• Werner Hacke
  • Herman J. Gelmers
  • Michael Hennerici
  • Günter Krämer


The diagnosis of cerebral ischemia is based on the course, extent, and clinical features of neurologic deficit. The choice and timing of diagnostic methods are largely influenced by the general condition, age, and previous medical history of the patient. Particularly with the most common cause of cerebral ischemias, arteriosclerotically induced vascular disease, resulting disorders and the individual prognosis must be seen in terms of the neurologic features. All these factors, with their therapeutic implications, determine the course of diagnostic procedure in the acute phase as well as any monitoring that may be needed in the chronic stage. Noninvasive methods of examination have been applied to monitor the clinical course, both in patients who have already experienced cerebral ischemia and in those in whom various clinical findings indicate an increased risk. Such examination assumes particular significance in the context of today’s increasingly critical discussion regarding principles of treatment. Moreover, the diagnosis and importance of a TIA — in its purely clinical definition as a completely reversible and therefore relatively harmless episode of disturbed cerebral circulation — must now be reconsidered since CT and MRI techniques have often demonstrated (in 20%–50% of cases) parenchymatous defects even at this stage (Waxman and Toole 1983).


Cerebral Ischemia Internal Carotid Artery Middle Cerebral Artery Vertebral Artery Posterior Cerebral Artery 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Werner Hacke
    • 1
  • Herman J. Gelmers
    • 2
  • Michael Hennerici
    • 3
  • Günter Krämer
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyUniversity of HeidelbergHeidelbergFederal Republic of Germany
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyStreekziekenhuisAlmeloThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of Neurology Klinikum MannheimUniversity of HeidelbergMannheimFederal Republic of Germany
  4. 4.Department of NeurologyUniversity of MainzMainz 1Federal Republic of Germany

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