Although the present uses of thoracoscopy are fundamentally different from the original one, i. e. the lysis of adhesions, the actual technique of the operation itself has hardly changed. As before, an intimate knowledge of endopleural anatomy is essential, as well as is to skillfully manipulate the trocars, telescopes, forceps, and chest tubes.
KeywordsSubclavian Artery Chest Tube Intercostal Space Phrenic Nerve Pleural Cavity
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