Poliovirus RNA Replication

  • O. C. Richards
  • E. Ehrenfeld
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 161)

Abstract

The biosynthesis of RNA directed by an RNA template is a reaction that is unique to RNA viruses. Although studies of polio virus RNA synthesis have been conducted in a somewhat intermittent fashion during the past 25 years in several different laboratories, no clear picture has yet emerged regarding the biochemistry of RNA replication for this or any other RNA virus. Upon entry into the cell, the positive strand, infecting RNA genome directs the synthesis of viral proteins which are required for replication of the RNA. The replication process involves first the synthesis of a negative strand RNA molecule; subsequent transcription of this negative strand produces new copies of the positive strand RNA. Historically, the experimental approach initially utilized to analyze the poliovirus RNA replication reaction was enzymological; efforts were made to isolate and purify an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity from virus-infected cells. Indeed, at that time, the only tools available for RNA replication studies were biochemical. The biochemistry, however, proved difficult. RNA replication was found to occur in intracellular structures that are tightly associated with or in membranes, and these proved intractable to purification and dissection. Disruption of the membrane structure in order to isolate template or enzyme components often appeared to alter their properties and/or structures. Thus, the initial approach yielded little information about the mechanism of RNA replication, and it has been only quite recently that alternative approaches have been applied.

Keywords

Tyrosine Recombination Sedimentation Tryptophan Methionine 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Agut H, Kean KM, Fichot O, Morasco J, Flanegan JB, Girard M (1989) A point mutation in the poliovirus polymerase gene determines a complementable temperature-sensitive defect of RNA replication. Virology 168: 302–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander HE, Koch G, Mountain IM, Van Damme O (1958) Infectivity of ribonucleic acid from poliovirus in human cell monolayers. J Exp Med 108: 493–506PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ambros V, Baltimore D (1978) Protein is linked to the 5’ end of poliovirus RNA by phosphodiester linkage to tyrosine. J Biol Chem 253: 5263–5266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson-Sillman K, Bartal S, Tershak DR (1984) Guanidine-resistant poliovirus mutants produce modified 37-kilodalton proteins. J Virol 50: 922–928PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Andrews NC, Baltimore D (1986) Purification of a terminal uridylyl transferase that acts as host factor in the in vitro poliovirus replicase reaction. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 221–225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Andrews NC, Levin D, Baltimore D (1985) Poliovirus replicase stimulation by terminal uridylyl transferase. J Biol Chem 260: 7628–7635PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Baltimore D (1964) In vitro synthesis of viral RNA by the poliovirus RNA polymerase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 51: 450–456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Baltimore D (1966) Purification and properties of poliovirus double-stranded ribonucleic acid. J Mol Biol 18: 421–428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Baltimore D (1968) Inhibition of poliovirus replication by guanidine. In: Sanders M, Lennette EH (eds) Medical and applied virology.Green, St Louis, pp 340–347Google Scholar
  10. Baltimore D, Girard M (1966) An intermediate in the synthesis of poliovirus RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 56: 741–748PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Baltimore D, Franklin RM, Eggers HJ, Tamm I (1963) Poliovirus induced RNA polymerase and the effects of virus-specific inhibitors on its production. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 49: 843–849PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Baltimore D, Girard M, Darnell JE (1966) Aspects of the synthesis of poliovirus RNA and the formation of virus particles. Virology 29: 179–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Baron MH, Baltimore D (1982a) Antibodies against the chemically synthesized genome-linked protein of poliovirus react with native virus-specific proteins. Cell 28: 395–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Baron MH, Baltimore D (1982b) Anti-VPg antibody inhibition of the poliovirus replication reaction and production of covalent complexes of VPg-related proteins and RNA. Cell 30: 745–752PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Baron MH, Baltimore D (1982c) Purification and properties of a host cell protein required for poliovirus replication in vitro. J Biol Chem 257: 12351–12358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Baron M H, Baltimore D (1982d) In vitro copying of viral positive strand RNA by poliovirus replicase. Characterization of the reaction and its products. J Biol Chem 257: 12359–12366Google Scholar
  17. Bellocq C, Agut H, Van Der Werf S, Girard M (1984) Biochemical characterization of poliovirus type 1 temperature-sensitive mutants. Virology 139: 403–407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bernstein HD, Baltimore D (1988) Poliovirus mutant that contains a cold-sensitive defect in viral RNA synthesis. J Virol 62: 2922–2928Google Scholar
  19. Bernstein HD, Sarnow P, Baltimore D (1986) Genetic complementation among poliovirus mutants derived from an infectious cDNA clone. J Virol 60: 1040–1049PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bienz K, Egger D, Rasser Y, Bossart W (1983) Intracellular distribution of poliovirus proteins and the induction of virus-specific cytoplasmic structures. Virology 131: 39–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bienz K, Egger D, Pasamontes L (1987) Association of polio viral proteins of the P2 genomic region with the viral replication complex and virus-induced membrane synthesis as visualized by electron microscopic immunochemistry and autoradiography. Virology 160: 220–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bishop JM, Koch G (1967) Purification and characterization of poliovirus induced infectious double-stranded RNA. J Biol Chem 242: 1736–1743PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bishop JM, Koch G (1969) Infectious replicative intermediate of poliovirus: purification and characterization. Virology 37: 521–534PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bishop JM, Koch G, Evans B, Merriman M (1969) Poliovirus replicative intermediate: structural basis of infectivity. J Mol Biol 46: 235–249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bowles SA, Tershak DR (1978) Proteolysis of non-capsid protein 2 of type 3 poliovirus at the restrictive temperature: breakdown of non-capsid protein 2 correlates with loss of RNA synthesis. J Virol 27: 443–448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Burns CC, Lawson MA, Semler BL, Ehrenfeld E (1989) Effects of mutations in poliovirus 3Dpol on RNA polymerase activity and on polyprotein cleavage. J Virol 63: 4866–4874PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Caliguiri LA (1974) Analysis of RNA associated with the poliovirus RNA replication complexes. Virology 58: 526–535PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Caliguiri LA, Compans RW (1973) The formation of poliovirus particles in association with the RNA replication complexes. J Gen Virol 21: 99–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Caliguiri LA, Mosser AG (1971) Proteins associated with the poliovirus RNA replication complex. Virology 46: 375–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Caliguiri LA, Tamm I (1969) Membranous structures associated with translation and transcription of poliovirus RNA. Science 166: 885–886PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Caliguiri LA, Tamm I (1970a) The role of cytoplasmic membranes in poliovirus biosynthesis. Virology 42: 100–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Caliguiri LA, Tamm I (1970b) Characterization of poliovirus-specific structures associated with cytoplasmic membranes. Virology 42: 112–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Caliguiri LA, Tamm I (1973) Guanidine and 2-(a-hydroxybenzyl) benzimidazole (HBB): selective inhibitors of picornavirus multiplication. In: Carter W (ed) Selective inhibitors of viral function. CRC, Cleveland, pp 257–294Google Scholar
  34. Cole CN, Smoler D, Wimmer E, Baltimore D (1971) Defective interfering particles of poliovirus I. Isolation and physical properties. J Virol 7: 478–485Google Scholar
  35. Cooper PD (1977) Genetics of picornaviruses. In: Fraenkel-Conrat H, Wagner RR (eds) Comprehensive virology, vol 9. Plenum, New York, pp 133–207Google Scholar
  36. Crawford NM, Baltimore D (1983) Genome-linked protein VPg of polio virus is present as free VPg and VPgpUpU in poliovirus-infected cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80: 7452–7455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Crocker TT, Pfendt E, Spendlove R (1964) Poliovirus: growth in non-nucleate cytoplasm. Science 145: 401–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Darnell JE, Levintow L, Thoren MM, Hooper JL (1961) The time course of synthesis of poliovirus RNA. Virology 13: 271–279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Darnell JE, Girard M, Baltimore D, Summers DF, Maizel JV (1967) The synthesis and translation of poliovirus RNA. In: Colter JS, Paranchych W (eds) The molecular biology of viruses. Academic, New York, pp 375–401Google Scholar
  40. Dasgupta A (1983a) Purification of host factor required for in vitro transcription of poliovirus RNA. Virology 127: 245–251Google Scholar
  41. Dasgupta A (1983b) Antibody to host factor precipitates poliovirus RNA polymerase from poliovirus-infected HeLa cells. Virology 128: 252–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Dasgupta A, Baron MH, Baltimore D (1979) Poliovirus replicase: a soluble enzyme able to initiate copying of poliovirus RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76: 2679–2683PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Dasgupta A, Zabel P, Baltimore D (1980) Dependence of the activity of the poliovirus replicase on a host cell protein. Cell 19: 423–429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Dewalt PG, Semler BL (1987) Site-directed mutagenesis of proteinase 3C results in a poliovirus deficient in synthesis of viral RNA polymerase. J Virol 61: 2162–2170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Dildine SL, Semler BL (1989) The deletion of 41 proximal nucleotides reverts a poliovirus mutant containing a temperature-sensitive region in the 5’ noncoding region of genomic RNA. J Virol 63: 847–862PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Ehrenfeld E, Richards OC (1989) Studies of poliovirus RNA polymerase expressed in E. coli: attempts to understand virus RNA replication. In: Semler BL, Ehrenfeld E (eds) Molecular aspects of Picornavirus infection and detection. Amer. Society of Microbiology, Washington DC, pp 95–105Google Scholar
  47. Ehrenfeld E, Maizel JV, Summers DF (1970) Soluble RNA polymerase complex from poliovirus-infected HeLa cells. Virology 40: 840–846PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Emini EA, Leibowitz J, Diamond DC, Bonin J, Wimmer E (1984) Recombinants of Mahoney and Sabin strain poliovirus type 1: analysis of in vitro phenotypic markers and evidence that resistance to guanidine maps in the non-structural proteins. Virology 137: 74–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Etchison D, Ehrenfeld E (1980) Viral polypeptides associated with the RNA replication complex in poliovirus-infected cells. Virology 107: 135–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Etchison D, Ehrenfeld E (1981) Comparison of replication complexes synthesizing poliovirus RNA. Virology 111: 33–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Fernandez-Munoz R, Darnell JE (1976) Structural difference between the 5’ termini of viral and cellular mRNA in the poliovirus-infected cells: possible basis for the inhibition of host protein synthesis. J Virol 18: 719–726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Flanegan JB, Baltimore D (1977) Poliovirus-specific primer-dependent RNA polymerase able to copy poly(A). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74: 3677–3680PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Flanegan JB, Baltimore D (1979) Poliovirus polyuridylic acid polymerase and RNA replicase have the same viral polypeptide. J Virol 29: 352–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Flanegan JB, Van Dyke TA (1979) Isolation of a soluble and template-dependent poliovirus RNA polymerase that copies virion RNA in vitro. J Virol 32: 155–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Flanegan JB, Pettersson RF, Ambros V, Hewlett MJ, Baltimore D (1977) Covalent linkage of a protein to a defined nucleotide sequence at the 5’ terminus of virion and replicative intermediate RNAs of poliovirus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74: 961–965PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Franklin RM, Baltimore D (1962) Patterns of macromolecular synthesis in normal and virus-infected mammalian cells. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 27: 175–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Giachetti C, Semler BL (1989) In: 2nd International symposium on positive strand RNA viruses, Vienna.Google Scholar
  58. Girard M (1969) In vitro synthesis of poliovirus ribonucleic acid: role of the replicative intermediate. J Virol 3: 376–384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Girard M, Baltimore D, Darnell JE (1967) The poliovirus replication complex: site for synthesis of poliovirus RNA. J Mol Biol 24: 59–74Google Scholar
  60. Hagino-Yamagishi K, Nomoto A (1990) In vitro construction of poliovirus defective-interfering particles. J Virol 63: 5386–5392Google Scholar
  61. Hewlett MJ, Rose JK, Baltimore D (1976) 5’-Terminal structure of poliovirus polyribosomal RNA is pUp. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 73: 327–330Google Scholar
  62. Hewlett MJ, Axelrod JH, Antinoro N, Feld R (1982) Isolation and preliminary characterization of temperature-sensitive mutants of poliovirus type 1. J Virol 41: 1089–1094PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Hey TD, Richards OC, Ehrenfeld E (1986) Synthesis of plus- and minus-strand RNA from poliovirion RNA template in vitro. J Virol 58: 790–796PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Hey TD, Richards OC, Ehrenfeld E (1987) Host factor-induced template modification during synthesis of poliovirus RNA in vitro. J Virol 61: 802–811PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Holland JJ, McLaren LC, Syverton JT (1959) The mammalian cell-virus relationship. IV. Infection of naturally insusceptible cells with enterovirus ribonucleic acid. J Exp Med 110: 65–80Google Scholar
  66. Jore J, Gens BD, Jackson RD, Pouwels PH, Enger-Valk B (1988) Poliovirus protein 3CD is the active protease for processing of the precursor protein PI in vitro. J Gen Virol 69: 1627–1636PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kajigaya S, Arakawa H, Kuge S, Koi T, Imura N, Nomoto A (1985) Isolation and characterization of defective-interfering particles of poliovirus Sabin I strain. Virology 142: 307–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Kamer G, Argos P(1984) Primary structural comparison of RNA-dependent polymerases from plant, animal and bacterial viruses. Nucleic Acids Res 12: 7269–7282Google Scholar
  69. Kaplan G, Racaniello VR (1988) Construction and characterization of poliovirus subgenomic replicons. J Virol 62: 1687–1696PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Kaplan G, Lubinski J, Dasgupta A, Racaniello VR (1985) In vitro synthesis of infectious poliovirus RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82: 8424–8428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Kean KM, Agut H, Fichot O, Wimmer E, Girard M (1988) A poliovirus mutant defective for self- cleavage at the COOH-terminus of the 3C protease exhibits secondary processing defects. Virology 163: 330–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Kean KM, Agut H, Fichot O, Girard M (1989) Substitution in the poliovirus replicase genes determines actinomycin D sensitivity of viral replication at elevated temperature. Virus Res 12: 19–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Kitamura N, Semler BL, Rothberg PG, Larsen GR, Adler CJ, Dorner AJ, Emini EA, Hanecak R, Lee J J, Van Der Werf S, Anderson CW, Wimmer E (1981) Primary structure, gene organization, polypeptide expression of poliovirus RNA. Nature 291: 547–553PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Korant BD (1975) Regulation of animal virus replication by protein cleavage. In: Reich E, Rifkin BD, Shaw E (eds) Proteases and biological control. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor pp 621–635Google Scholar
  75. Kuge S, Saito L, Nomoto A (1986) Primary structure of poliovirus defective interfering particle genomes and possible generation mechanism of the particles. J Mol Biol 192: 473–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Kuhn RJ, Tada H, Ypma-Wong MF, Semler BL, Wimmer E (1988) Mutational analysis of the genome-linked protein VPg of poliovirus. J Virol 62: 4207–4215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. La Monica N, Meriam C, Racaniello VR (1986) Mapping of sequences required for mouse neuro virulence of poliovirus type 2 Lansing. J Virol 57: 515–525PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Larsen GR, Dorner AJ, Harris TJR, Wimmer E (1980) The structure of poliovirus replicative form. Nucleic Acids Res 8: 1217–1229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Lee YF, Nomoto A, Detjen BM, Wimmer E (1977) The genome-linked protein of picornaviruses 1. A protein covalently linked to poliovirus genome RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74: 59–63Google Scholar
  80. Li J-P, Baltimore D (1988) Isolation of poliovirus 2C mutants defective in viral RNA synthesis. J Virol 62: 4016–4021PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Lubinski JM, Kaplan G, Racaniello VR, Dasgupta A (1986) Mechanism of in vitro synthesis of covalently linked dimeric RNA molecules by the poliovirus replicase. J Virol 58: 459–467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Lubinski JM, Ransone LJ, Dasgupta A (1987) Primer-dependent synthesis of covalently linked dimeric RNA molecules by poliovirus replicase. J Virol 61: 2997–3003PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Lundquist RE, Maizel JV (1978a) Structural studies of the RNA component of the poliovirus replication complex I. Purification and biochemical characterization. Virology 85: 434–444Google Scholar
  84. Lundquist RE, Maizel JV (1978b) In vivo regulation of the poliovirus RNA polymerase. Virology 89: 484–493PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Lundquist RE, Ehrenfeld E, Maizel JV (1974) Isolation of a viral polypeptide associated with poliovirus RNA polymerase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 71: 4773–4777PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Lundquist RE, Sullivan M, Maizel JV (1979) Characterization of a new isolate of poliovirus defective interfering particles. Cell 18: 759–769PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. McDonnell JP, Levintow L (1970) Kinetics of appearance of the products of polio virus-induced RNA polymerase. Virology 42: 999–1006PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Meyer J, Lundquist RE, Maizel JV (1978) Structural studies of the RNA component of the poliovirus replication complex. Virology 85: 445–455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Montagnier L, Sanders FK (1963) Sedimentation properties of infective ribonucleic acid extracted from encephalomyocarditis virus. Nature 197: 664–669Google Scholar
  90. Morrow CD, Navab M, Peterson C, Hocko J, Dasgupta A (1984) Antibody to poliovirus genome- linked protein ( VPg) precipitates in vitro synthesized RNA attached to VPg-precursor polypeptide(s ). Virus Res 1: 89–100Google Scholar
  91. Morrow CD, Gibbons GF, Dasgupta A (1985) The host protein required for in vitro replication of poliovirus is a protein kinase that phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor-2. Cell 40: 913–921PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Morrow CD, Warren B, Lentz MR (1987) Expression of enzymatically active poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84: 6050–6054PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Mosser AG, Caliguiri LA, Scheid AS (1972) Chemical and enzymatic characteristics of cytoplasmic membranes of polio virus-infected HeLa cells. Virology 47: 30–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Noble J, Levintow L (1970) Dynamics of polio virus-specific RNA synthesis and the effects of inhibitors of virus replication. Virology 40: 634–642PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Nomoto A, Lee YF, Wimmer E (1976) The 5’-end of poliovirus mRNA is not capped with m7G(5’) ppp(5’)Np. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 73: 375–380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Nomoto A, Kitamura N, Golini F, Wimmer E (1977a) The 5’-terminal structures of poliovirion RNA and poliovirus mRNA differ only in the genome-linked protein VPg. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74: 5345–5349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Nomoto A, Detjen B, Pozzatti R, Wimmer E (1977b) The location of the polio genome protein in viral RNAs and its implication for RNA synthesis. Nature 268: 208–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Nomoto A, Jacobsen A, Lee YF, Dunn J, Wimmer E (1979) Defective interfering particles of poliovirus:mapping of deletion and evidence that the deletion in genome of Dl (1), (2) and (3) are located in the same region. J Mol Biol 128: 179–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Nomoto A, Omata T, Toyoda H, Kuge S, Horie H, Kataoka Y, Genba Y, Nakano Y, Imura N (1982) Complete nucleotide sequence of the attenuated poliovirus Sabin 1 strain genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79: 5793–5797PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Oberste MS, Flanegan JB (1988) Measurement of poliovirus RNA polymerase binding to poliovirion and nonviral RNAs using a filter-binding assay. Nucleic Acids Res 16: 10339–10352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Okada Y, Toda G, Oka H, Nomoto A, Yoshikura H (1987) Poliovirus infection of established human blood cell lines. Relationship between the differentiation stage and susceptibility or cell killing. Virology 156: 238–245Google Scholar
  102. Penman S, Becker Y, Darnell JE (1964) A cytoplasmic structure involved in the synthesis and assembly of poliovirus components. J Mol Biol 8: 541–555PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Pettersson RF, Ambros V, Baltimore D (1978) Identification of a protein linked to nascent poliovirus RNA and to the polyuridylic acid of negative-strand RNA. J Virol 27: 357–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Pincus SE, Diamond DC, Emini EA, Wimmer E (1986) Guanidine-selected mutants of poliovirus: mapping of point mutations of polypeptide 2C. J Virol 57: 638–646PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Plotch SJ, Palant O, Gluzman Y (1989) Purification and properties of poliovirus RNA polymerase expressed in Escherichia coli. J Virol 63: 216–225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Racaniello VR, Baltimore D (1981) Molecular cloning of poliovirus cDNA and determination of the complete nucleotide sequence of the viral genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78: 4887–4891PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Racaniello V, Meriam C (1986) Poliovirus temperature-sensitive mutant containing a single nucleotide deletion in the 5’ non-coding region of the viral RNA. Virology 155: 498–507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Ransone LJ, Dasgupta A (1989) Multiple isoelectric forms of poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase: evidence for phosphorylation. J Virol 63: 4563–4568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Richards OC, Ehrenfeld E (1980) Heterogeneity of the 3’ end of minus strand RNA in poliovirus replicative form. J Virol 36: 387–394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Richards OC, Ehrenfeld E, Manning J (1979) Strand-specific attachment of avidin spheres to double-stranded poliovirus RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76: 676–680PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Richards OC, Martin SC, Jense HG, Ehrenfeld E (1984) Structure of poliovirus replicative intermediate RNA. Electron microscope analysis of RNA cross-linked in vivo with psoralen derivative. J Mol Biol 173: 325–340Google Scholar
  112. Richards OC, Hey TD, Ehrenfeld E (1987a) Poliovirus snapback double-stranded RNA isolated from infected HeLa cells is deficient in poly(A). J Virol 61: 2307–2310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Richards OC, Ivanoff LA, Bienkowska-Szewczyk K, Butt B, Petteway SR, Rothstein MA, Ehrenfeld E (1987b) Formation of poliovirus RNA polymerase 3D in Escherichia coli by cleavage of fusion proteins expressed from cloned viral cDNA. Virology 161: 348–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Röder A, Koschel A (1975) Virus-specific proteins associated with the replication complex of poliovirus RNA. J Gen Virol 14: 846–852Google Scholar
  115. Roivainen M, Hovi T (1989) Replication of poliovirus in human mononuclear phagocyte cell lines is dependent on the stage of cell differentiation. J Med Virol 27: 91–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Rothberg PG, Harris TJR, Nomoto A, Wimmer E (1978) The genome-linked protein of picorna viruses. V.04-(5’-Uridylyl)-tyrosine is the bond between the genome-linked protein and the RNA of poliovirus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75: 4868–4872PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Rothstein MA, Richards OC, Amin C, Ehrenfeld E (1988) Enzymatic activity of poliovirus RNA polymerase synthesized in Escherichia coli from viral cDNA. Virology 164: 301–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Roy P, Bishop DHL (1970) Isolation and properties of poliovirus minus strand-ribonucleic acid. J Virol 6: 604–609PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Rueckert RR, Wimmer E (1984) Systematic nomenclature of Picornavirus proteins. J Virol 50: 957–959PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Sarnow P (1989) Role of 3’-end sequences in infectivity of poliovirus transcripts made in vitro. J Virol 63: 467–470PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Sarnow P, Bernstein HS, Baltimore D (1986) A poliovirus temperature-sensitive mutant located in a non-coding region of the genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 571–575PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Savage T, Granboulan N, Girard M (1971) Architecture of the poliovirus replicative intermediate RNA Biochimie 53: 533–543Google Scholar
  123. Scharff MD, Thoren MM, McElvain NF, Levintow L (1963) Interruption of poliovirus RNA synthesis by p-fluorophenylalanine and puromycin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 10: 127–132Google Scholar
  124. Semler BL, Anderson CW, Hanecak R, Dorner LF, Wimmer E (1982) A membrane-associated precursor to poliovirus VPg identified by immunoprecipitation with antibodies directed against a synthetic heptapeptide. Cell 28: 405–412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Semler BL, Hanecak R, Dorner LF, Anderson CW, Wimmer E (1983) Poliovirus RNA synthesis in vitro: Structural elements and antibody inhibition. Virology 126: 624–633Google Scholar
  126. Semler BL, Johnson VH, Tracy S (1986) A chimeric plasmid from cDNA clones of poliovirus and coxsackievirus produces a recombinant virus that is temperature-sensitive. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 1777–1781PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Skern T, Sommergruber W, Blaas D, Pieler C, Kuechler E (1984) Relationship of human rhino virus strain 2 and poliovirus as indicated by comparison of the polymerase gene regions. Virology 136: 125–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Spector DH, Baltimore D (1974) Requirement of 3’-terminal poly(adenylic acid) for the infectivity of poliovirus RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 2330–2334Google Scholar
  129. Spector DH, Baltimore D (1975a) Polyadenylic acid on poliovirus RNA. II. Poly(A) on intracellular RNAs. J Virol 15: 1418–1431Google Scholar
  130. Spector DH, Baltimore D (1975b) Polyadenylic acid on poliovirus RNA. IV. Poly(U) in replicative intermediate and double-stranded RNA. Virology 67: 498–505Google Scholar
  131. Stanway G, Cann AJ, Hauptmann R, Hughes P, Clarke LD, Mountford RC, Minor PD, Schild GC, Almond JW (1983) The nucleotide sequence of poliovirus type 3 leon 12 a, b: comparison with poliovirus type 1. Nucleic Acids Res 11: 5629–5643PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Takeda N, Kuhn RJ, Yang CF, Takegami T, Wimmer E (1986) Initiation of poliovirus plus-strand RNA synthesis in a membrane complex of infected HeLa cells. J Virol 60: 43–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Takeda N, Yang CF, Kuhn RJ, Wimmer E (1987) Uridylylation of the genome-linked protein of poliovirus in vitro is dependent upon an endogenous RNA template. Virus Res 8: 193–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Takegami T, Kuhn RJ, Anderson CW, Wimmer E (1983a) Membrane-dependent uridylylation of the genome-linked protein VPg of poliovirus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80: 7447–7451PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Takegami T, Semler BL, Anderson CW, Wimmer E (1983b) Membrane fractions active in poliovirus RNA replication contain VPg precursor polypeptides. Virology 128: 33–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Tershak DR (1982) Inhibition of poliovirus polymerase by guanidine in vitro. J Virol 41: 313–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Tershak DR (1984) Association of poliovirus proteins with the endoplasmic reticulum. J Virol 52: 777–783PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Tobin GJ, Young DC, Flanegan JB (1989) Self-catalized linkage of poliovirus terminal protein VPg to poliovirus RNA. Cell 59: 511–519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Tolskaya EA, Romanova LA, Kolesnikova MS, Agol VI (1983) Intertypic recombination in poliovirus: genetic and biochemical studies. Virology 124: 121–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Toyoda H, Kohara M, Kataoka Y, Suganuma T, Omata T, Imura N, Nomoto A (1984) Complete nucleotide sequences of all three poliovirus serotype genomes. Implication for genetic relationship, gene function and antigenic determinants. J Mol Biol 174: 561–585Google Scholar
  141. Toyoda H, Yang C-F, Takeda N, Nomoto A, Wimmer E (1987) Analysis of RNA synthesis of type 1 poliovirus by using an in vitro molecular genetic approach. J Virol 61: 2816–2822PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Trono D, Andino R, Baltimore D (1988) An RNA sequence of hundreds of nucleotides at the 5’ end of poliovirus RNA is involved in allowing viral protein synthesis. J Virol 62: 2291–2299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Tuschall DM, Hiebert E, Flanegan JB (1982) Poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase synthesizes full-length copies of poliovirion RNA, cellular mRNA, and several plant virus RNAs in vitro. J Virol 44: 209–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Urzainqui A, Carrasco L (1989) Post-translational modifications of poliovirus proteins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 158: 263–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Van der Werf S, Bradley J, Wimmer E, Studier FW, Dunn J (1986) Synthesis of infectious poliovirus RNA by purified T7 RNA polymerase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 2330–2334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Van Dyke TA, Flanegan JB (1980) Identification of poliovirus polypeptide p63 as a soluble RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. J Virol 35: 732–740PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Van Dyke TA, Rickles RJ, Flanegan JB (1982) Genome-length copies of poliovirion RNA are synthesized in vitro by the poliovirus RNA dependent RNA polymerase. J Biol Chem 257: 4610–4617PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Ward CD, Stokes MAM, Flanegan JB (1988) Direct measurement of the poliovirus RNA polymerase error frequency in vitro. J Virol 62: 558–562PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Wimmer E (1982) Genome-linked proteins of viruses. Cell 28: 199–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Wu M, Davidson N, Wimmer E (1978) An electron microscope study of proteins attached to poliovirus RNA and its replicative form ( RF ). Nucleic Acids Res 5: 4711–4723Google Scholar
  151. Yogo Y, Wimmer E (1972) Polyadenylic acid at the 3’-terminus of poliovirus RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 69: 1877–1882PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Yogo Y, Wimmer E (1973) Poly(A) and poly(U) in poliovirus double-stranded RNA. Nature New Biol 242: 171–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Yogo Y, Wimmer E (1975) Sequence studies of poliovirus RNA III. Polyuridylic acid and polyadenylic acid as components of the purified poliovirus replicative intermediate. J Mol Biol 92: 467–477Google Scholar
  154. Young DC, Tuschall DM, Flanegan JB (1985) Poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and host cell protein synthesize product RNA twice the size of poliovirus RNA in vitro. J Virol 54: 256–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Young DC, Dunn BM, Tobin GJ, Flanegan JB (1986). Anti-VPg antibody precipitation of product RNA synthesized in vitro by the poliovirus polymerase and host factor is mediated by VPg on the poliovirion RNA template. J Virol 58: 715–723PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Young DC, Tobin GJ, Flanegan JB (1987) Characterization of product RNAs synthesized in vitro by poliovirus RNA polymerase purified by chromatography on hydroxylapatite or poly(U) sepharose. J Virol 61: 611–614PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Ypma-Wong MF, Dewalt PG, Johnson VH, Lamb JG, Semler BL (1988) Protein 3CD is the major poliovirus proteinase responsible for cleavage of the PI capsid precursor. Virology 166: 265–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Zimmerman EF, Heeter M, Darnell JE (1963) RNA synthesis in poliovirus-infected cells. Virology 19: 400–408PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. C. Richards
    • 1
    • 2
  • E. Ehrenfeld
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryUniversity of Utah School of MedicineSalt Lake CityUSA
  2. 2.Department of Cellular, Viral, Molecular BiologyUniversity of Utah School of MedicineSalt Lake CityUSA

Personalised recommendations