Radiation Effects on Transcription in Cells and Isolated Cell Nuclei
Part of the
NATO ASI Series
book series (volume 54)
Radiation effects on gene transcription represent an early cellular response to DNA damage. Considering the basic processes of RNA synthesis, polymerase binding/initiation and elongation may be affected by distinct mechanisms. Inhibition of the elongation reaction is generally assumed to occur at the site of critical DNA lesions - operating as termination signals - and the measurement of RNA synthesis (ribosomal RNA in particular) was used to quantitate the induction and eventually repair of transcription terminating pyrimidine dimers from UV-light exposure. With ionizing radiation a corresponding mechanism of elongation inhibition had been concluded for in vitro systems and some microorganisms - presumably due to the induction of single-strand breaks and/or base damage.
KeywordsChromatin Domain Transcription Inhibition Template Activity Elongation Reaction Elongation Inhibition
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
Goldman MA (1988) The chromatin domain as a unit of gene regulation. Bio Essays 9:50–55Google Scholar
Luchnik AN, Hisamutdinov TA, Georgiev GP (1988) Inhibition of transcription in eucaryotic cells by X-irradiation: Relation to loss of topological constraint in closed DNA loops. Nucl Acids Res 16:5175–5184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith CA (1987) DNA repair in specific sequences in mammalian cells. J Cell Sci Supp] 6:225–241Google Scholar
Villeponteau B, Martinson HG (1987) Gamma rays and bleomycin nick DNA and reverse the DNasel sensitivity of beta-globin gene chromatin in vivo. Mol Cell Biol 7:1917–1924PubMedGoogle Scholar
Weisbrod S (1982) Active chromatin. Nature 297:289–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991