Advertisement

Olfactory EEG Changes under Serial Discrimination of Odorants by Rabbits

  • Walter J. Freeman
  • G. Wesley Davis
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 39)

Abstract

The basic hypothesis in this study is that odor-specific information in the olfactory bulb is carried in the spatial patterns of cooperative activity of masses of bulbar neurons. We predict that the bulbar response to an odorant in any given time frame (on the order of 0.1 sec) is manifested in a spatial pattern of electrical activity over the neurons comprising the bulb (on the order of 100 mm2 in surface area) at a surface grain corresponding to the mean distance between glomeruli (0.25 mm center to center) that spatially coarse-grain the receptor input. Axons from receptors project directly into the bulb and excite second order neurons (the mitral cells) that project in turn to the olfactory cortex. Unit studies of olfactory receptors in several species have shown that cells differ markedly in their sensitivities to odors. Anatomical and electro-physiological studies have shown that there is a degree of topographic order in the axonal connections from the receptors to the bulb (Freeman, 1975). Adrian (1950) predicted that different odorants would cause different spatial activity patterns of receptors in the mucosa, and that their axons would establish different patterns of activity in the spatial array of mitral cells.

Keywords

Conditioned Stimulus Olfactory Bulb Unconditioned Stimulus Peak Frequency Conditioned Response 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adrian, E.D. (1950) The electrical activity of the mammalian olfactory bulb. Electroencephalog. clin. Neurophysiol. 2:377–388Google Scholar
  2. Childers, D.G. (1978) Modern Spectrum Analysis. New York, IEEE PressGoogle Scholar
  3. Davis, G.W. and Freeman, W.J. (1982) On-line detection of respiratory events applied to behavioral conditioning of rabbits. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Engineering BNE 29 (6):453–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Freeman, W.J. (1975) Mass Action in the Nervous System. New York, AcademicGoogle Scholar
  5. Freeman, W.J. (1978) Spatial properties of an EEG event in the olfactory bulb and cortex. Electroencephalog. clin. Neurophysiol. 44:586–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Freeman, W.J. (1979) EEG analysis gives model of neuronal template-matching mechanism for sensory search with olfactory bulb. Biological Cybernetics 35:221–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Freeman, W.J. (1983) The physiological basis of mental images. Academic Address. Biological Psychiatry 18:1107–1125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Freeman, W.J. (1987) Analytic techniques used in the search for the physiological basis of the EEG. Gevins, A. and Remond, A. (eds) Handbook of Electroencephalography and clinical Neurophysiology, Vol. 3A, Part 2, Ch. 18. Amsterdam, Elsevier. pp. 583–664Google Scholar
  9. Freeman, W.J. and Schneider, W.S. (1982) Changes in spatial patterns of rabbitolfactory EEG with conditioning to odors. Psychophysiol. 19:44–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Freeman, W.J. and Skarda, C.A. (1985) Spatial EEG patterns, nonlinear dynamics and perception. Brain Research Reviews 10:147–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Freeman, W.J. and Viana Di Prisco, G. (1986) EEG spatial pattern differences with discriminated odorants manifest chaotic and limit cycle attractors in olfactory bulb of rabbits. Proceedings, Conference on Brain Theory, Trieste 1984. Berlin, Springer-Verlag. pp. 97–119Google Scholar
  12. Freeman, W.J., Viana Di Prisco, G., Davis, G.W. and Whitney, T.M. (1983) Conditioning of relative frequency of sniffing by rabbits to odors. J. C-omp. Psychol. 97:12–23Google Scholar
  13. Gray, C.M., Freeman, W.J. and Skinner, J.E. (1986) Chemical dependencies oflearning in the rabbit olfactory bulb: Acquisition of the transientspatial pattern change depends on norepinephrine. Behavioral Neuroscience 100:585–596PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Sammon, J.W. (1969) A nonlinear mapping for data structure analysis. IEEE Trans. on Computers 18:401–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Viana Di Prisco, G. and Freeman, W.J. (1985) Odor-related bulbar EEG spatial pattern analysis during appetitive conditioning in rabbits. Behavioral Neuroscience 99:964–978CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Walter J. Freeman
    • 1
  • G. Wesley Davis
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Physiology-AnatomyUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.MilwaukeeUSA

Personalised recommendations