Retrovirus Phylogeny and Evolution
During the past few years the nucleic sequences of a large number of retroviruses have been determined, making it possible to quantify how they are related to each other and to trace their evolutionary origins. There are two factors that complicate such studies, however. First, retroviruses, like other RNA viruses, mutate at a very rapid rate (Holland et al. 1982) and as a consequence evolve very rapidly. Second, retroviruses can recombine with each other (see for example Clark and Mak 1984; reviewed in Linial and Blair 1984), raising the possibility that simple phylogenies may be confounded by mosaic genomes.
KeywordsArthritis Hepatitis Leukemia Recombination Anemia
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Dayhoff MO, Park CM, McLaughlin PJ (1972) Building a phylogenetic tree: cytochrome c, In: Dayhoff MO (ed) Atlas of protein sequence and structure, vol 5. National Biomedical Research Foundation, Washington DC pp 7–16Google Scholar
- Lineal M, Blair D (1984) Genetics of Retroviruses. In: Weiss R, Teich N, Varmus H, Coffin J (eds) Molecular Biology of Tumor Virus: RNA Tumor Viruses. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, pp. 649–783Google Scholar
- Ratner L, Haseltine W, Patarca R, Livak KJ, Starcich B, Josephs SF, Doran ER, Rafalski JA, Whitehorn EA, Baumeister K, Ivanoff L, Retteway Jr, SR, Pearson ML, Lautenberger JA, Papas TS, Ghrayeb J, Chang NT, Gallo RC, Wong-Staal F (1985) Complete nucleotide sequence of the AIDS virus, HTLV-III. Nature 313: 277–283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Teich N (1984) Taxonomy of Retroviruses. In: Weiss R et al. (eds) RNA Tumor Viruses. 2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, pp 25–207Google Scholar
- Temin H (1985) Reverse transcription in the eukaryotic genome: retroviruses, pararetroviruses, retrotransposons and retrotranscripts. Mol Biol Evol 6: 455–468Google Scholar