A Quantitative Approach to the Molecular Biology of Phytochrome Action

  • C. B. Johnson
  • S. M. Allsebrook
  • H. Carr-Smith
  • B. Thomas
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 50)


Recently there have been enormous advances in our understanding of two major aspects of photomorphogenesis. Firstly, the photoreceptor itself: detail is beginning to emerge of at least three molecular forms of phytochrome and this has already led to considerable speculation as to the physiological roles of these different molecular species. Secondly, our understanding of the mechanism of light-mediated control of gene transcription is advancing rapidly, with the identification of the regulatory cis-acting elements involved in photocontrol of transcription and the isolation of protein factors which interact with them. Most of this work has necessarily been qualitative in nature.


Nitrate Reductase Action Spectrum Nitrate Reductase Activity Fluence Rate Action Spectroscopy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bartley MR, Frankland B (1982) Analysis of the dual role of phytochrome in the photoinhibition of seed germination. Nature 300:750–752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beggs CJ, Holmes MG, Jabben, Schäfer E (1980) Action spectra for the inhibition of hypocotyl growth by continuous irradiation in light and dark grown Sinapis alba L. seedlings. Plant Physiol 66:615–618.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blondon F, Jacques R (1970) Action de la lumière sur l’initiation florale du Lolium temulentum L.: spectre d’action et ròle du phytochrome. C R Acad Sci (Paris) 270:947–950.Google Scholar
  4. Borthwick HA, Hendricks SB, Parker MW (1948) Action spectrum for photoperiodic control of floral initiation of a long-day plant, Wintex barley (Hordeum vulgare). Bot Gaz 110:103–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bowsher CG, Long DM, Oaks A, Rothstein SJ (1991) Effect of light/dark cycles on expression of nitrate assimilatory genes in maize shoots and roots. Plant Physiol 95:281–285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boylan MT, Quail, PH (1989) Oat phytochrome is biologically active in transgenic tomatoes. The Plant Cell 1:765–773.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Can-Smith H, Johnson CB, Thomas B (1989) Action spectrum for the affect of day-extensions on flowering and apex elongation in green, light-grown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Planta 179:428–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Can-Smith H, Thomas B, Johnson CB, Plumpton C, Butcher GW (1991) The kinetics of type-1 phytochrome in green, light-grown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Planta (in press).Google Scholar
  9. Deng M-D, Moureaux T, Leydecker M-T, Caboche M (1990) Nitrate-reductase expression is under the control of a circadian rhythm and is light inducible in Nicotiana tabacum leaves. Planta 180:257–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Downs RJ (1956) Photoreversibility of flower initiation. Plant Physiol 31:279–284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Friend DCJ (1968) Spectral requirements for flower initiation in two long-day plants, rape (Brassica campestris cv. ceres) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum). Physiol Plant 21:1185–1195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Friend DCJ, Helson VA, Fisher JE (1959) The relative effectiveness of standard cool fluoresecent and incandescent light in the photoperiodic response of Marquis wheat, Garnet wheat and Wintex barley. Can J Plant Sci 39:229–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Galangau F, Daniele-Vedele F, Moureaux T, Dorbe M-F, Leydecker M-T, Caboche M (1988) Expression of leaf nitrate reductase genes from tomato and tobacco in relation to light-dark regimes and nitrate supply. Plant Physiol 88:383–388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hilton JR, Thomas B (1985) A comparison of seed and seedling phytochrome in Avena sativa L. using monoclonal antibodies. J Exp Bot 36:1937–1946.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hilton JR, Thomas B (1987) Photoregulation of phytochrome synthesis in germinating embryos of Avena sativa L. J Exp Bot 38:1704–1712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Holmes MG, Schäfer E (1981) Action spectra for changes in the ‘high inadiance reaction’in hypocotyls of Sinapis alba L. Planta 153:267–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Imhoff Ch, Lecharny A, Jacques R, Brulfert J ((1979) Two phytochrome-dependent processes in Anagallis arvensis L.: flowering and stem elongation. Plant Cell Environ 2:67–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jacques M, Jacques R (1969) Spectre d’action de l’induction florale de deux Cheno-podiacées de jour long. C R Acad Sci (Paris) 269:2107–2109.Google Scholar
  19. Johnson CB, Whitelam GC (1982) Phytochrome action in light-grown plants: the control of nitrate reduction as a model response. Photochem Photobiol 35:251–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Johnson CB (1981) How does phytochrome perceive light quality? In: Plants and the daylight spectrum, H. Smith (ed) pp481–497. Academic Press London.Google Scholar
  21. Johnson CB (1990) Signal transduction mechanisms in phytochrome action. In: Ranjeva R, Boudet AM (eds) Signal Perception and transduction in higher plants. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  22. Kay SA, Nagatani A, Keith B, Deak M, Furuya M, Chua N-H (1989) Rice phytochrome is biologically active in transgenic tobacco. The Plant Cell 1:775–782.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Keller JM, Shanklin J, Vierstra RD, Hershey HP (1989) Expression of functional monocotyledonous phytochrome in transgenic tobacco. EMBO J 8:1005–1012.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Parker MW, Hendricks SB, Borthwick HA, Scully NI (1946) Action spectrum for the photoperiodic control of floral initiation in short-day plants. Bot Gaz 108:1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Parker MW, Hendricks SB, Borthwick HA (1950) Action spectrum for the photoperiodic control of floral initiation of the long-day plant, Hyoscyamus niger. Bot Gaz 111:242–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rajasekhar VK, Gowri G, Campbell WH (1988) Phytochrome-mediated light regulation of nitrate reductase expression in squash cotyledons. Plant Physiol 88:242–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Schäfer E, Manné D, Marchai B (1972) In vivo measurements of the phytochrome photostationary state in far-red light. Photochem Photobiol 15:457–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Schäfer E, Fukshansky L, Shropshire W Jr (1983) Action spectroscopy of photoreversible pigment systems. In: Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology NS, vol 16: Photomor-phogenesis, pp39–68, Shropshre W Jr, Mohr H (eds) Springer Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  29. Smith H (1990) Signal perception, differential expression within multigene families and the molecular basis of phenotypic plasticity. Plant Cell Environ 13:585–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wall JK, Johnson CB (1983) An analysis of phytochrome action in the ‘high-irradiance response’. Planta 159:387–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Whitelam GC, Johnson CB, Smith H (1979) The control by phytochrome of nitrate reductase in the curd of light-grown cauliflower. Photochem Photobiol 30:589–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Whitelam GC, Johnson CB (1982) Photomorphogenesis in Impatiens parviflom and other plant species under simulated natural canopy radiation. New Phytol 90:611–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. B. Johnson
    • 1
  • S. M. Allsebrook
    • 1
  • H. Carr-Smith
    • 1
  • B. Thomas
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BotanyUniversity of ReadingReadingUK
  2. 2.Department of Molecular BiologyHorticulture Research InternationalLittlehamptonUK

Personalised recommendations