Development in Children After Severe Head Injury

  • G. Lehmkuhl
  • W. Thoma

Abstract

As a result of empirical studies various authors seem to agree with the notion that certain specific psychopathological and neuropsychological deficiencies are likely to occur following severe craniocerebral trauma suffered during infancy or childhood (Rutter et al. 1980; Brown et al. 1981; Chadwick et al. 1981a). Head injury and psychiatric symptoms are known often to be associated, although psychopathological symptoms do not occur as a rule. Up to now, there have been no studies investigating interactions between age at injury, severity of trauma, and ensuing psychiatric symptoms, and how these issues are related to the child’s cognitive capacity. Previous studies have yielded high prevalence rates of psychiatric disturbances in children who have suffered severe head injury. Psychiatric outcome seems to be directly related to severity of trauma, social and family disadvantage, pretraumatic functioning, neurological sequelae, and development of posttraumatic epilepsy (Black et al. 1969; Rune 1970; Klonoff and Paris 1974; Shaffer et al. 1975; Brown et al. 1981).

Keywords

Nickel Neurol Peri Prosopagnosia 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arbus L, Moron P, Lazorthes Y, Luxey C (1969) Séquelles neuropsychiques des traumatismes craniens de l’enfant. Neurochirurgie 15:27–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Benton AL, van Allen MW (1968) Test of facial recognition. Neurosensory Center and Departments of Neurology and Psychology, University of Iowa, IowaGoogle Scholar
  3. Benton AL, van Allen MW (1972) Prosopagnosia and facial discrimination. J Neurol Sci 15:167–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Black P, Jeffries J, Blumer D, Wellner AM, Walker AE (1969) The post-traumatic syndrome in children: characteristics and incidence. In: Walker AE, Caveness WF, Critchley M (eds) The late effects of head injury. Thomas, Springfield, pp 142–149Google Scholar
  5. Black P, Blumer D, Wellner AM, Shepard RH, Walker AE (1981) Head trauma in children: neurological, behavioral, and intellectual sequelae. In: Black P (ed) Brain dysfunction in children. Raven, New York, pp 171–180Google Scholar
  6. Boll TJ (1983) Neuropsychological assessment of the child: myths, current status, and future prospects. In: Walker EC, Roberts MC (eds) Handbook of clinical child psychology. Wiley, New York, pp 186–208Google Scholar
  7. Brickenkamp R (1975) Test d2—Aufmerksamkeitsbelastungstest. Hogrefe, GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  8. Brink JP, Garrett AL, Hale WR, Woo-Sam J, Nickel VC (1970) Recovery of motor and intellectual function in children sustaining severe head injuries. Dev Med Child Neurol 12:545–571Google Scholar
  9. Brooks N (1984) Cognitive deficits after head injury. In: Brooks N (ed) Closed head injury. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 44–73Google Scholar
  10. Brown G, Chadwick O, Shaffer D, Rutter M, Traub M (1981) A prospective study of children with head injuries. III. Psychiatric sequelae. Psychol Med 11:63–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chadwick O (1985) Psychological sequelae of head injury in children. Dev Med Child Neurol 27:72–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chadwick O, Rutter M, Brown G, Shaffer D, Traub M (1981a) A prospective study of children with head injuries. II. Cognitive sequelae. Psychol Med 11:49–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chadwick O, Rutter M, Shaffer D, Shrout P (1981b) A prospective study of children with head injuries. IV. Specific cognitive deficits. J Clin Neuropsychol 3:101–120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chadwick O, Rutter M, Thompson J, Shaffer D (1981c) Intellectual performance and reading skills after localized head injury in childhood. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 22:117–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Conners C (1973) Rating scales for use in drug studies with children. Psychopharmacol Bull Special Issue 8:24–84Google Scholar
  16. De Renzi E, Vignolo LA (1962) The token test: a sensitive test to detect receptive disturbances in aphasics. Brain 85:665–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ekman P, Friesen WV (1975) Unmasking the face. Prentice Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  18. Elkind D (1964) Ambiguous pictures for study of perceptual development and learning. Child Dev 35:1391–1396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ernhart CB, Graham FK, Eichman PL, Marshall JM, Thurston D (1963) Brain injury in the preschool child: some developmental considerations. II. Comparison of brain-injured and normal children. Psychol Monogr 77:17–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Freund G (1980) Experimentelle Untersuchungen zum Sprachverständnis aphasischer Patienten. Doctoral thesis, University of AachenGoogle Scholar
  21. Geisel B, Eisert HG, Schmidt MH, Schwarzbach H (1982) Entwicklung und Erprobung eines Screening-Verfahrens für kinderpsychiatrisch auffällige Achtjährige (SKA 8). Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr 31:173–179Google Scholar
  22. Graham P, Rutter M (1968) The reliability and validity of the psychiatric assessment of the child. Br J Psychiatry 114:581–592PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hooper HE (1958) The Hooper visual organization test. Western Psychological Services, Beverly HillsGoogle Scholar
  24. Horn W (1969) Prüfsystem für Schul- und Bildungsberatung (PSB). Hogrefe, GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  25. Kagan J, Rosman BL, Day D, Albert J, Phillips W (1964) Information processing in the child: significance of analytic and reflective attitudes. Psychol Monogr 78:1–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kimura D (1963) Right temporal lobe damage. Arch Neurol.8:264–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Kleinpeter U (1971) Störungen der psychosomatischen Entwicklung nach Schädel-Hirn-Traumen im Kindesalter. Fischer, JenaGoogle Scholar
  28. Kleinpeter U (1979) Folgezustände nach Schädel-Hirn-Traumen im Kindesalter und deren Begutachtung. Thieme, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  29. Klonoff H, Paris R (1974) Immediate, short-term, and residual effects of acute head injuries in children: neuropsychological and neurological correlates. In: Reitan RM, Davison CA (eds) Clinical neuropsychology: current status and applications. Halstead, New York, pp 179–210Google Scholar
  30. Lange-Cosack H, Tepfer G (1973) Das Hirntrauma im Kindes- und Jugendalter. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. Lange-Cosack H, Wider B, Schlesener HJ, Grumme T, Kubicki S (1979) Spätfolgen nach Schädelhirntraumen im Säuglings- und Kleinkindalter. Neuropädiatrie 10:105–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lange-Cosack H, Riebel U, Grumme T, Schlesener HJ (1981) Possibilities and limitations of rehabilitation after traumatic apallic syndrome in children and adolescents. Neuropediatrics 12:337–366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lehmkuhl G (1986) Kognitive, neuropsychologische, psychopathologische und klinische Befunde bei 12–14 jährigen Kindern nach unterschiedlich schweren und lang zurückliegenden Schädel-Hirn-Traumen. Postdoctoral thesis, University of HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  34. Lehmkuhl G, Weniger D (1981) Das Gestenverständnis bei Kindern mit und ohne Hirnschädigung. 18th Meeting of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie, MunichGoogle Scholar
  35. Lehmkuhl G, Thoma W, Weber G (1987) Computertomographische Befunde bei Kindern nach einem schweren Schädel-Hirn-Trauma in ihrer Beziehung zu neuropsychologischen und psycho-pathologischen Befunden. In: Kohlmeyer K (ed) Aktuelle Probleme der Neurotraumatologie und klinischen Neuropsychologie. Regensberg and Biermann, Münster, pp 423–430Google Scholar
  36. Lempp R (1972) Psychopathologie der Hirnschädigung in Kindesalter. In: Kisker KP, Meyer JE, Müller M (eds) Psychiatrie der Gegenwart, vol II/l. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 921–976Google Scholar
  37. Lempp R (1973) Die Psychopathologie des Hirntraumas im Kindesalter. In: Müller E, Walch R (eds) Das kindliche Schädelhirntrauma. 15th Congress of the Gesellschaft für Hirntrauma, Bad HomburgGoogle Scholar
  38. Lempp R (1980a) Die organischen Psychosyndrome. In: Harbauer H, Lempp R, Nissen G, Strunk P (eds) Lehrbuch der speziellen Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie, 4th edn. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 312–377Google Scholar
  39. Lempp R (1980b) Organische Psychosyndrome. In: Bachmann D, Ewerbeck H, Joppich G, Kleihauer E, Rossi E, Stalder GR (eds) Pädiatrie in Praxis und Klinik, vol 3. Fischer, Stuttgart; Thieme, Stuttgart, pp 1970–1975Google Scholar
  40. Lezak MD (1978) Living with the characterologically altered brain-injured patient. J Clin Psychiatry 39:592–598PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Linder M, Grissemann H (1980) Zürcher Lesetest. Huber, BernGoogle Scholar
  42. Lishman WA (1988) Physiogenesis and Psychogenesis in the post-concussional syndrome. Br J Psychiatry 153:460–469PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Michel M (1983) Rehabilitationsverlauf nach Schädelhirntrauma bei Kindern—eine neuropsychologische Studie. Rehabilitation 22:137–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Müller R (1979) Untersuchung zum Gesten- und Pantomimenverständnis aphasischer und nichtaphasischer Patienten. Doctoral thesis, Free University of BerlinGoogle Scholar
  45. Oddy M (1984) Head injury during childhood: the psychological implications. In: Brooks N (ed) Closed head injury. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 179–194Google Scholar
  46. Orgass B (1976a) Eine Revision des Token-Tests. I. Vereinfachung der Auswertung, Itemanalyse und Einführung einer Alterskorrektur. Diagnostica 22:70–87Google Scholar
  47. Orgass B (1976b) Eine Revision des Token-Tests. II. Validitätsnachweis, Normierung und Standardisierung. Diagnostica 22:141–156Google Scholar
  48. Rathenow P (1979) Westermann Rechtschreibtest 4/5. Westermann, BraunschweigGoogle Scholar
  49. Rathenow P, Laupenmühlen D, Vöge J (1981) Westermann Rechtschreibtest 6 +. Westermann, BraunschweigGoogle Scholar
  50. Remschmidt H (1985) Psychische Störungen nach Schädel-Hirn-Traumen. In: Remschmidt H, Schmidt M H (eds) Entwicklungsstörungen, organisch bedingte Störungen, Psychosen, Begutachtung. Thieme, Stuttgart, pp 161–181Google Scholar
  51. Remschmidt H, Merschmann W, Niebergall G (1980) Testpsychologische und klinische Verlaufsuntersuchungen an Kindern und Jugendlichen mit akuten Schädel-Hirn-Traumen. In: Remschmidt H, Stutte H (eds) Neuropsychiatrische Folgen nach Schädel-Hirn-Traumen bei Kindern und Jugendlichen. Huber, Bern, pp 111–145Google Scholar
  52. Rune V (1970) Acute head injuries. Acta Paediatr Scand [Suppl] 209:3–112Google Scholar
  53. Rutter M (1977) Brain damage syndromes in childhood: concepts and findings. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 18:1–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rutter M (1981) Psychological sequelae of brain damage in children. Am J Psychiatry 138: 1533–1544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Rutter M (1982) Developmental neuropsychiatry: concepts, issues, and problems. J Clin Neuro-psychol 4:91–115Google Scholar
  56. Rutter M, Graham P (1968) The reliability and validity of the psychiatric assessment of the child. Br J Psychiatry 114:563–579PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rutter M, Quinton D (1977) Psychiatric disorder-ecological factors and concepts of causation. In: McGurk H (ed) Ecological factors in human development. North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp 173–187Google Scholar
  58. Rutter M, Graham P, Yule W (1970) A neuropsychiatric study in childhood. Clinics in developmental medicine, nos 35/36. Heinemann Medical, LondonGoogle Scholar
  59. Rutter M, Chadwick O, Shaffer D, Brown G (1980) A prospective study of children with head injuries. I. Design and methods. Psychol Med 10:633–645PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rutter M, Chadwick O, Shaffer D (1984) Head injury. In: Rutter M (ed) Developmental neuropsychiatry. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 83–111Google Scholar
  61. Schneider R (1978) Hirnfunktionsstörungen im Kindesalter. Enke, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  62. Shaffer D, Chadwick O, Rutter M (1975) Psychiatric outcome of localized head injury in children. In: Porter R, FitzSimons D (eds) Outcome of severe damage to the central nervous system. Ciba Found Symp 34:191–213Google Scholar
  63. Shaffer D, Bijur P, Chadwick O, Rutter M (1980) Head injury and later reading disability. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry 19:592–610PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Stroop JR (1935) Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. J Exp Psychol 18:643–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Tewes U (1984) Hamburg-Wechsler Intelligenztest für Kinder. Revision 1983. Huber, BernGoogle Scholar
  66. Weiß RH (1978) Grundintelligenztest CFT 20. Westermann, BraunschweigGoogle Scholar
  67. Wishart D (1984) Clustan. Fischer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  68. Witkin HA (1971) A manual for the embedded figures test. Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  69. Wood RL (1984) Behaviour disorders following severe brain injury: their presentation and psychological management. In: Brooks N (ed) Closed head injury. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 195–219Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Lehmkuhl
  • W. Thoma

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations