Adherence of Candida albicans: Influencing Factors and Mechanism(s)

  • M. A. Ghannoum
  • K. Abu-Elteen


Interest in the study of adherence of microorganisms to various surfaces has increased tremendously in recent years. This is understandable, as the elucidation of this process throws light on the mechanism of pathogenesis and may lead to a means of controlling infections before their onset. Evidence that adherence may be the initial step in candidosis and its involvement in the colonization process of C. albicans came from work carried out by King et al. [49] and Liljemark and Gibbons [57], respectively. In this chapter we will review (1) methods used to measure adhesion of C. albicans; (2) factors affecting the adhesion process; (3) surface characteristics and adherence; (4) mechanisms of adhesion; and (5) in vivo adherence and its implication to candidosis. Due to space limitation, we have resorted in a number of occasions to referring the reader to key references.


Fibril Lactose Cavitation Lactobacillus Glycoside 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Abu-Elteen K, Ghannoum MA, Stretton RJ (1989) Effect of subinhibitory concentrations of antifungal agents on adherence of Candida spp. to buccal epithelial cells in vitro. Mycoses 32: 551Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anderson ML, Odds FC (1985) Adherence of Candida albicans to vaginal epithelial significance of morphological form and effect of ketoconazole. Mykosen 28: 531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Annaix V, Aubry J, Robert R, Bouali A, Tronchin G, Senet J-M (1987) Fibrinogen binding on Candida albicans germ-tubes and mycelium. Protides Biol Fluids 35: 399Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aronson M, Medalia O, Schori L, Mirelman D, Sharon N, Ofek I (1979) Prevention of colonization of the urinary tract of mice with Escherichia coli by blocking of bacterial adherence with methyl-D-mannopyranoside. J Infect Dis 139: 329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Balish E, Balish MJ, Salkowski CA, Lee KW, Bartzal KF (1984) Colonization of congenitally athymic, gnotobiotic mice by Candida albicans. Appl Environ Microbiol 47: 647PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Barnes JL, Osgood W, Lee JC, King RD, Stein JH (1983) Host-parasite interactions in the pathogenesis of experimental renal candidiasis. Lab Inves 49: 460Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Barrett-Bee K, Hayes Y, Wilson RG, Ryley JF (1985) A comparison of phospholipase activity, cellular adherence and pathogenicity of yeasts. J Gen Microbiol 131: 1217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Borg M, Ruchel R (1988) Expression of extracellular acid proteinase by proteolytic Candida spp. during experimental infection of oral mucosa. Infect Immun 56: 626PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Botta GA (1981) Possible role of hormones in the observed changes in adhesion of several microorganisms to epithelial cells from different body sites. FEMS Microbiol Lett 11: 69Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bouali A, Robert R, Tronchin G, Senet J-M (1986) Binding of human fibrinogen to Candida albicans in vitro: a preliminary study. J Med Vet Mycol 24: 345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bouali A, Robert R, Tronchin G, Senet J-M (1987) Characterization of binding of human fibrinogen to the surface of germ-tubes and mycelium of Candida albicans. J Gen Microbiol 133: 545PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Calderone RA, Scheid WM (1987) Role of fibronectin in the pathogenesis of candidal infections. Rev Infect Dis 9: S400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Calderone RA, Lehrer N, Segal E (1984) Adherence of Candida albicans to buccal and vaginal epithelial cells: ultrastructural observations. Can J Microbiol 30: 1001PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Centeno A, David CP, Cohen MS, Warren MM (1983) Modulation of Candida albicans attachment to human epithelial cells by bacteria and carbohydrates. Infect Immun 39: 1354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Christensen GD, Simpson A, Beachey EH (1985) Adhesion of bacteria to animal tissues-complex mechanisms. In: Savage DC, Fletche M (eds) Bacterial adhesion: mechanisms and physiological significance. Plenum, New York, p 279Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cole GT, Seshan KR, Pope LM, Yancey RJ (1988) Morphological aspects of gastrointestinal tract invasion by Candida albicans in the infant mouse. J Med Vet Mycol 26: 173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Collins-Lech C, Kalbfleisch JH, Franson TR, Sohnle PG (1984) Inhibition by sugars oi Candida albicans adherence to human buccal mucosal cells and corneocytes in vitro. Infect Immun 46: 831PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cox F (1983) Adherence of Candida albicans to buccal epithelial cells in children and adults. J Lab Clin Med 102: 960PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cox F (1986) Candida albicans adherence in newborn infants. J Med Vet Mycol 24: 121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Critchley IA, Douglas LJ (1987) Role of glycosides as epithelial cell receptors for Candida albicans. J Gen Microbiol 133: 637PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Davidson S, Brish M, Rubinstein E (1984) Adherence of Candida albicans to buccal epithelial cells of neonates. Mycopathologia 85: 171Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Diamond RD, Krzesicki R (1978) Mechanisms of attachment of neutrophils to Candida albicans pseudohyphae in the absence of serum and of subsequent damage to pseudohyphae by microbicidal processes of neutrophils in vitro. J Clin Invest 61: 360Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Douglas LJ (1987) Adhesion of Candida species to epithelial surfaces. CRC Crit Rev Microbiol 15: 27Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Epstein JB, Kimura LH, Menard TW, Truelove EL, Pearsall NN (1982) Effects of specific antibodies on the interaction between the fungus Candida albicans and human oral mucosa. Arch Oral Biol 27: 469PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ghannoum MA (1988) Mechanisms potentiating Candida infections. A review. Mycoses 31: 543PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ghannoum MA (1990) Inhibition of Candida adhesion to buccal epithelial cells by an aqueous extract of Allium sativum (garlic). J Appl Bacteriol 68: 163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ghannoum MA, Abu-Elteen K (1986) Correlative relationship between proteinase production, adherence and pathogenicity of various strains of Candida albicans. J Med Vet Mycol 24: 407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ghannoum MA, Abu-Elteen K (1987) Effect of growth of Candida spp. in the presence of various glucocorticoids on the adherence to human buccal epithelial cells. Mycopathol 98: 171Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ghannoum MA, Radwan SS (1990) Candida adherence to epithelial cells. CRC, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ghannoum MA, Burns GR, Abu-Elteen K, Radwan SS (1986) Experimental evidence for the role of lipids in adherence of Candida spp. to human buccal epithelial cells. Infect Immun 54: 189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ghannoum MA, Abu-Elteen K, Radwan SS (1987) Blocking adherence of Candida albicans to buccal epithelial cells by yeast glycolipids, yeast wall lipids and lipids from epithelial cells. Mykosen 30: 371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ghannoum MA, Abu-Elteen K, Motawy MS (1988) Effect of antineoplastic agents and X- irradiation on the adherence of Candida spp. to human buccal epithelial cells in vitro. Mycopathologia 104: 171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gorman SP, McCafferty DF, Woolfson AD, Jones DS (1987) Reduced adherence of microorganisms to human mucosal epithelial cells following treatment with taurolin, a noval antimicrobial agent. J Appl Bacteriol 62: 315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hazen KC (1989) Participation of yeast cell surface hydrophobicity in adherence of Candida albicans to human epithelial cells. Infect Immun 57: 1894PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hazen KC, Plotkin BJ, Klimas DM (1986) Influence of growth condition on cell surface hydrophobicity of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. Infect Immun 54: 269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Howlett JA, Squier A (1980) Candida albicans ultrastructure: colonization and invasion of oral epithelium. Infect Immun 29: 252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Jones GW (1977) The attachment of bacteria to the surfaces of animal cells. In: Reissig JL (ed) Microbial interactions, receptors and recognition series B, vol 3. Chapman & Hall, London, p 139Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Jones GW, Isaacson RE (1983) Proteinaceous bacterial adhesins and their receptors. Crit Rev Microbiol 10: 229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Joshi KR, Wheeler EE, Gavin JR (1973) Scanning electron microscopy of colonies of six species of Candida. J Bacteriol 115: 341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Joshi KR, Gavin JR, Armiger LC (1975) Intracellular matrix in colonies of Candida. J Bacteriol 123: 1139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kearns MJ, Davies P, Smith H (1983) Variability of the adherence of Candida albicans strains to human buccal epithelial cells: inconsistency of differences between strains related to virulence. Sabouraudia 21: 93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kennedy MJ (1988) Adhesion and association mechanisms of Candida albicans. In: McGinnis MR (ed) Current topics in medical mycology, vol 2. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, p 73Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kennedy MJ, Sandin RL (1988) Influence of growth condition on Candida albicans adhesion, hydrophobicity and cell wall ultrastructure. J Med Vet Mycol 26: 79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kennedy MJ, Volz PA, Edwards CA, Yancey RJ (1987) Mechanisms of association of Candida albicans with intestinal mucosa. J Med Microbiol 24: 333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kennedy MJ, Rogers AL, Hanseimen LR, Soll DR, Yancey RJ (1988) Variation in adhesion and cell surface hydrophobicity in Candida albicans white and opaque phenotypes. Mycopathologia 102: 149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kennedy MJ, Rogers AL, Yancey RJ (1989) Environmental alteration and phenotypic regulation of Candida albicans adhesion to plastic. Infect Immun 57: 3876PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kimura LH, Pearsall NN (1978) Adherence of Candida albicans to human buccal epithelial cells. Infect Immun 21: 64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kimura LH, Pearsall NN (1980) Relationship between germination of Candida albicans and increased adherence to human buccal epithelial cells. Infect Immun 28: 464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    King RD, Lee JC, Morris AL (1980) Adherence of Candida albicans and other Candida species to mucosal epithelial cells. Infect Immun 27: 667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Klotz SA (1987) The adherence of Candida yeasts to human and bovine vascular endothelium and subendothelial extracellular matrix. FEMS Microbiol Lett 48: 201Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Klotz SA, Penn RL (1987) Multiple mechanisms may contribute to the adherence of Candida yeasts to living cells. Curr Microbiol 16: 119Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Klotz SA, Maca RD (1988) Endothelial cell contraction increases Candida adherence to exposed extracellular matrix. Infect Immun 56: 2495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Klotz SA, Dutz DJ, Harrison JL, Huppert M (1983) Adherence and penetration of vascular endothelium by Candida yeasts. Infect Immun 42: 374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Klotz SA, Drutz DJ, Zajic JE (1985) Factors governing adherence of Candida species to plastic surfaces. Infect Immun 50: 97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kuo SC, Lampen JO (1974) Tunicamycin - an inhibitor of yeast glycoprotein synthesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 58: 287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lee JC, King RD (1983) Adherence mechanisms of Candida albicans. In: Schlessinger D (ed) Microbiology. American Society for Microbiology, Washington DC, p 269Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Liljemark WF, Gibbons RJ (1973) Suppression of Candida albicans by human oral streptococci in gnotobiotic mice. Infect Immun 8: 846PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Macura AB (1987) Hydrophobicity of Candida albicans related to their adherence to mucosal epithelial cells. Zentralbl Bakteriol Hyg A 266: 491Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Macura AB (1988) The influence of some antifungal drugs on in vitro adherence of Candida albicans to human buccal epithelial cells. Mycoses 31: 371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Maisch PA, Calderone RA (1980) Adherence of Candida albicans to a fibrin-platelet matrix formed in vitro. Infect Immun 27: 650PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Marrie TJ, Costerton JW (1981) The ultrastructure of Candida albicans infections. Can J Microbiol 27: 1156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Marshall KC, Stout R, Mitchell R (1971) Mechanism of the initial events in the sorption of marine bacteria to surfaces. J Gen Microbiol 68: 337Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    McCourtie J, Douglas LJ (1981) Relationship between cell surface composition of Candida albicans and adherence to acrylic after growth on different carbon sources. Infect Immun 32: 1234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    McCourtie J, Douglas LJ (1984) Relationship between cell surface composition, adherence and virulence of Candida albicans. Infect Immun 45: 6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    McCourtie J, MacFarlane TW, Samaranayake LP (1986) A comparison of the effects of Chlorhexidine gluconate, amphotericin B and nystatin on the adherence of Candida species to denture acrylic. J Antimicrob Chemother 17: 575PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Mehentee JF, Hay RJ (1989) In vitro adherence of Candida albicans strains to murine gastrointestinal mucosal cells and explants and the role of environmental pH. J Gen Microbiol 135: 2181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Minagi S, Miyake Y, Inagaki K, Tsuru H, Suginaka H (1985) Hydrophobic interaction in Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis adherence to various denture base resin materials. Infect Immun 47: 11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Minagi S, Miyake Y, Fugioka Y, Tsuru H, Suginaka H (1986) Cell-surface hydrophobicity of Candida species as determined by the contact-angle and hydrocarbon-adherence methods. J Gen Microbiol 132: 1111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Odds FC (1988) Candida and candidosis. A review and bibliography. Bailliere-Tindall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Odds FC, Webster CE (1988) Effects of azole antifungals in vitro on host/parasite interactions relevant to Candida infections. J Antimicrob Chemother 22: 473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Page S, Odds FC (1988) Binding of plasma proteins to Candida species in vitro. J Gen Microbiol 134: 2693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Persi MA, Burnham JC, Duhring JL (1985) Effects of carbon dioxide and pH on adhesion of Candida albicans to vaginal epithelial cells. Infect Immun 50: 82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Pope LM, Cole GT (1981) SEM studies of adherence of Candida albicans to the gastrointestinal tract of infant mice. Scand Electron Microsci 3: 73Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Pugh D, Cawson RA (1978) The surface layer of Candida albicans. Microbios 23: 19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Ray TL, Payne CD (1988) Scanning electron microscopy of epidermal adherence and cavitation in murine candidiasis: a role for Candida acid proteinase. Infect Immun 56: 1942PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ray TL, Digre KB, Payne CD (1984) Adherence of Candida species to human epidermal corneocytes and buccal mucosal cells: correlation with cutaneous pathogenicity. J Invest Dermatol 83: 37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Rossano F, Tufano MA (1975) Effect of concanavalin A on the adhesiveness of Candida albicans to vaginal cells. Rass Med Sper 22: 313Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Rotrosen D, Gibson TR, Edwards JE (1983) Adherence of Candida species to intravenous catheters. J Infect Dis 147: 594PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Rotrosen D, Edwards JE, Gibson TR, Moore JC, Cohen AH, Green I (1985) Adherence of Candida to cultured vascular endothelial cells: mechanisms of attachment and endothelial cell penetration. J Infect Dis 152: 1264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Rotrosen D, Calderone RA, Edwards JE (1986) Adherence of Candida species to host tissues and plastic surfaces. Rev Infect Dis 8: 73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Samaranayake LP, MacFarlane TW (1980) An in vitro study of the adherence of Candida albicans to acrylic surfaces. Arch Oral Biol 25: 603PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Samaranayake LP, MacFarlane TW (1981) The adhesion of the yeast Candida albicans to epithelial cells of human origin. Arch Oral Biol 26: 815PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Samaranayake LP, MacFarlane TW (1982) Factors affecting the in vitro adherence of the fungal oral pathogen Candida albicans to epithelial cells of human origin. Arch Oral Biol 27: 869Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Samaranayake LP, McCourtie J, MacFarlane TW (1980) Factors affecting the in vitro adherence of Candida albicans to acrylic surfaces. Arch Oral Biol 25: 611PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Sande MA, Bowman CR, Calderone RA (1977) Experimental Candida albicans endocarditis: characterization of the disease and response to therapy. Infect Immun 17: 140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Sandin RL (1987) Studies on cell adhesion and concanavalin A-induced agglutination of Candida albicans after mannan extraction. J Med Microbiol 24: 145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Sandin RL, Rogers AL (1982) Inhibition of adherence of Candida albicans to human epithelial cells. Mycopathol 77: 23Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Sandin RL, Rogers AL, Patterson RJ, Beneke ES (1982) Evidence for mannose-mediated adherence of Candida albicans to human buccal cells in vitro. Infect Immun 35: 79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Sandin RL, Rogers AL, Beneke ES, Fermandez MI (1987) Influence of mucosal cell origin on the in vitro adherence of Candida albicans: are mucosal cells from different sources equivalent? Mycopathologia 98: 111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Sato Y, Arai H, Suzuki K (1974) Leukocytosis-promoting factor for Bordetella pertussis. II. Its identity with protective antigen. Infect Immun 9: 801Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Segal E, Savage D (1986) Adhesion of Candida albicans to mouse intestinal mucosa in vitro: development of the assay and test of inhibitors. J Med Vet Mycol 24: 477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Segal E, Lehrer N, Ofek I (1982) Adherence of Candida albicans to human vaginal epithelial cells: inhibition by amino sugars. Exp Cell Biol 50: 13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Segal E, Soroka A, Schechter A (1984) Correlative relationship between adherence of Candida albicans to human vaginal epithelial cells in vitro and candidal vaginitis. Sabouraudia 22: 191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Segal E, Gottfried L, Lehrer N (1988) Candidal vaginitis in hormone treated mice. Prevention by a chitin extract. Mycopathologia 102: 157Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Shibl AM (1985) Effect of antibiotics on adherence of microorganisms to epithelial cell surfaces. Rev Infect Dis 7: 51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Skerl KG, Calderone A, Segal E, Streevalson T, Scheid WM (1984) In vitro binding of Candida albicans yeast cells to human fibronectin. Can J Microbiol 30: 221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Sobel JD, Obedeanu N (1983) Effects of subinhibitory concentrations of ketoconazole on in vitro adherence of Candida albicans to vaginal epithelial cells. Eur J Clin Microbiol 2: 445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Sobel JD, Myers PG, Kaye D, Levison ME (1981) Adherence of Candida albicans to human vaginal and buccal epithelial cells. J Infect Dis 143: 76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Sobel JD, Myers P, Levison ME, Kaye D (1982) Comparison of bacterial and fungal adherence to vaginal exfoliated epithelial cells and human vaginal epithelial tissue culture cells. Infect Immun 35: 697PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Sobel JD, Muller G, Buckley HR (1984) Critical role of germ-tube formation in the pathogenesis of candidal vaginitis. Infect Immun 44: 576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Soll DR, Langtimm CJ, McDowell J, Hicks J, Galask R (1987) High frequency switching in Candida strains isolated from vaginitis patients. J Clin Microbiol 25: 1611PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Suegara N, Siegel JE, Savage DC (1979) Ecological determinants in microbial colonization of the murine gastrointestinal tract: adherence of Torulopsis pintolopesii to epithelial surfaces. Infect Immun 25: 139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Tkaez JS, Cybulska EB, Lampen JO (1971) Specific staining of wall mannan in yeast cells with fluorescein-conjugated concanavalin A. J Bacteriol 105: 1Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Tobgi RS, Samaranayake LP, MacFarlane TW (1987) Adhesion of Candida albicans to buccal epithelial cells exposed to Chlorhexidine. J Med Vet Mycol 25: 335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Tokunaga M, Niimi M, Koike H (1988) Electron microscopic observation of adherence of Candida albicans to human buccal epithelial cells using rapid freezing technique. In : X Congress International Society for Human and Animal Mycology Poster No 122, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Tomsikova A, Kotal L, Novackova D (1987) The role of adherence of Candida species in the pathogenesis of vaginal and oral candidiasis. Mykosen 30: 74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Tronchin G, Poulain D, Vernes A (1984) Cytochemical and ultrastructural studies of Candida albicans. III. Evidence for modifications of the cell wall coat during adherence to human buccal epithelial cells. Arch Microbiol 139: 221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Tronchin G, Robert R, Bouali A, Senet J-M (1987) Immunocytochemical localization of in vitro binding of human fibrinogen to Candida albicans germ-tube and mycelium. Ann Inst Pasteur Microbiol 138: 177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Tronchin G, Bouchara J-P, Robert R, Senet J-M (1988) Adherence of Candida albicans germ-tubes to plastic: ultrastructural and molecular studies of fibrillar adhesins. Infect Immun 56: 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Vuddhakul V, McCormack JG, Seow WK, Thong YH (1989) Inhibitory effects of human neutrophil granules and oxygen radicals on adherence of Candida albicans. J Med Microbiol 29: 181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Vudhichamnog K, Walter DM, Ryley HC (1982) The effect of secretory immunoglobulin A on the in vitro adherence of the yeast Candida albicans to human oral epithelial cells. Arch Oral Biol 27: 617Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Walker PD, Nagy LK ( 1980) Adhesion of organisms to animal tissues. In : Berkeley RC W, Lynch JM, Meiling J, Rutter PR, Vincent B (eds) Microbial adhesion to surfaces, Chapter 26. Ellis Horwood, ChichesterGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. Ghannoum
    • 1
  • K. Abu-Elteen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Botany and MicrobiologyKuwait UniversitySafatState of Kuwait

Personalised recommendations