Using Synthetic Peptide Reagents to Distinguish Infections Caused by Different HIV Strains
As the nucleic acid sequences of additional isolates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been determined, the remarkable heterogeneity within this group of viruses has become apparent. HIV has been subclassified into HIV type 1, the retrovirus first shown to cause the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and HIV type 2, a more recently discovered retrovirus prevalent in West Africa. HIV-1 and HIV-2 have identical amino acids at about 59% of positions in the relatively conserved core proteins and at about 42% of positions in the envelope proteins (Guyader et al. 1987). There is partial antigenic cross-reactivity between the core proteins of the two viruses, but cross-reactivity between envelope proteins has not been described (Clavel et al. 1986, 1987; Brun-Vezinet et al. 1987). Consequently, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) containing HIV-1 whole-virus lysate as an antigen detects some HIV-2-positive sera, but is an inconsistent and unreliable test for HIV-2 diagnosis.
KeywordsHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type Synthetic Peptide Antigenic Determinant Transmembrane Glycoprotein
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