase can be distinguished from host cell activity. J Virol 52: 501–506PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Slabaugh MB, Mathews CK (1986) Hydroxyurea-resistant vaccinia virus: overproduction of ribonucleotide reductase. J Virol 60: 506–514PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Slabaugh MB, Johnson TL, Mathews CK (1984) Vaccinia virus induces ribonucleotide reductase in primate cells. J Virol 52: 507–514PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Slabaugh MB, Roseman N, Mathews C (1988) Vaccinia-virus encoded ribonucleotide reductase: sequence conservation of the gene for the small subunit and its amplification in hydroxyurea resistant mutants. J Virol 62: 519–527PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Smith GL, Chan YS, Kerr SM (1989a) Transcriptional mapping and nucleotide sequence of a vaccinia virus gene encoding a polypeptide with extensive homology to DNA ligases. Nucleic Acids Res 17: 9051–9062PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Smith GL, de Carlos A, Chan YS (1989b) Vaccinia virus encodes a thymidylate kinase gene: sequence and transcriptional mapping. Nucleic Acids Res 17: 7581–7590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Spadari S (1976) Properties of DNA ligase from uninfected and virus-infected HeLa cells. Nucleic Acids Res 3: 2155–2167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Spyropoulos DD, Roberts BE, Panicali DL, Cohen LK (1988) Delineation of the viral products of recombination in vaccinia virus-infected cells. J Virol 62: 1046–1054PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Sridhar P, Condit RC (1983) Selection for ts mutations in specific vaccinia virus genes: isolation of a phosphonoacetic acid-resistant, temperature sensitive virus mutant. J Virol 128: 444–457Google Scholar
  102. Tengelsen LA, Slabaugh MB, Bibler JK, Hruby DE (1988) Nucleotide sequence and molecular genetic analysis of the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase encoded by vaccinia virus. Virology 164: 121–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Thompson CL, Condit RC (1986) Marker rescue mapping of vaccinia virus temperature sensitive mutants using overlapping cosmid clones representing the entire virus genome. Virology 150: 10–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Traktman P, Sridhar P, Condit RC, Roberts BE (1984) Transcriptional mapping of the DNA polymerase gene of vaccinia virus. J Virol 49: 125–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Traktman P, Anderson MK, Rempel RE (1989a) Vaccinia virus encodes an essential gene with strong homology to protein kinases. J Biol Chem 264: 21458–21461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Traktman P, Kelvin M, Pacheco S (1989b) Molecular genetic analysis of vaccinia virus DNA polymerase mutants. J Virol 63: 841–846PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Upton C, McFadden G (1986) Identification and nucleotide sequence of the thymidine kinase gene of Shope fibroma virus. J Virol 60: 920–927PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Weir J, Moss B (1983) Nucleotide sequence of the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase gene and the nature of spontaneous frameshift mutations. J Virol 46: 530–537PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Weir JP, Bajszar G, Moss B (1982) Mapping of the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase gene by marker rescue and by cell free translation of selected mRNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79: 1210–1214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Wittek R, Moss B (1980) Tandem repeats within the inverted terminal repetition of vaccinia virus DNA. Cell 21: 277–284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Wittek R, Hanggi M, Hiller G (1984) Mapping of a gene coding for a major late structural polypeptide on the vaccinia virus genome. J Virol 49: 371–378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Wong SW, Wahl AF, Yuan PM, Arai N, Pearson BE, Arai K-I, Korn D, Hunkapiller MW, Wang TS-F (1988) Human DNA polymerase alpha gene expression is cell proliferation dependent and its primary structure is similar to both prokaryotic and eukaryotic replicative DNA polymerases. EMBOJ 7: 37–47Google Scholar
  113. Yang W-P, Bauer WR (1988a) Purification and characterization of vaccinia virus structural protein VP8. Virology 167: 578–584PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Yang W-P, Bauer WR (1988b) Biosynthesis and post-translational cleavage of vaccinia virus structural protein VP8. Virology 167: 585–590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Yuen L, Moss B (1987) Oligonucleotide sequence signaling transcriptional termination of vaccinia virus early genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84: 6417–6421PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Traktman
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Cell Biology and Anatomy and MicrobiologyCornell University Medical CollegeNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations