Advertisement

Microgene Conversion in the Evolution of the MHC Class I Multigene Family

  • C. Wheeler
  • D. Maloney
  • S. Watts
  • J. Vogel
  • J. Towner
  • D. Baldwin
  • J. Rufer
  • M. Arbeitman
  • H. Chan
  • S. Fogel
  • R. S. Goodenow
Conference paper

Abstract

The class I gene family resides on mouse chromosome 17 and contains from 26 to 34 different loci (Hood et al., 1983). Most of these genes reside within the Qa and Tla subregions, have unknown functions, and are relatively non-polymorphic (Mellor et al., 1984; Watts et al., 1989a). However, genes residing within the H-2 region, whose products function in presenting antigenic peptides to cytotoxic T cells (CTL)(Townsend et al, 1986), exhibit extreme allelic polymorphism. Interestingly, most of the diversity displayed among class I alleles and loci is in exons 2 and 3, which encode the α1 and α2 regions of the protein (Jaulin et al., 1985).

Keywords

Major Histocompatibility Complex Gene Conversion Selective Force Gene Conversion Event Gene Conversion Tract 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bjorkman, P.J., M.A. Saper, B. Samraoui, W.S. Bennett, J.L. Strominger and D.C. Wiley (1987) Structure of the human class I histocompatibility antigen, HLA- A2. Nature 239: 506–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bjorkman, P.J., M.A. Saper, B. Samraoui, W.S. Bennett, J.L. Strominger and D.C. Wiley (1987) The foreign antigen binding site and T cell recognition regions of class I histocompatibility antigens. Nature 239: 512–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Borts, R.H. and J.E. Haber (1987) Meiotic recombination in yeast: Alteration by multiple heterozygosity. Science 237: 1459–1465.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Eastman O–Neill, A., K. Reid, J, C. Garberi, M. Karl, and L. Flaherty (1986) Extensive deletions in the Q region of the mouse major histocompatibility complex. Immunogenet. 24: 368–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ernst, J.F., J.W. Stewart and F. Sherman (1981) The cycl-11 mutation in yeast reverts by recombination with a non-allelic gene: Composite genes determining the iso-cytochromes c. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., USA 78: 6334–6338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fogel, S., R.K. Mortimer and K. Lusnak (1983) Meiotic gene conversion in yeast: Molecular and experimental perspectives, pp. 65 - 107 in: Spencer, J.F.T., D.M. Spencer and A.R.W. Smith (eds.) Yeast Genetics: Fundamental and Applied Aspects, Springer Verlag, N.Y.Google Scholar
  7. Geliebter. J. and S.G. Nathenson (1988) Microrecombinations generate sequence diversity in the murine major histocompatibility complex: Analysis of the Kbm3, Kbm4, Kbm10 and Kbm11 mutants. Mol. Cell. Biol. 8:4342–4352. Hood, L., M. Steinmetz, and B. Malissen (1983)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Hood, L., M. Steinmetz, and B. Malissen (1983) Genes of the major histocompatibility complex of the mouse. Ann. Rev. Immunol. 1: 529–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jaulin, C., A. Perrin, J.-P. Abastado, B. Dumas, J. Papamatheakes, and P. Kourilsky (1985) Polymorphism in mouse and human class I H-2 and HLA genes is not the result of random independent point mutations. Immunogenet. 22: 453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Judd, S.R. and T.D. Petes (1988) Physical lengths of meiotic and mitotic gene conversion tracts in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics 118: 401–410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Klein, J. (1986) Natural History of the Major Histocompatibility Complex. John Wiley and Sons, N.Y.Google Scholar
  12. Mellor, A. L., E. H. Weiss, M. Kress, G. Jay, and R. A. Flavell (1984) A nonpolymorphic class I gene in the murine major histocompatibility complex. Cell 36: 139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mellor, A. L., J. Antoniou, and P. J. Robinson (1985) Structure and expression of genes encoding murine Qa-2 class I antigens. Proc, Natl, Acad. Sci. USA 82: 5920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Meselson, M.S. and C.M. Radding (1975) A general model for genetic recombination. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., USA 72, 358–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Nagy, Z. A., P. V. Lehmann, F. Falcioni, S. Muller and L. Adorini (1989) Why peptides? Their possible role in the evolution of MHC-restricted T-cell recognition. Immunol. Today 10: 132.Google Scholar
  16. Nathenson, S. G., J. Geliebter, G. M. Pfaffenbach, and R. A. Zeff (1986) Murine major histocompatibility comples class I mutants: Molecular analysis and structure-function implications. Ann. Rev. Immunol. 4: 471–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Nicholls, R. D., D. R. Higgs, J. B. Clegg, and D. J. Weatherall (1985) α0-Thalassemia due to recombination between the α1-globin gene and an AluI repeat. Blood, 65, 1434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Pease, L. R., D. H. Schulze, G. M. Pfaffenbach, and S. G. Nathenson (1983) Spontaneous H-2 mutants provide evidence that a copy mechanism analogous to gene conversion generates polymorphism in the major histocompatibility complex. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80: 242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Rothstein, R., 1985 in DNA Cloning volume II, A Practical Approach. D. M. Glover, editor, IRL Press Limited, Oxford, pp. 52 - 58.Google Scholar
  20. Rubocki, R. J., T. H. Hansen, and D. R. Lee (1986) Molecular studies of murine mutant BALB/c H-2dm2 define a deletion of several class I genes including the entire H-2Ld gene. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83: 9606–9610.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Singer, D. S., R. Lifshitz, L. Abelson, PI Nyirjesy, and S. Rudikoff (1983) Specific association of repetitive DNA sequences with major histocompatibility genes. Molec. Cell. Biol. 3: 903.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Steinmetz, M., D. Stephan, and K. F. Lindahl (1986) Gene organization and recombination hotspots in the murine major histocompatibility complex. Cell 44: 895–904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Szostak. J., T. Orr-Weaver, R. Rothstein and F. Stahl (1983) The double-strand-breakmodel for recombination. Cell 23: 25–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sun, Y. H., R. S. Goodenow, and L. Hood (1985) Molecular basis of the dm1 mutation in the major histocompatibility complex of the mouse: a DA- hybrid gene. J. Exp. Med. 162: 1588–1602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Townsend, A. R. M., J. Rothbard, R. M. Gotch, G. Bahadur, D. Writh, and A. J. McMichael (1986) The epitopes of Influenza nucleoprotein recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes can be defined with short synthetic peptides. Cell 44: 959–968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Treco, D. and N. Arnheim (1986) The evolutionarily conserved repetitive sequence d(TG-AC)n promotes reciprocal exchange and generates unusual recombinant tetrads during yeast meiosis. Mol. Cell. Biol. 6: 3934–3947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Watts, S., A. Cranmer Davis, B. Gaut, C. Wheeler, L Hill and R. S. Goodenow (1989) Organization and structure of the Qa genes of the major histocompatibility complex of the C3H mouse: implications for Qa function and class I evolution. EMBO J. 8: 1749–1759.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Watts, S., M. Kuhner, W. Klitz, and R. S. Goodenow (1989) Gene conversion in the evolution of the class I multigene family of the murine major histocompatibility complex. Genetics (submitted).Google Scholar
  29. Watts, S., C. Wheeler, R. Morse, and R. S. Goodenow (1989) Amino acid comparison of the class I antigens of murine major histocompatibility complex. Immunogenetics (in press).Google Scholar
  30. Weiss, E. H., L. Golden, K. Fahrner, A. L. Mellor, J. J. Devlin, H. Bullman, H. Tiddens, H. Bud, and R. A. Flavell (1984) Organization and evolution of the class I gene family in the major histocompatibility complex of the C57BL/10 mouse. Nature, (London) 310: 650–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. White, J. H., J. F. DiMartino, R. W. Anderson, K. Lusnak, D. Hilbert, and S. Fogel (1988) A DNA sequence conferring high postmeiotic segregation frequency to heterozygous deletions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is related to sequences associated with eucaryotic recombination hotspots. Molec. Cell. Biol. 8: 1253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Vogel, J.M., A.C. Davis, D.M. McKinney, M. McMillan, W.J. Martin and R.S. Goodenow (1988) Molecular characterization of the C3Hf/HeN H-2Kkm2 mutation. J. Exp. Med. 168: 1781–1800.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Vogel, J.M., M. Nieto, A. Fischer, and R. S. Goodenow (1989) Overlapping palindromic sequences are associated with somatic deletion and meiotic recombination of MHC class I genes. Molec. Immunol, (in press).Google Scholar
  34. Zinkernagel, R. M., and P. C. Doherty (1979) MHC restricted cytotoxic T cells: Studies on the biological role of polymorphic major transplantation antigens determining T cell restriction specificity, function, and responsiveness. Adv. Immunol. 27: 51–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Wheeler
    • 1
  • D. Maloney
    • 2
  • S. Watts
    • 3
  • J. Vogel
    • 4
  • J. Towner
    • 1
  • D. Baldwin
    • 1
  • J. Rufer
    • 1
  • M. Arbeitman
    • 1
  • H. Chan
    • 1
  • S. Fogel
    • 1
  • R. S. Goodenow
  1. 1.Department of Molecular and Cellular BiologyUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.Department of Plant PathologyUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  3. 3.Cell Biology DepartmentBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA
  4. 4.Department of Plant BiologyUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations