Advertisement

Receptor Selectivity and Dimensionality of Odours at the Stage of the Olfactory Receptor Cells

  • Gilles Sicard
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 39)

Abstract

Several different approaches have been used to relate physico-chemical properties of odorants to their organoleptic characteristics such as judged by human subjects. Unfortunately, one get several difficulties if one tries a direct mapping of the whole perceptual olfactory space onto the physico-chemical space. The descriptions of odour rest always incomplete; correlations between individuals are low, probably due to the sociological conditions of learning (Berglund et al., 1971, O’Connell, 1989). In addition, the integration of peripheral information by physiological processes is complex, involving also non-olfactory — for instance trigeminal — pathways (Cain et al., 1980, Silver et al, 1988). As a consequence, a number of studies have considered restricted portions of the olfactory space in order to determine chemical similarities between members of “odorant families”. Another interesting approach, is based on the assumption that there is a correspondence between specific anosmia known as a perceptual disfunction limited to an odorant family or note and genetic deficits of selective receptors in affected human subjects. Increasing numbers (several tenths) of different specific anosmias have been reported, thus suggesting the existence of several tenths of receptor sites (Amoore, 1982). Nevertheless, odorants are often described by multiple terms and thus can belong to several odorant families (Beets, 1982, Boelens, 1983). For example, beta-damascone shows a complicated odor profile in which fruity-flowery, exotic-spicy and chrysanthenum-like elements predominate (Olhoff, 1986). Moerover, correct analysis of a given odour requires several successive sniffs (Laing, 1983) what possibly means that time could be a pertinent factor in odour coding.

Keywords

Receptor Cell Olfactory Bulb Olfactory Receptor Olfactory Epithelium Olfactory System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Refererences

  1. Amoore JE (1982) Odor theory and odor classification. In Theimer, ET (ed), Frangance chemistry. The science of the sense of smell, Academic Press, New York, London, pp 27–76.Google Scholar
  2. Anholt RRH, Mumby SM, Stoffers DA, Girard PR, Kuo JF, Snyder SH (1987) Transduction proteins of olfactory receptor cells: Identification of guanine nucleotide binding proteins and protein kinase C. Biochem, 26: 788–795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Astic L, Saucier D (1986) Anatomical mapping of the neuroepithelial projection to the olfactory bulb in the rat. Br Res Bull, 16: 445–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baylin F (1979) Temporal patterns and selectivity in the unitary responses of olfactory receptors in the tiger salamander. J Gne Physiol. 74: 17–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baylin F, Moulton DG (1979) Adaptation and Cross adaptation to odor stimulation of olfactory receptors in the tiger salamander. J. Gen Physiol 74: 37–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beets MGJ (1982) Odor and stimulant structure. In Theimer, ET (ed), Frangance chemistry. The science of the sense of smell, Academic Press, New York, London, pp 77–122.Google Scholar
  7. Bell, GA, Laing DG, Panhuber H (1987) Odour mixture suppression: evidence for a peripheral mechanism in human and rat. Br Res, 426: 8–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berglund, B, Berglund U, Ekman G, Engen T (1971) Individual psychophysical functions for 28 odorants. Percept Psychophys, 9, 379–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boelens H (1983) Structure-activity relationships in chemoreception by human olfaction. TIPS, 421–426.Google Scholar
  10. Cain WS, Murphy CL (1980) Interaction between chemoreceptive modalities od odour and irritation. Nature, 284: 255–257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chastrette M (1981) An approach to a classification of odours using physico-chemical parameters. Chem. senses 6: 157–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen Z, Lancet D (1984) Membrane proteins unique to vertebrate olfactory cilia: candidates for sensory receptor molecules. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 81: 1859–1863.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Costanzo RM, O’Connell RJ (1978) Spatially organized projections of hamster olfactory nerves. Br Res, 139: 327–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Daval G, Leveteau J, Mac Leod P (1970) Electro-olfactogramme local et discrimination olfactive chez la grenouille. J Physiol Paris, 62: 477–488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Davies JT (1965) A theory of the quality of odours. J Theor Biol, 8: 1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Delaleu JC, Holley A (1980) Modification of transduction mechanism in the frog’s olfactory mucosa using a thiol reagent as olfactory stimulus. Chem Senses, 3: 205–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Doving KB (1974) Odorant properties correlated with physiological data. N.Y. Acad of Sci, 237: 184–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dravnieks A, Laffort P (1972) Physico-chemical basis of quantitative and qualitative odor discrimination in humans. In Schneider D (ed), Olfaction and Taste 4, Wissens-Verlag-MBH, Stuttgart, 142–148.Google Scholar
  19. Dreesen TD, Koch RB (1982) Odorous chemical perturbations of (Na2+ K+)–dependent ATPase activities. Biochem J, 203: 69–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Duchamp A, Revial MF, Holley A, Mac Leod P (1974) Odor discrimination by frog olfactory receptors. Chem Senses 1: 213–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Duchamp-Viret P, Duchamp A, Vigouroux M (1989) Amplifying role of convergence in olfactory system: comparison of receptor cell and second order neuron sensitivities. J Neurophysiol 61: 1085–1094.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Edwards DA, Mather RA, Dodd GH (1988) Spatial variation in response to odorants on the rat olfactory epithelium. Experientia, 44: 208–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Eminet BP, Chastrette M (1983) Discrimination of camphoraceous substances using physico-chemical parameters. Chem Senses, 7: 293–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fesenko EE, Novoselov VI, Novikov, JV (1985) Molecular mechanisms of olfactory reception. VI Kinetic characteristics of camphor interaction with binding sites of rat olfactory epithelium. Biochem Biophys Acta 839: 268–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Fesenko EE, Novoselov VI, Bystrova MF (1987) The subunits of specific odor-binding glycoproteins from rat olfactory epithelium. FEB, 219: 224–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fesenko EE, Novoselov VI, Bystrova MF (1988) Properties of odour-binding glycoproteins from rat olfactory epithelium. Biochem. Biophys. Acta, 937: 369–378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gennings JN, Gower DB, Bannister GH (1977) Studies on the receptor to 5 -androst16-ene-3-one in sow nasal mucosa. Biochem. Biophys. Acta, 496: 547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Gesteland RC, Lettvin JY, Pitts WH, Rojas A (1963) Odor specificities of the frog’s olfactory receptors. In Zotterman (ed.), Olfaction and Taste, vol 1, Pergamon Press, London, pp 7–21.Google Scholar
  29. Gesteland RC, Getchell, TV (1972) The chemistry of olfactory reception: stimulus specific protection from sulfhydryl reagent inhibition. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA, 69: 1494–1498.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gesteland RC, Yancey RA, Farbman AI (1982) Development of olfactory receptor neuroselectivity in the rat fetus, Neurosci., 7: 3127–3136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Getchell TV (1974) Unitary responses in frog olfactory epithelium to sterically related molecules at low concentration. J Gen Physiol, 64: 241–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Getchell TV, Shepherd GM (1978) Adaptative properties of olfactory receptors analysed with odour pulses of varying durations. J Physiol, London, 282: 541–560.Google Scholar
  33. Goldberg SJ, Turpin J, Price S (1979) Anisole binding protein from olfactory epithelium: evidence for a role in transduction. Chem. Senses, 4: 207–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gross-Isserof R, Lancet D (1988) Concentration-dependent changes of perceived odor quality. Chem Senses, 13: 191–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Harding JW, Getchell TV, Margolis FL (1978) Denervation of olfactory pathway in mice. V Long-term effect of ZnSO4 intranasal irrigation on behavior, biochemistry and morphology. Br Res, 140: 271–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kashiwayanagi M, Sai K, Kurihara K (1987) Cell sustensions from porcine olfactory mucosa: Changes in Membrane Potential and membrane fluidity in response to various odorants. J. Gen. Physiol., 89: 443–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kauer JS, Moulton DG (1974) Responses of olfactory bulb neurons to odour stimulations of small nasal areas in the salamander. J Physiol, London, 243: 717–737.Google Scholar
  38. Laing DG (1983) Natural sniffing gives optimum odour perception for humans. Perception, 12: 99–117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lee KH, Wells RG, Reed RR (1987) Isolation of an olfactory cDNA: Similarity to retinol-binding protein suggest a role in olfaction. Science, 235: 1053–1056.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mackay-Sim A, Shaman P, Moulton DG (1982) Topographic coding of olfactory quality: odorant-specific patterns of epithelial responsivity in the salamander. J Neurophysiol, 48: 584–596.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Mackay-Sim A, Nathan MH (1984) The projection from olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulb in the salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum. Anat Embryol 170: 93–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mustaparta A (1971) Spatial distribution of receptor-responses to stimulation with different odours. Acta Physiol Scand, 82: 154–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. O’Connel RJ, Stevens DA, Akers RP, Coppola DM, Grant AJ (1989) Individual differences in the qualitative responses of human subjects to various odors. Chem Senses 14: 293–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ohloff G, (1986) Chemistry of odor stimuli. Experientia, 42: 271–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pace U, Hanski E, Salomon Y, Lancet D (1985) Odorant-sensitive adenylate cyclase may mediate olfactory reception Nature 316: 255–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pelosi P, Baldaccini NE, Pisanelli AM (1982) Identification of a specific olfactory receptor for 2-isobutyl-3-methoxy pyrazine. Biochem. J, G. 201: 245–248.Google Scholar
  47. Pevsner J, Trifiletti RR, Strittmatter S (1985) Isolation and characterisation of an olfactory receptor protein for odorant pyrazines. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82: 3050–3054.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Polak EH (1973) Multiple profile-multiple receptor site model for vertebrate olfaction. J theor Biol, 40: 469–484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Price S (1978) Anisole binding protein from dog olfactory epithelium. Chem Senses, 3: 51–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Revial MF, Duchamp A, Holley A (1978) Odour discrimination by frog olfactory receptors: a second study. Chem Senses, 3: 7–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Revial MF, Sicard G, Duchamp A, Holley A (1982) New studies on odour discrimination in the frog’s olfactory receptor cells. II Mathemathical analysis of electrophysiological responses. Chem. Senses, 8: 179–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Saucier D, Astic L (1986) Analysis of the topographical organization of olfactory epithelium projection in the rat. Br Res Bull, 16: 455–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Schiffman SS (1974) Physico chemical correlates of olfactory quality. Science, 185: 112–117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Shirley SG, Robinson CJ, Dodd GH (1987) The influence of temperature and membrane-fluidity changes on the olfactory adenylate cyclase of the rat. Biochem J 245: 613–616.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Shirley SG, Polak E, Dodd GH (1983) Selective inhibition of rat olfactory receptors by concanavalin A. Biochem Soc Transact, 11: 780–781.Google Scholar
  56. Sicard G, Holley A (1984) Receptor cell responses to odorants: similarities and differences among odorants. Br Res, 292: 283–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sicard G (1985) Olfactory discrimination of structurally related molecules: receptor cell responses to camphoraceous odorants. Br Res, 326: 203–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sicard G (1986) Electrophysiological recordings from olfactory receptor cells in adult mice. Br Res, 397: 405–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Silver WL, Arzt AH, Mason JR (1988) A comparison of the discrimininatory ability and sensitivity of trigeminal and olfactory systems to chemical stimuli in the tiger salamander. J Comp Physiol A, 164: 55–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Steward WB, Pedersen PE, Greer CA, Shepherd GM (1985) The topography of olfactory epithelium to olfactory bulb projections in the rat. Chem Senses, 10: 400Google Scholar
  61. Thommesen G, Doving KB (1977) Spatial distribution of EOG in the rat: a variation with odour quality. Acta Physiol Scand, 99: 270–280.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gilles Sicard
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire de Physiologie NeurosensorielleCNRS-URA 180 LYON IVilleurbanne cedexFrance

Personalised recommendations