Advertisement

Orthopoxvirus Genetics

  • R. C. Condit
  • E. G. Niles
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 163)

Abstract

The classical approach to virus genetics is limited primarily to the isolation and characterization of conditionally lethal, deletion, and drug resistant or dependent virus mutants. The ultimate goal of a genetic analysis of a virus is to provide a genetic definition of the physical map location of each gene and the biological function of each gene product. This chapter deals with the “classical” approach to genetic analysis of orthopoxviruses.

Keywords

Vaccinia Virus Recombination Frequency Ribonucleotide Reductase Complementation Group Nonpermissive Temperature 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Archard LC, Mackett M, Barnes DE, Dumbell KR (1984) The genome structure of cowpox virus white pock variants. J Gen Virol 65: 875–886PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bajszar G, Wittek R, Weir JP, Moss B (1983) Vaccinia virus thymidine kinase and neighboring genes: mRNAs and polypeptides of wild-type virus and putative nonsense mutants. J Virol 45: 62–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Baldick JCJ, Moss B (1987) Resistance of vaccinia virus to rifampicin conferred by a single nucleotide substitution near the predicted NH2 terminus of a gene encoding an Mr 62,000 polypeptide. Virology 156: 138–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ball LA (1977) High-frequency homologous recombination in vaccinia virus DNA. J Virol 61: 1788–1795Google Scholar
  5. Barany F (1985) Two-codon insertion mutagenesis of plasmid genes by using single-stranded hexameric oligonucleotides. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82: 4202–4206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Basilico C, Joklik W (1968) Studies on a temperature-sensitive mutant of vaccinia virus strain WR. Virology 36: 668–677PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bauer DJ (1955) The antiviral and synergic actions of isatin thiosemicarbazones and certain phenoxypyrimidines in vaccinia infection in mice. Br J Exp Pathol 36: 105–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Belle Isle H, Venkatesan S, Moss B (1981) Cell-free translation of early and late mRNAs selected by hybridization to cloned DNA fragments derived from the left 14 million to 72 million daltons of the vaccinia virus. Virology 112: 306–317Google Scholar
  9. Bernstein HD, Baltimore D (1988) Poliovirus mutant that contains a cold-sensitive defect in viral RNA synthesis. J Virol 62: 2922–2928Google Scholar
  10. Broyles SS, Moss B (1987) Identification of the vaccinia virus gene encoding nucleoside triphosphohydrolase I, a DNA-dependent ATPase. J Virol 61: 1738–1742PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Buller RML, Smith GL, Cremer K, Notkins AL, Moss B (1985) Decreased virulence of recombinant vaccinia virus expression vectors is associated with a thymidine kinase-negative phenotype. Nature 317: 813–815PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Carmichael EP, Kosovsky MJ, Weller SK (1988) Isolation and characterization of herpes simples virus type 1 host range mutants defective in viral DNA synthesis. J Virol 62: 91–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Chakrabarti S, Brechling K, Moss B (1985) Vaccinia virus expression vector: coexpression of ß-galactosidase provides visual screening of recombinant virus plaques. Mol Cell Biol 5: 3403–3409PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Challberg MD, Englund PT (1979) Purification and properties of the deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase induced by vaccinia virus. J Biol Chem 254: 7812–7819PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Chernos VI, Belanov EF, Vasilieva NN (1978) Temperature sensitive mutants of vaccinia virus I: isolation and preliminary characterization. Acta Virol 22: 81–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Chernos VI, Chelyapov NV, Antonova TP, Vasiljeva NN, Mitina IV (1983) Biochemical and genetic characterization of vaccinia virus temperature-sensitive mutants with DNA- and DNAf-phenotypes. Arch Virol 77: 209–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Chernos VI, Antonova TP, Senkevich TG (1985) Recombinants between vaccinia and ectromelia viruses bearing the specific pathogenecity markers of both parents. J Gen Virol 66: 621–626PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cohrs RJ, Condit RC, Pacha RF, Thompson CL, Sharma OK (1989) Modulation of 2–5A dependent RNAse by a temperature sensitive mutant of vaccinia virus. J Virol 63: 948–951PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Comer MM (1977) Correlation between genetic and nucleotide distances in the bacteriophage T4 transfer RNA gene. J Mol Biol 113: 267–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Condit RC, Motyczka A (1981) Isolation and preliminary characterization of temperature-sensitive mutants of vaccinia virus. Virology 113: 224–241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Condit RC, Motyczka A, Spizz G (1983) Isolation, characterization, and physical mapping of temperature-sensitive mutants of vaccinia virus. Virology 128: 429–443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cooper J, Moss B, Katz E (1979) Inhibition of vaccinia virus protein synthesis by isatin-B-thiosemicarbazone: characterization and in vitro translation of viral mRNA. Virology 96: 381–392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cozzarelli NR (1977) The mechanism of action of inhibitors of DNA synthesis. Annu Rev Biochem 46: 641–668PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Dales S, Milovanivitch V, Pogo B, Weintraub S, Huima T, Wilton S, McFadden G (1978) Biogenesis of vaccinia: isolation of conditional lethal mutants and electron microscopic characterization of their phenotypically expressed defects. Virology 84: 403–428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. DeFilippes FM (1982) Restriction enzyme mapping of vaccinia virus DNA. J Virol 43: 136–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. DeFilippes FM (1984) Effect of aphidicolin on vaccinia virus: isolation of an aphidicolin-resistant mutant. J Virol 52: 474–482PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. DeLange AM (1989) Identification of temperature-sensitive mutants of vaccinia virus that are defective in conversion of concatemeric replicative intermediates to the mature linear DNA genome. J Virol 63: 2437–2444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Downie AM, Dunbell KR (1956) Poxviruses. Ann Rev Microbiol 10: 237–253Google Scholar
  29. Drillien R, Spehner D (1983) Physical mapping of vaccinia virus temperature-sensitive mutations. Virology 131:385–393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Drillien R, Koehren F, Kirn A (1981) Host range deletion mutant of vaccinia virus defective in human cells. Virology 111: 488–499PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Drillien R, Spehner D, Kirn A (1982) Complementation and genetic linkage between vaccinia virus temperature-sensitive mutants. Virology 119: 372–381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Dubbs DR, Kit S (1984) Isolation and properties of vaccinia mutants deficient in thymidine kinase-inducing activity. Virology 22: 214–225Google Scholar
  33. Dumbell KR, Archard LC (1980) Comparison of white pock (h) mutants of monkeypox virus with parental monkeypox and variola-like viruses isolated from animals. Nature 286: 29–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Earl P, Moss B (1987) Vaccinia virus. In: O’Brien 55 (ed) Genetic maps. Cold Spring Harbor, New York, pp 116–123Google Scholar
  35. Earl PL, Jones EV, Moss B (1986) Homology between DNA polymerases of poxviruses, and adenoviruses: nucleotide sequence of the vaccinia virus DNA polymerase gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 3659–3663PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Easterbrook KB, Davern CI (1963) The effect of 5-bromodeoxyuridine on the multiplication of vaccinia virus. Virology 19: 509–520Google Scholar
  37. Ensinger MJ (1982) Isolation and genetic characterization of temperature-sensitive mutants of vaccinia virus WR. J Virol 43: 778–790PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Ensinger MJ (1987) Phenotypic characterization of temperature-sensitive mutants of vaccinia virus with mutations in a 135,000-Mr subunit of the virion-associated DNA-dependent RNA polymerase. J Virol 61: 1842–1850PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Ensinger MJ, Rovinsky M (1983) Marker rescue of temperature-sensitive mutations of vaccinia WR: correlation of genetic and physical maps. J Virol 48: 419–428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Ensinger MJ, Weir JP, Moss B (1985) Fine structure marker rescue of temperature-sensitive mutations of vaccinia virus within a central conserved region of the genome. J Virol 56: 1027–1029PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Esposito JJ, Knight JC (1985) Orthopoxvirus DNA: A comparison of restriction profiles and maps. Virology 143:230–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Esposito JJ, Cabradilla CC, Nakano JH, Obijeski JF (1981) Intragenomic sequence transposition in monkeypox virus. Virology 109: 231–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Essani K, Dales S (1983) Biogenesis of vaccinia: Analysis by three factor crosses reveals mutual influence on stability of drug resistance and temperature sensitivity when both markers occur in some recombinant virus isolates. Intervirology 20: 101–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Essani K, Dugre R, Dales S (1982) Biogenesis of vaccinia: Involvement of spicules of the envelope during virion assembly examined by means of conditional lethal mutants and serology. Virology 118: 279–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Evans E, Traktman P (1987) Molecular genetic analysis of a vaccinia virus gene with an essential role in DNA replication. J Virol 61: 3152–3162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Evans DH, Stuart D, McFadden G (1988) High levels of genetic recombination among cotransfected plasmid DNAs in poxvirus-infected mammalian cells. J Virol 62: 367–375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Falkner FG, Moss B (1988) Escherichia coli gpt gene provides dominant selection for vaccinia-virus open reading frame expression vectors. J Virol 62: 1849–1854PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Fathi Z, Sridhar P, Pacha RF, Condit RC (1986) Efficient targeted insertion of an unselected marker into the vaccinia virus genome. Virology 155: 97–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Fenner F (1958) The biological characters of several strains of vaccinia, cowpox and rabbitpox viruses. Virology 5: 502–529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Fenner F, Comben BM (1958) Genetic studies with mammalian poxviruses: 1. Demonstration of recombination between two strains of vaccinia virus. Virology 5: 530–548PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Fenner F, Sambrook J (1966) Conditional lethal mutants of rabbitpox virus II. Mutants (p) that fail to multiply in PK-2a cells. Virology 28: 600–609PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Fields BN, Joklik WK (1969) Isolation and preliminary genetic and biochemical characterization of temperature-sensitive mutants of reovirus. Virology 37: 335–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Follet EAC, Pennington TH (1973) The mode of action of rifamycins and related compounds on poxvirus. Adv Virus Res 18:105–142Google Scholar
  54. Franke CA, Rice CM, Strauss JH, Hruby DE (1985) Neomycin resistance as a dominant selectable marker for selection and isolation of vaccinia virus recombinants. Mol Cell Biol 5: 1918–1924PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Gemmell A, Cairns J (1959) Linkage in the genome of an animal virus. Virology 8: 381–383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Goldstein DJ, Weller SK (1988) An ICP6::lacZ insertional mutagen used to demonstrate that the UL52 gene of herpes simplex virus type 1 is required for virus growth and DNA synthesis. J Virol 62: 2970–2977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Gussin GN, Rosen ED, Wulff DL (1980) Mapability of very close markers of bacteriophage lambda. Genetics 86: 1–24Google Scholar
  58. Hooda-Dhingra U, Thompson CL, Condit RC (1989) Detailed phenotypic characterization of five temperature sensitive mutants in the 22 kilodalton and the 147 kilodalton subunits of the vaccinia virus DNA-dependent RNA polymerase. J Virol 63: 714–729PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Hruby DE, Ball LA (1982) Mapping and identification of the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase gene. J Virol 43: 403–409PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Hruby DE, Maki RA, Miller DB, Ball LA (1983) Fine structure analysis and nucleotide sequence of the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80: 3411–3415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Jones EV, Moss B (1984) Mapping of the vaccinia virus DNA polymerase gene by marker rescue and cell-free translation of selected RNA. J Virol 49: 72–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Katz E, Margalith E, Winer B, Lazar A (1973) Characterization and mixed infection of three strains of vaccinia virus: wildtype, IBT-resistant and IBT-dependent mutants. J Gen Virol 21: 469–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Kieny MP, Lathe R, Drillien R, Spehner D, Skory S, Schmitt D, Wiktor T, Koprowski H, Lecocq JP (1984) Expression of rabies virus glycoprotein from a recominant vaccinia virus. Nature 312: 163–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Lake JR, Cooper PD (1980) Deletions of the terminal sequences in the genomes of white pock (u) and host-restricted (p) mutants of rabbitpox virus. J Gen Virol 48: 135–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Lake JR, Silver M, Dales S (1979) Biogenesis of vaccinia: complementation and recombination analysis of one group of conditional-lethal mutants defective in envelope self-assembly. Virology 96: 9–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Lee-Chen GJ, Niles EG (1988a) Transcription and translation map of the thirteen genes in the vaccinia virus HindIII D fragment. Virology 163: 52–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Lee-Chen GJ, Niles EG (1988b) Map positions of the 5′ ends of eight mRNAs synthesized from the late genes in the vaccinia virus HindIII D fragment. Virology 163: 80–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Lee-Chen GJ, Bourgeois N, Davidson K, Condit RC, Niles EG (1988) Structure of the transcription initiation and termination sequences of seven early genes in the vaccinia virus HindIII D fragment. Virology 163:64–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Mackett M, Archard LC (1979) Conservation and variation in orthopoxvirus genome structure. J Gen Virol 45: 683–701PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Mackett M, Smith GL (1986) Vaccinia virus expression vectors. J Gen Virol 67: 2067–2082PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Mackett M, Smith GL, Moss B (1982) Vaccinia virus: a selectable eukaryotic cloning and expression vector. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79: 7415–7419PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. McFadden G, Dales S (1980) Biogenesis of vaccinia: preliminary characterization of conditional lethal mutants of vaccinia virus defective in DNA synthesis. Virology 103: 68–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. McFadden G, Essani K, Dales S (1980) A new endonuclease restriction site which is at the locus of a temperature-sensitive mutation in vaccinia virus is associated with true and pseudoreversion. Virology 101:277–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Merchlinsky M, Moss B (1989) Resolution of vaccinia virus DNA concatemer junctions requires late gene expression. J Virol 63: 1595–1603PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Miner JN, Hruby DE (1989) Rifamipicin prevents virosome localization of L65, an essential vaccinia virus polypeptide. Virology 170: 227–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Morgan JR, Cohen LK, Roberts BE (1984) Identification of the DNA sequences encoding the large subunit of the mRNA-capping enzyme of vaccinia virus. J Virol 52: 206–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Moss B (1985) “Replication of poxviruses. In: Fields BN, Karpi DM, Chanock RM, Melnick JL, Roizman B, Shope RE (eds) Virology. Raven, New York, pp 685–704Google Scholar
  78. Moss B, Cooper N (1982) Genetic evidence for vaccinia virus-encoded DNA polymerase: isolation of a phosphonoacetate-resistant enzyme from the cytoplasm of infected cells. J Virol 43: 673–678PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Moss B, Flexner C (1987) Vaccinia virus expression vectors. Ann Rev Immunol 51: 305–324Google Scholar
  80. Moss B, Winters E, Cooper JA (1981) Deletion of a 9,000-base-pair segment of the vaccinia virus genome that encodes nonessential polypeptides. J Virol 40: 387–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Moyer RW (1987) The role of the host cell nucleus in vaccinia virus morphogenesis. Virus Res 8: 173–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Moyer RW, Graves RL (1981) Mechanism of cytoplasmic orthopoxvirus DNA replication. Cell 27: 391–401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Moyer RW, Rothe CT (1980) The white pock mutants of rabbit poxvirus I Spontaneous host range mutants contain deletions. Virology 102: 119–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Moyer RW, Graves RL, Rothe CT (1982) The white pock (u) mutants of rabbit poxvirus. III Terminal DNA sequence duplication and transposition in rabbit poxvirus. Cell 22: 545–553Google Scholar
  85. Nakano E, Panicali D, Paoletti E (1982) Molecular genetics of vaccinia virus: demonstration of maker rescue. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79: 1593–1596PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Niles EG, Seto J (1988) Vaccinia virus gene D8 encoded a trans-membrane protein which is not essential for virus replication in culture. J Virol 62: 3772–3778PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Niles EG, Condit RC, Caro P, Davidson K, Matusick L, Seto J (1986) Nucleotide sequence and genetic map of the 16-kb vaccinia virus HindIII D fragment. Virology 153: 96–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Pacha R (1986) Biochemical and genetic characterization of a temperature-sensitive mutant of vaccinia virus with an abortive late phenotype. PhD thesisGoogle Scholar
  89. Pacha RF, Condit RC (1985) Characterization of a temperature-sensitive mutant of vaccinia virus reveals a novel function that prevents virus-induced breakdown of RNA. J Virol 56: 395–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Padgett BL, Tomkins JKV (1968) Conditional lethal mutants of rabbitpox virus III. Temperature sensitive (ts) mutants: physiological properties, complementation, and recombination. Virology 36: 161–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Panicali D, Paoletti E (1982) Construction of poxviruses as cloning vectors: Insertion of the thymidine kinase gene from herpes simplex virus into the DNA of infectious vaccinia virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79: 4927–4931PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Parker RF, Bronson LH, Green RH (1941) Further studies of the infectious unit of vaccinia. J Exp Med 74: 263–281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Pennington TH (1976) Effect of 5-bromodeoxyuridine on vaccinia virus-induced polypeptide synthesis: selective inhibition of the synthesis of some post-replicative polypeptides. J Virol 18: 1131–1133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Pennington TH (1977) Isatin-β-thiosemicarbazone causes premature cessation of vaccinia virus-induced late post-replicative polypeptide synthesis. J Gen Virol 35: 567–571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Pickup DJ, Ink BS, Parsons BL, Hu W, Joklik WK (1984) Spontaneous deletions and duplications of sequences in the genome of cowpox virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81: 6817–6821PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Pugh CSG, Borchardt RT, Stone HO (1978) Sinefungin, a potent inhibitor of virion mRNA(guanine-7-)-methyltransferase, mRNA(nucleoside-2′-)-methyltransferase and viral multiplication. J Biol Chem 253: 4075–4077PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Raczynski P, Condit RC (1983) Specific inhibition of vaccinia virus growth by 2′-O-methyladenosine: isolation of a drug-resistant virus mutant. Virology 128: 458–462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Ravin VK, Artemiev MI (1974) Fine structure of the lysozyme gene of bacteriophage T4B. Mol Gen Genetics 128: 359–365Google Scholar
  99. Reichard P, Ehrenberg A (1983) Ribonucleotide reductase—a radical enzyme. Science 221: 514–519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Rodriguez JF, Kahn JS, Esteban M (1986) Molecular cloning, encoding sequence, and expression of vaccinia virus nucleic acid-dependent nucleoside triphosphatase gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 9566–9570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Roseman NA, Hruby DE (1987) Nucleotide sequence and transcript organization of a region of the vaccinia virus genome which encodes a constitutively expressed gene required for DNA replication. J Virol 61: 1398–1406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Sambrook JF, Padgett BL, Tomkins JKN (1966) Conditional lethal mutants of rabbitpox virus I Isolation of host cell-dependent and temperature-dependent mutants. Virology 28: 592–599PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Schmitt JFC, Stunnenberg HG (1988) Sequence and transcriptional analysis of the vaccinia virus HindIII I fragment. J Virol 62: 1889–1897PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Schumperli D, McFadden G, Wyler R, Dales S (1990) Location of a new endonuclease restriction site associated with a temperature-sensitive mutation of vaccinia virus. Virology 101: 281–285Google Scholar
  105. Sedivy JM, Capone JP, RajBhandary UL, Sharp PA (1987) An inducible mammalian amber suppressor: propagation of a poliovirus mutant. Cell 50: 825–833Google Scholar
  106. Seto J, Celenza LM, Condit RC, Niles EG (1987) Genetic map of the vaccinia virus HindIII D fragment. Virology 160: 110–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Shortle D, Novick P, Botstein D (1984) Construction and genetic characterization of temperature-sensitive mutant alleles of the yeast actin gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81: 4889–4893PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Silver M, Dales S (1982) Biogenesis of vaccinia: interrelationship between post-translational cleavage, virus assembly, and muturation. Virology 117: 341–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Slabaugh MB, Mathews CK (1984) Vaccinia virus-induced ribonucleotide reductase can be distinguished from host cell activity. J Virol 52: 501–506PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Slabaugh MB, Johnson TL, Matthews CK (1984) Vaccinia virus induces ribonucleotide reductase in primate cells. J Virol 52: 507–514PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Slabaugh M, Roseman RD, Christopher M (1988) Vaccinia virus-encoded ribonucleotide reductase: sequence conservation of the gene for the small subunit and its amplification in hydroxyurea-resistant mutants. J Virol 62: 519–527PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Smith M (1985) In vitro mutagenesis. Ann Rev Genet 19: 423–462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Spyropoulos DD, Roberts BE, Panicali D, Cohen LK (1988) Delineation of the viral products of recombination in vaccinia virus-infected cells. J Virol 62: 1046–1054PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Sridhar P, Condit RC (1983) Selection for temperature-sensitive mutations in specific vaccinia virus genes: isolation and characterization of a virus mutant which encodes a phosphonoacetic acid-resistant, temperature-sensitive DNA polymerase. Virology 128: 444–457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Stern W, Pogo BGT, Dales S (1977) Biogenesis of poxviruses: analysis of the morphogenetic sequence using a conditional lethal mutant defective in envelope self assembly. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74: 2162–2166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Tamin A, Villarreal EC, Weinrich SL, Hruby DE (1988) Nucleotide sequence and molecular genetic analysis of the vaccinia virus N/M region encoding the genes responsible for resistance to α-amanitin. Virology 165: 141–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Tartaglia J, Paoletti E (1985) Physical mapping and DNA sequence analysis of the rifampicin resistance locus in vaccinia virus. Virology 147: 394–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Tartaglia J, Piccini A, Paoletti E (1986) Vaccinia virus rifampicin-resistance locus specifies a late 63,000 Da gene product. Virology 150: 45–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Tengelsen LA, Slabaugh MB, Bibler JK, Hruby DE (1988) Nucleotide sequence and molecular genetic analysis of the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase encoded by vaccinia virus. Virology 164: 121–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Thompson CL, Condit RC (1986) Marker rescue mapping of vaccinia virus temperature-sensitive mutants using overlapping cosmid clones representing the entire virus genome. Virology 150: 10–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Thompson CL, Hooda-Dhingra U, Condit RC (1989) Fine structure mapping of five temperature sensitive mutations in the 22 kilodalton and the 147 kilodalton subunits of the vaccinia virus DNA-dependent RNA polymerase. J Virol 63: 705–713PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Traktman P, Kelvin M, Pacheco S (1989) Molecular genetic analysis of vaccinia virus DNA polymerase mutants. J Virol 63: 841–846PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Traktman P, Sridhar P, Condit RC, Roberts BE (1984) Transcriptional mapping of the DNA polymerase gene of vaccinia virus. J Virol 49: 125–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Tullis GE, Labieniec-Pintel L, Clemens KE, Pintel D (1988) Generation and chararcterization of a temperature-sensitive mutation in the NS-1 gene of the autonomous parvovirus minute virus of mice. J Virol 62: 2736–2744PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Villarreal EC, Hruby DE (1986) Mapping and genomic location of the gene encoding α-amanitin resistance in vaccinia virus mutants. J Virol 57: 65–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Villarreal EC, Roseman NA, Hurby DE (1984) Isolation of vaccinia virus mutants capable of replicating independently of the host cell nucleus. J Virol 51: 359–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Weinrich SL, Hruby DE (1986) A tandemly-oriented late gene cluster within the vaccinia virus genome. Nucleic Acids Res 14: 3003–3016PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Weinrich SL, Niles EG, Hruby DE (1985) Transcriptional and translational analysis of the vaccinia virus late gene L65. J Virol 55: 450–457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Weir JP, Moss B (1983) Nucleotide sequence of the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase gene and the nature of spontaneous frameshift mutations. J Virol 46: 530–537PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Weir JP, Bajszar G, Moss B (1982) Mapping of the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase gene by marker rescue and by cell-free translation of selected mRNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79: 1210–1214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Woodson B, Joklik WK (1965) The inhibition of vaccinia virus multiplication by isatin-β-thiosemicarbazone. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 54: 946–953PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. C. Condit
  • E. G. Niles
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiochemistrySUNY/BuffaloBuffaloUSA

Personalised recommendations