The Surveillance of Birth Defects in South America: II. The Search for Geographic Clusters: Endemics

  • E. E. Castilla
  • R. Sod
Part of the Advances in Mutagenesis Research book series (MUTAGENESIS, volume 2)


Unusual frequency distributions of diseases involve a given diagnosis, within a given place, in a given time. However, this time-space constraint is frequently better defined for only one of these two variables. Time clusters are known as epidemics, and space clusters as endemics. Since time-space clusters are also known as epidemics, time seems to be the leading defining characteristic, probably due to the fact that the conceptual frame of epidemiology is based on infectious (communicable) diseases.


Ataxia Telangiectasia Geographic Cluster Autosomal Recessive Trait Bloom Syndrome Parental Branch 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. E. Castilla
  • R. Sod
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Dep. de GeneticaInstituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZRio de JaneiroBrazil
  2. 2.IMBICELa PlataArgentina

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