The Predictive Value of Grouping Schizoaffective Psychoses Together with Affective Psychoses: Jaspers’ Hierarchical Rule Revised

  • D. von Zerssen
  • M. Zaudig
  • C. Cording
  • H.-J. Möller
  • H.-U. Wittchen


It is inherent in the nature of mental disorders that a clear grouping according to distinct entities is not possible (see von Zerssen 1986a). This problem is particularly prominent in the area of personality disorders, neuroses, abnormal stress reactions, and other “minor” disorders, but it is also present within the range of functional psychoses. This has implications for research as well as for clinical practice; e.g., how useful is the diagnosis of a special subtype for therapeutic and prognostic purposes?


Schizoaffective Disorder Index Hospitalization Insidious Onset Index Episode Psychopathological State 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abrams R, Taylor MA (1981) Importance of schizophrenic symptoms in the diagnosis of mania. Am J Psychiatry 138: 658–661PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association (1952) Diagnostic and statistical manual: mental disorders (DSM), 1st edn. American Psychiatric Association, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association (1968, 1980, 1987 ) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 2nd edn (DSM-II); 3rd edn (DSM-III); 3rd edn revised (DSM-III-R). American Psychiatric Association, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  4. Angst J (1966) Zur Ätiologie und Nosologie endogener depressiver Psychosen. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Angst J (1986) The course of schizoaffective disorders. In: Marneros A, Tsuang MT (eds) Schizoaffective psychoses. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 63–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barthelmes H, von Zerssen D (1978) Das Münchener Psychiatrische Informationssystem (PSYCHIS München). In: Reichertz PL, Schwarz B (eds) Informationssysteme in der medizinischen Versorgung. Schattauer, Stuttgart, pp 138–145Google Scholar
  7. Berger M, Wittchen H-U, von Zerssen D (1984) Versuche der Typisierung von Subgruppen depressiver Erkrankungen anhand multivariater statistischer Analysen von Selbst-und Fremdbeurteilungsskalen sowie operationaler Diagnosekriterien. In: Wolfersdorf MG, Straub R, Hole G (eds) Depressiv Kranke in der Psychiatrischen Klinik. Roderer, Regensburg, pp 390–402Google Scholar
  8. Clare A, Cairns VE (1978) Design, development and use of a standardized interview to assesssocial maladjustment and dysfunction in community studies. Psychol Med 8: 589–604PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dunner DL, Gershon ES, Goodwin FK (1976) Heritable factors in the severity of affective illness. Biol Psychiatry 11: 31–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Endicott J, Spitzer RL, Fleiss JL, Cohen J (1976) The Global Assessment Scale: a procedure for measuring overall severity of psychiatric disturbances. Arch Gen Psychiatry 33: 766–771PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Faltermaier T, Wittchen, H-U, Eilmann R, Lässle R (1985) The Social Interview Schedule (SIS): content, structure and reliability. Soc Psychiatry 20: 115–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hecht H, Faltermaier A, Wittchen H-U (1987) Social Interview Schedule (SIS): halbstrukturiertes Interview zur Erfassung der aktuellen sozialpsychologischen Situation. Roderer, RegensburgGoogle Scholar
  13. Hiller W, von Zerssen D, Mombour W, Wittchen H-U (1986) IMPS: Inpatient Multidimensional Psychiatric Scale (Deutsche Bearbeitung). Beltz Test, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  14. Huber G, Gross G, Schüttler R (1979) Schizophrenie. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Jaspers K (1972) General psychopathology. Manchester University Press, ManchesterGoogle Scholar
  16. Kasanin J (1933) The acute schizoaffective psychoses. Am J Psychiatry 90: 97–126Google Scholar
  17. Kraepelin (1913) Psychiatrie, 8th edn, vol 3, pt 2. Barth, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  18. Lorr M, Klett CJ (1967) Inpatient Multidimensional Psychiatric Scale (IMPS), rev edn. Consulting Psychologists, Palo Alto CAGoogle Scholar
  19. Marneros A, Tsuang MT (eds) (1986) Schizoaffective psychoses. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoGoogle Scholar
  20. Marneros A, Deister A, Rohde A, Jünemann H, Fimmers R (1988) Long-term course of schizoaffective disorders, pt 1: definitions, methods, frequency of episodes and cycles. Eur Arch Psychiatry Neurol Sci 237: 264–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mendlewicz J, Linkówski P, Wilmotte J (1979) Relationship between schizoaffective illness and affective disorders or schizophrenia: morbidity risk and genetic transmission. In: Obiols J, Ballus C, Gonzalez Monclus E, Pujol J (eds) Biological psychiatry today, vol A. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 406–411Google Scholar
  22. Möller H-J, von Zerssen D (1986) Der Verlauf schizophrener Psychosen unter den gegen- wärtigen Behandlungsbedingungen. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoGoogle Scholar
  23. Möller H-J, Schmid-Bode W, Cording-Tömmel C, Wittchen H-U, Zaudig M, von Zerssen D (1988) Psychopathological and social outcome in schizophrenia versus affective/schizoaffective psychoses and prediction of poor outcome in schizophrenia: results from a 5–8 year follow-up. Acta Psychiatr Scand 77: 379–389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Perris C (1966) A study of bipolar (manic-depressive) and unipolar recurrent depressive psychoses. Acta Psychiatr Scand [Suppl] 194: 1–89Google Scholar
  25. Pope HG jr, Lipinski JF (1978) Diagnosis in schizophrenia and manic-depressive illness: a reassessment of the specificity of “schizophrenic” symptoms in the light of current research. Arch Gen Psychiatry 35: 811–828PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Robins LN, Hetzer JE, Croughan J, Ratcliff KS (1981) National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule: its history, characteristics, and validity. Arch Gen Psychiatry 38: 381–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Schmid W, Bronisch T, von Zerssen D (1982) A comparative study of PSE/CATEGO and DiaSika: two psychiatric computer diagnostic systems. Br J Psychiatry 141: 292–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Schneider K (1959) Clinical psychopathology. Grune and Stratton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  29. Strauss JS, Carpenter WT (1974) The prediction of outcome in schizophrenia. II. Relationships between predictor and outcome variables: a report from the WHO International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 31: 37–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Vogl G, Zaudig M (1985) Investigation of 1operationalized diagnostic criteria in the diagnosis of schizoaffective and cycloid psychoses. Compr Psychiatry 26: 1–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. von Zerssen D (1976) Klinische Selbstbeurteilungs-Skalen (KSb-S) aus dem Münchener Psychiatrischen Informations-System (PSYCHIS München). Manuale. Seitz Test, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  32. von Zerssen D (1980) Konstitution. In: Kisker KP, Meyer J-E, Müller C, Strömgren E (eds) Psychiatrie der Gegenwart, vol I/2, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 619–705Google Scholar
  33. von Zerssen D (1985) Psychiatric syndromes from a clinical and a biostatistical point of view. Psychopathology 18: 88–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. von Zerssen D (1986a) Diagnose; Nosologie; Syndrom; Typus. In: Müller C (ed) Lexikon der Psychiatrie, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 194–198, 474–477, 662–664, 696–699Google Scholar
  35. von Zerssen D (1986b) Clinical Self-Rating Scales (CSRS) of the Munich Psychiatric Information System (PSYCHIS München). In: Sartorius N, Ban TA (eds) Assessment of depression. Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 270–303Google Scholar
  36. von Zerssen D, Hecht H (1987) Gesundheit, Glück, Zufriedenheit im Licht einer katamnestischen Erhebung an psychiatrischen Patienten und gesunden Probanden. Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol 37: 83–96Google Scholar
  37. Weiner A, Croughan J, Fishman R, Robins E (1977) The group of schizoaffective and related psychoses: a follow-up study. Compr Psychiatry 18: 413–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wittchen H-U, von Zerssen D (1988) Verläufe behandelter und unbehandelter Depressionen und Angststörungen. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoGoogle Scholar
  39. Wittchen H-U, Essau CA, Hecht H, Teder W, Pfister H (1989) Reliability of life event assessments: test-retest reliability and fall-off effects of the Munich Interview for the assessment of A Life Events and Conditions. J Affective Disord 16: 77–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. World Health Organization (1978) Mental disorders: glossary and guide to their classification in accordance with the ninth revision of the International Classification of Diseases. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  41. Zaudig M, Vogl G (1983) Zur Frage der operationalisierten Diagnostik schizoaffektiver und zykloider Psychosen. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr 233: 385–396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zerbin-Rüdin E (1986) Schizoaffective and other atypical psychoses: the genetical aspect. In: Marneros ‘A, Tsuang MT (eds) Schizoaffective psychoses. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 225–231Google Scholar
  43. Zerbin-Rüdin E (1988) Beiträge der genetischen Forschung zur Klassifikation affektiver Störungen. In: von Zerssen D, Möller H-J (eds) Affektive Störungen. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 29–45Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. von Zerssen
    • 1
  • M. Zaudig
    • 1
  • C. Cording
    • 2
  • H.-J. Möller
    • 3
  • H.-U. Wittchen
    • 1
  1. 1.Max-Planck-Institut für PsychiatrieMünchen 40Germany
  2. 2.Bezirkskrankenhaus RegensburgRegensburgGermany
  3. 3.Universitäts-NervenklinikBonn 1Germany

Personalised recommendations