Pathophysiology of Cerebral Ischemia

  • Werner Hacke
  • Herman J. Gelmers
  • Michael Hennerici
  • Günter Krämer


The weight of the brain amounts to only 2% of total body weight, but it receives 15% of the cardiac output and uses 20% of the oxygen consumed by the body. The energy supply is provided almost exclusively by glucose metabolism. The substrate for this is stored in the brain in the form of glucose or glycogen and is sufficient to cover the energy requirements for only about 1 min. Consequently, there is a delicate equilibrium between oxygen and nutrient supply from the blood and the energy requirements of the brain. Disturbances in neurologic function appear after a few seconds of ischemia, although they are not necessarily persistent at first.


Cerebral Blood Flow Cerebral Ischemia Cerebral Perfusion Cerebral Edema Cerebral Perfusion Pressure 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Werner Hacke
    • 1
  • Herman J. Gelmers
    • 2
  • Michael Hennerici
    • 3
  • Günter Krämer
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyUniversity of HeidelbergHeidelbergFederal Republic of Germany
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyStreekziekenhuisAlmeloThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of Neurology Klinikum MannheimUniversity of HeidelbergMannheimFederal Republic of Germany
  4. 4.Department of NeurologyUniversity of MainzMainz 1Federal Republic of Germany

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