Applicability of Five Diet-Selection Models to Various Foraging Challenges Ruminants Encounter

  • Fred D. Provenza
  • David F. Balph
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 20)


It is common knowledge that ruminants do not forage at random, but select a diet from the plants available to them. We believe foraging environments present at least five problems or challenges to ruminants selecting dietary items: (1) variation among dietary items in kind and amount of nutritional constituents, (2) variation among potential dietary items in kind and amount of chemical defenses, (3) plant morphological defenses, (4) temporal and spatial variation in the quantity and quality of forage, and (5) exposure of ruminants to unfamiliar foraging environments. Our objective is to assess the ability of five explanations of diet selection to provide insights into the responses of ruminants to these challenges. The models are: (1) endogenously-generated hungers (euphagia), (2) immediate sensory consequences (hedyphagia), (3) body morpho-physiology and size (morphophysiology), (4) learning through foraging consequences (learning), and (5) nutritional optimization (optimal foraging). We make the assessment by first describing the diet-selection challenges and then discussing the models and their applications to the challenges.


Condensed Tannin Conditioned Taste Aversion Dietary Item Poisonous Plant Food Aversion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Andersen R (1989) Counteracting selection pressures on the migrating behavior of moose (Alces alces): the costs of culture. Behav Ecol Sociobiol in pressGoogle Scholar
  2. Aoki C, Siekevitz P (1988) Plasticity in brain development. Sci Am 256: 56–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnold G W (1970) Regulation of food intake in grazing ruminants. In: Phillipson AT (ed), Physiology of digestion and metabolism in the ruminant. Oriel Press, London, p 264Google Scholar
  4. Arnold G W, Hill J L (1972) Chemical factors affecting selection of food plants by ruminants. In: Harborne J B (ed) Phytochemical ecology. Academic Press, London, p 71Google Scholar
  5. Arnold G W, Mailer R A (1977) Effects of nutritional experience in early and adult life on the performance and dietary habits of sheep. Appl Anim Ethol 3: 5–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arnold G W, Dudzinski M L (1978) Ethology of free-ranging domestic animals Elsevier/North Holland, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Austin D D, Urness P J (1983) Overwinter forage selection by mule deer on seeded big sagebrush-grass range. J Wildl Manage 47: 1203–1207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Austin D D, Urness P J, Fierro L C (1983) Spring livestock grazing affects crested wheatgrass regrowth and winter use by mule deer. J Range Manage 36: 589–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bailey D W, Rittenhouse L R, Hart R H, Richards R W (1989) Characteristics of spatial memory in cattle. Appl Anim Behav Sci 23: 331–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bailey E M Jr (1988) The importance of diagnosing poisoning from plants. In: James L F, Ralphs M H, Nielson D B (eds) The ecology and economic impact of poisonous plants on livestock production. Westview Press, Boulder, p 3 37Google Scholar
  11. Barker L M, Best M R, Domjan M (eds) (1977) Learning mechanisms in food selection. Baylor Univ Press, WacoGoogle Scholar
  12. Bassette R, Fung D Y C, Mantha V R (1986) Off-flavors in milk. CRC Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 24: 1–52Google Scholar
  13. Bate-Smith E C (1972) Attractants and repellents in higher animals. In: Harborne J B (ed) Phytochemical ecology. Academic Press, London, p 45Google Scholar
  14. Bate-Smith E C and Metcalf C R (1957) Leucoanthocyanins 3. The nature and systematic distribution of tannins in dicotyledenous plants. J Linn Soc Bot 55: 669–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Beauchamp G K, Cowart B J (1987) Development of sweet taste. In: Dobbing J (ed), Sweetness. Springer-Verlag, London, p 127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bell F R (1984) Aspects of ingestive behavior in cattle. J Anim Sci 59: 1369–1372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bell R H V (1969) The use of the herb layer by grazing ungulates in the Serengeti. In: Watson A (ed) Animal populations in relation to their food resources. Blackwell Sci, Oxford, p 111Google Scholar
  18. Bell R H V (1971) A grazing ecosystem in the Serengeti. Sci Am 225: 86–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bermudez-Rattoni F, Forthman Quick D L, Sanchez M A, Perez J L, Garcia J (1988) Odor and taste aversions conditioned in anesthetized rats. Behav Neurosci 102: 726–732PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bolles R C, Hayward L, Crandall C (1981) Conditioned taste preferences based on caloric density. J Exp Psychol: Anim Behav Proc 7: 59–69Google Scholar
  21. Booth, D A (1985) Food-conditioned eating preferences and aversions with introceptive elements: conditioned appetities and satieties. In: Braveman N S, Bronstein P (eds) Experimental assessments and clinical applications of conditioned food aversions. New York Acad Sci, New York, p 22Google Scholar
  22. Borison H L (1986) Anatomy and physiology of the chemoreceptor trigger zone and area postrema. In: Davis C J, Lake-Bakaar G V, Grahame-Smith D G (eds) Nausea and vomiting: mechanisms and treatment. Springer-Verlag, New York, p 10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Boyd R, Richerson P J (1985) Culture and the evolutionary process. Univ Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  24. Bradley R M, Mistretta C M (1973) The gustatory sense in foetal sheep during the last third of gestation. J Physiol 231:271– 282Google Scholar
  25. Braveman N S, Bronstein P, eds (1985) Experimental assessments and clinical applications of conditioned food aversions. New York Academy Sci, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. Bryant J P, Chapin F S III and Klein D R (1983) Carbon/nutrient balance of boreal plants in relation to vertebrate herbivory. Oikos 40: 357–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bryant J P, Provenza F D, Gobena A (1987) Environmental controls over woody plant chemical defenses: implications for goat management. In: Santana O P, da Silva A G, Foote W C (eds) Proc IV intnl conf on goats. Departmento de Difusao de Technologia, Brazilia, p 1005Google Scholar
  28. Buresova O, Bures J (1973) Cortical and subcortical components of the conditioned saccharin aversion. Physiol Behav 11: 435–439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Burritt E A, Provenza F D (1989a) Food aversion learning: ability of lambs to distinguish safe from harmful foods. J Anim Sci 67: 1732–1739PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Burritt E A, Provenza F D (1989b) Ability of lambs to learn with a delay between fqod ingestion and consequences given meals containing novel and- familiar foods. Appl Anim Behav Sci submittedGoogle Scholar
  31. Burritt E A, Provenza F D (1989c) Food aversion learning in sheep: persistence of conditioned taste aversions to palatable shrubs (Cercocarpus montanus and Amelanchier alnifolia). J Anim Sci in pressGoogle Scholar
  32. Capretta P J, Rawls L H (1974) Establishment of a flavor preference in rats: importance of nursing and weaning experience. J Comp Physiol Psychol 88: 670–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cederlund G, Sandegren F, Larsson K (1987) Summer movement of female moose and dispersal of their offspring. J Wildl Manage 51: 342–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Chappie R S, Lynch J J (1986) Behavioral factors modifying acceptance of supplementary foods by sheep. Res Develop Agric 3: 113–120Google Scholar
  35. Chappie R S, Wodzicka-Tomaszewska M, Lynch J J (1987a) The learning behavior of sheep when introduced to wheat. I. Wheat acceptance by sheep and the effect of trough familiarity. Appl Anim Behav Sci 18: 157–162Google Scholar
  36. Chappie R S, Wodzicka-Tomaszewska M, Lynch J J (1987b) The learning behavior of sheep when introduced to wheat. II. Social transmission of wheat feeding and the role of the senses. Appl Anim Behav Sci 18: 163–172Google Scholar
  37. Charnov E L (1976) Optimal foraging: the marginal value theorem. Theor Popul Biol 9: 129–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Chase L E, Wangsness P J, Kavanaugh J F, Griel L C Jr, Gahagan J H (1976) Changes in portal blood metabolities and insulin with feeding steers twice daily. J Dairy Sci 60: 403–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Cheeke P R, Shull L R (1985) Natural toxicants in feeds and poisonous plants. AVI Publ Co, WestportGoogle Scholar
  40. Church D C (1979) Taste, appetite and regulation of energy balance and control of food intake. In: Church D C (ed) Digestive physiology and nutrition of ruminants. Volume 2 - Nutrition, O & B Books Inc, Corvallis. p 281Google Scholar
  41. Clark C W, Mangel M (1984) Foraging and flock strategies: information in an uncertain environment. Am Nat 123: 626–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Clausen T P, Provenza F D, Burritt E A, Bryant J P, Reichardt P B (1989) Ecological implications of condensed tannin structure: a case study. J Chem Ecol in pressGoogle Scholar
  43. Coley P D, Bryant J P, Chapin F S III (1985) Resource availability and plant antiherbivore defense. Science 230:895– 899Google Scholar
  44. Contreras R J, Frank M (1979) Sodium deprivation alters neural responses to gustatory stimuli. J Gen Physiol 73: 569–594PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Cooper S M, Owen-Smith N (1985) Condensed tannins deter feeding by browsing ruminants in a South African savanna. Oecologia 67: 142–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Cooper S M, Owen-Smith N (1986) Effects of plant spinescence on large mammalian herbivores. Oecologia 68: 446–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Cooper S M, Owen-Smith N, Bryant J P (1988) Foliage acceptability to browsing ruminants in relation to seasonal changes in leaf chemistry of woody plants in a South African savanna. Oecologia 75: 336–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Coppock C E, Everett R W, Smith N E, Slack S T, Harner J P (1974) Variation in forage preference in dairy cattle. J Anim Sci 39: 1170–1179Google Scholar
  49. Coppock C E, Everett R W, Harris B (1981) From feeding to feeding systems. J Dairy Sci 64: 1230–1249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Crawley M J (1983) Herbivory: the dynamics of animal-plant interactions. Univ Calif Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  51. Davis C J, Harding R K, Leslie R A, Andrews P L R (1986) The organization of vomiting as a protective reflex: a commentary on the first day’s discussion. Davis C J, Lake-Bakaar G V, Grahame-Smith D G (eds) Nausea and vomiting: mechanisms and treatment. Springer-Verlag, New York, p 65Google Scholar
  52. Davis J L, Bures J (1972) Disruption of saccharin-aversion learning in rats by cortical spreading depression in the CS-US interval. J Comp Physiol Psychol 80: 398–402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. de Jong A (1986) The role of metabolites and hormones as feedbacks in the control of food intake in ruminants. In: Milligan L P, Grovum W L, Dobson A (eds) Control of digestion and metabolism in ruminants. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, p 459Google Scholar
  54. Demment M W, Van Soest P J (1985) A nutritional explanation for body-size patterns of ruminant and nonruminant herbivores. Am Nat 125: 641–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Demment M W, Longhurst W M (1987) Browsers and grazers: constraints on feeding ecology imposed by gut morphology and body size. In: Santana O P, da Silva A G, Foote W C (ed) Proc IV intnl conf on goats. Departamento de Difusao de Tecnologia, Brazilia, p 989Google Scholar
  56. Denton D A (1965) Evolutionary aspects of the emergence of aldosterone secretion and salt appetite. Physiol Rev 45: 245–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Denton D A, Sabine J R (1963) The behavior of Na deficient sheep. Behaviour 20: 264–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Distel R A, Provenza F D (1990) Early experience affects voluntary intake of blackbrush by goats. In: Abstr 43rd ann mtg soc range manage, RenoGoogle Scholar
  59. Dove F W (1935) A study of individuality in the nutritive instincts and of the causes and effects of variations in the selection of food. Am Nat 69: 469–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Dunbar RIM (1983) Adaptation, fitness and the evolutionary tautology. In: King’s College Sociology Group (eds) Current problems in sociobiology. Cambridge University Press, New York, p 9Google Scholar
  61. du Toit J T, Owen-Smith N (1989) Body size, population metabolism, and habitat specialization among large African herbivores. Am Nat 133: 736–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Festa-Bianchet M (1986) Seasonal dispersion of overlapping mountain sheep ewe groups. J Wildl Manage 50: 325–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Flores E R, Provenza F D, Balph D F (1989a) Role of experience in the development of foraging skills of lambs browsing the shrub serviceberry. Appl Anim Behav Sci 23: 271–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Flores E R, Provenza F D, Balph D F (1989b) The effect of experience on the foraging skill of lambs: importance of plant form. Appl Anim Behav Sci 23: 285–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Flores E R, Provenza F D, Balph D F (1989c) Relationship between plant maturity and foraging experience of lambs grazing hycrest crested wheatgrass. Appl Anim Behav Sci 23: 279–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Forthman Quick D (1984) Reduction of crop damage by olive baboons (Papio anubis): the feasibility of conditioned taste aversion. PhD Diss Univ Calif Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  67. Fowler M E (1983) Plant poisoning in free-living wild animals: a review. J Wildl Dis 19: 34–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Freeland W J, Janzen D H (1974) Strategies in herbivory by mammals: the role of plant secondary compounds. Am Nat 108: 269–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Galef B G Jr (1976) Social transmission of acquired behavior: a discussion of tradition and social learning in vertebrates. In: Rosenblatt J S, Hinde R A, Shaw E, Beer C (eds) Advances in the study of behavior. Academic Press, New York, p 77Google Scholar
  70. Galef, B G Jr (1981) Development of flavor preference in man and animals: the role of social and nonsocial factors. In: Aslin R N, Alberts J R, Peterson M R (eds) Development of perception: psychobiological perspectives. Academic Press, New York, p 411Google Scholar
  71. Galef B G Jr (1986) Social interaction modifies learned aversions, sodium appetite, and both palatability and handling-time induced dietary preference in rats (Rattus norveqicus). J Comp Psychol 100: 432–439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Galef B G Jr, Sherry D F (1973) Mother’s milk: a medium for transmission of cues reflecting the flavor of mother’s diet. J Comp Physiol Psychol 83: 374–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Galef B G Jr, Heiber L (1976) The role of residual olfactory cues in the determination of feeding site selection and exploration patterns of domestic rats. J Comp Physiol Psychol 90: 727–739PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Galef B G Jr, Wigmore S W (1983) Transfer of information concerning distant foods: a laboratory investigation of the ‘information-centre’ hypothesis. Anim Behav 31: 748–758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Galef B G Jr, Kennett D J, Wigmore S W (1984) Transfer of information concerning distant foods in rats: a robust phenomenon. Anim Learn Behav 12: 292–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Garcia J (1989) Food for Tolman: cognition and cathexis in concert. In: Archer T, Nilsson L (eds) Aversion, avoidance and anxiety. Hillsdale, New Jersey, p 45Google Scholar
  77. Garcia J, Hankins W G (1975) The evolution of bitter and the acquisition of toxiphobia. In: Denton D A, Coghlan J P (eds) Fifth internl symp olfaction and taste. Academic Press, New York, p 39Google Scholar
  78. Garcia J, Hankins W G (1977) On the origin of food aversion paradigms. In: Barker L, Domjan M, Best M (eds) Learning mechanisms in food selection. Baylor Univ Press, Waco, p 3Google Scholar
  79. Garcia J, Holder M D (1985) Time, space and value. HumanGoogle Scholar
  80. Neurobiol 4:81–89 Garcia J, Ervin F R, Yorke C H, Koelling R A (1967) Conditioning with delayed vitamin injections. Science 155:716–718Google Scholar
  81. Garcia J, Hankins W G, Coil J D (1977) Koalas, men, and other conditioned gastronomes. In: Milgram N W, Krames L, Alloway T M (eds) Food aversion learning. Plenum Press, New York, p 195Google Scholar
  82. Garcia J, Lasiter P A, Bermudez-Rattoni F, Deems D A (1985) A general theory of aversion learning. In: Braveman N S, Bronstein P (eds) Experimental assessments and clinical applications of conditioned food aversions. New York Academy Sci, New York, p 8Google Scholar
  83. Gasaway W C, DuBois S D, Boertje R D, Reed D J, Simpson D T (1989) Response of radio-collared moose to a large burn in central Alaska. Can J Zool 67: 325–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Geist V (1974) On the relationship of social evolution and ecology in ungulates. Am Zool 14: 205–220Google Scholar
  85. Gershenzon J (1984) Changes in the levels of plant secondary metabolities under water and nutrient stress. Ree Adv Phytochem 18: 273–320Google Scholar
  86. Gordon J G, Tribe D E (1951) The self-selection of diet by pregnant ewes. J Agric Sei 41: 187–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Gordon J G, Tribe D E, Graham T C (1954) The feeding behavior of phosphorus-deficient cattle and sheep. Brit J Anim Behav 2: 727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Grahame-Smith D G (1986) The multiple causes of vomiting: is there a common mechanism? Davis C J, Lake-Bakaar G V, Grahame-Smith D G (eds) Nausea and vomiting: mechanisms and treatment. Springer-Verlag, New York, p 1Google Scholar
  89. Green G C, Elwin R L, Mottershead B E, Keogh R G, Lynch J J (1984) Long-term effects of early experience to supplementary feeding in sheep. Proc Aust Soc Anim Prod 15: 373–375Google Scholar
  90. Green K F, Garcia J (1971) Recuperation from illness: flavor enhancement in rats. Science 173: 749–751PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Griffith B, Scott J M, Carpenter J W, Reed C (1989) Translocation as a species conservation tool: status and strategy. Science 245: 477–480PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Grill H J, Berridge K C, Ganster D J (1984) Oral glucose is the prime elicitor of preabsorptive insulin secretion. Am J Physiol 246: R88–R95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Grovum W L (1988) Appetite, palatability and control of feed intake. In: Church D C (ed) The ruminant animal: digestive physiology and nutrition. Prentice Hall, Englewook Cliffs, p 202Google Scholar
  94. Grovum W L, Chapman H W (1988) Factors affecting the voluntary intake of food by sheep. 4. The effects of additives representing the primary tastes on sham intakes by oesophageal - fistulated sheep. Brit J Nutr 59: 63–72Google Scholar
  95. Hall W G, Williams C L (1983) Suckling isn’t feeding, or is it? A search for developmental continuities. In: Rosenblatt J S, Hinde R A, Beer C, Busnel M C (eds) Advances in the study of behavior. Academic Press, New York, p 219Google Scholar
  96. Hanley T A (1982) The nutritional basis for food selection by ungulates. J Range Manage 35: 146–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Hanson M T, Willison J M (1983) The 1978 relocation of Tule elk at Fort Hunter Liggett-reasons for its failure. CalNeva Wildl West Sect, The Wildl Soc, Sacramento, Calif: 43–49Google Scholar
  98. Hart B L (1985) The behavior of domestic animals. W H Freeman, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  99. Hepper P G (1988) Adaptive fetal learning: prenatal exposure to garlic affects postnatal preferences. Anim Behav 36: 935–936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Hill D L, Przekop P R Jr (1988) Influences of dietary sodium on functional taste receptor development: a sensitive period. Science 241: 1826–1828PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Hill R (1977) Copper toxicity. II. Brit Vet J 133: 365–373Google Scholar
  102. Hlavachick B D (1970) Success and failure of antelope transplants in Kansas. Proc Antelope State Workshop 4: 11–15Google Scholar
  103. Hodgson J (1971) The development of solid food intake in calves. I. Effect of previous experience of solid food, and the physical form of the diet, on the development of food intake after weaning. Anim Prod 13: 15–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Hodgson J, Jamieson W S (1981) Variations in herbage mass and digestibility, and the grazing behavior and herbage intake of adult cattle and weaned calves. Grass Forage Sci 36: 39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Hofmann R R (1973) The ruminant stomach: stomach structure and feeding habits of East African game ruminants. East Afr Monogr Biol, E A Lit Bureau, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  106. Hofmann R R (1988) Anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract. In: Church D C (ed) The ruminant animal. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, p 14Google Scholar
  107. Hofmann R R (1989) Evolutionary steps of ecophysiological adaptation and diversification of ruminants - a comparative view of their digestive system. Oecologia 78: 443–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Hunter R F, Milner C (1963) The behavior of individual, related and groups of south country Cheviot hill sheep. Anim Behav 11: 507–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Itani J (1958) On the acquisition and propagation of a new food habit in a troop of Japanese monkeys at Takasaki-Yama. Primates 1: 84–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Janis C (1976) The evolutionary strategy of the equidae and the origins of rumen and cecal digestion. Evolution 30: 757–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Jarman P J (1974) The social organization of antelope in relation to their ecology. Behaviour 48: 215–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Kandel ER, Schwartz JH (1985) Principles of neural science. Elsevier, New York Kawai M (1965) Newly-acquired pre-cultural behavior of the natural troop of Japanese monkeys on Koshima Islet. Primates 6: 1–30Google Scholar
  113. Keeler R F (1988) Livestock models of human birth defects, reviewed in relation to poisonous plants. J Anim Sci 66: 2414–2427PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Kenney P A, Black J L (1984) Factors affecting diet selection by sheep. I. Potential intake rate and acceptability of feed. Aust J Agric Res 35: 551–563Google Scholar
  115. Key C, Maclver R M (1980) The effects of maternal influences on sheep: breed differences in grazing, resting and courtship behavior. Appl Anim Ethol 6: 33–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Killeen P R, Smith J P, Hanson S J (1981) Central place foraging in Rattus norvegicus. Anim Behav 29: 64–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Krebs J R, Stephens D W, Sutherland W J (1983) Perspectives in optimal foraging. In: Clark G A, Brush A H (eds) Perspectives in ornithology. Cambridge University Press, New York, p 165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Krieckhaus E E, Wolf G (1968) Acquisition of sodium by rats: interaction of innate mechanisms and latent learning. J Comp Physiol Psychol 65: 197–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Lane M A, Ralphs M A, Olsen J D, Provenza F D, Pfister J A (1989) Conditioned taste aversion: potential for reducing cattle loss to larkspur. J Range Manage in pressGoogle Scholar
  120. Launchbaugh K L, Provenza F D (1990) Can plants practice mimicry as an anti-herbivore mechanism? In: Abstr 43rd ann mtg soc range manage, RenoGoogle Scholar
  121. Lett B T (1985) The pain-like effect of gallamine and naloxone differs from sickness induced by lithium chloride. Behav Neurosci 99: 145–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Logue A W (1986) The psychology of eating and drinking. W H Freeman, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  123. Malechek J C, Provenza F D (1983) Feeding behavior and nutrition of goats on rangelands. World Anim Rev 47: 38–48Google Scholar
  124. Mangel J, Clark C W (1986) Towards a unified foraging theory. Ecology 67: 1127–1138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Martin S C (1979) Evaluating the impacts of cattle grazing on riparian habitats in National Forests of Arizona and New Mexico. In: Forum-grazing and riparian/stream ecosystems. Trout Unlimited, Denver, p 35Google Scholar
  126. McCall T C, Brown R D, De Young C A (1988) Mortality of pen- raised and wild white-tailed deer bucks. Wildl Soc Bull 16: 380–384Google Scholar
  127. McNaughton S J (1984) Grazing lawns: animals in herds, plant form, and coevolution. Am Nat 124: 863–886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. McNay R S, Doyle D D (1987) Winter habitat selection by black-tailed deer on Vancouver Island: a job completion report. B C Ministry Environ Park, Victoria B C, IWIFR-34Google Scholar
  129. Mehiel R, Bolles R C (1984) Learned flavor preferences based on caloric outcome. Anim Learn Behav 12: 421–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Mehiel R, Bolles R C (1988) Learned flavor preferences based on calories are independent of initial hedonic value. Anim Learn Behav 16: 383–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Menzel E W (1973) Chimpanzee spatial memory organization. Science 182: 943–945PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Menzel E W (1978) Cognitive mapping in chimpanzees. In: Hulse S H, Fowler H, Honig W K (eds) Cognitive processes in animal behavior. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, p 375Google Scholar
  133. Messier C, White N M (1984) Contingent and non-contingent actions of sucrose and saccharine reinforcers: effects on taste preference and memory. Physiol Behav 32: 195–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Milligan L P, Grovum W L, Dobson A, eds (1986) Control of digestion and metabolism in ruminants. Prentice-Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  135. Mirza S N, Provenza F D (1990) Interactions with the mother modify diet selection by lambs differing in age. In: Abstr 43rd ann mtg soc range manage, RenoGoogle Scholar
  136. Morrill J L, Dayton A D (1978) Effect of feed flavor in milk and calf starter on feed consumption and growth. J Dairy Sci 61: 229–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Myers J H (1987) Nutrient availability and the deployment of mechanical defenses in grazed plants: a new experimental approach to the optimal defense theory. Oikos 49: 350–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Nolte D L, Provenza F D, Balph D F (1989) The establishment and persistence of food preferences in lambs exposed to selected foods. J Anim Sci in pressGoogle Scholar
  139. Nolte D L, Provenza F D, Balph D F (1990) Early experience with flavors affects lambs1 preferences for foods with those flavors. In: Abstr 43rd ann mtg soc range manage, Reno Norton B E, Johnson P S,Google Scholar
  140. Owens M K (1982) Increasing grazing efficiency on crested wheatgrass. Utah Sci 43: 110–113Google Scholar
  141. O’Bryan M K, McCullough D R (1985) Survival of black-tailed deer following relocation in California. J Wildl Manage 49: 115–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Olton D S (1977) Spatial memory. Sci Am 236: 82–98Google Scholar
  143. Owen-Smith N (1989) Optimal foraging models for ungulates: assumptions, predictions and potential developments. In press in: Symposium on optimal foraging applied to mammals. Fifth Theriological Conf, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  144. Pelchat M L, Grill H J, Rozin R, Jacobs J (1983) Quality of acquired responses to tastes by Rattus norveqicus depends on type of associated discomfort. J Comp Physiol Psychol 97:140– 153Google Scholar
  145. Penning P D (1986) Some effects of sward conditions on grazing behavior and intake of sheep. In: Gudmundsson O (ed) Grazing research at northern latitudes. Plenun Press, New York, p 219Google Scholar
  146. Pfister J A, Provenza F D, Manners G D (1989) Ingestion of tall larkspur by cattle: separating the effects of flavor from post- ingestive consequences. J Chem Ecol in pressGoogle Scholar
  147. Prien R F, Caffey E M, Klett C J (1971) Lithium carbonate: a survey of the history and current status of lithium in treating mood disorders. Dis Nerv Syst 32: 521–531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Provenza F D, Malechek J C (1984) Diet selection by domestic goats in relation to blackbrush twig chemistry. J Appl Ecol 21: 831–841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Provenza F D, Balph D F (1987) Diet learning by domestic ruminants: theory, evidence and practical implications. Appl Anim Behav Sci 18: 211–2 32Google Scholar
  150. Provenza F D, Balph D F (1988) The development of dietary choice in livestock on rangelands and its implications for management. J Anim Sci 66: 2356–2368Google Scholar
  151. Provenza F D, Bowns J E, Urness P J, Malechek J C, Butcher J E (1983) Biological manipulation of blackbrush by goat browsing. J Range Manage 36: 513–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Provenza F D, Balph D F, Olsen J D, Dwyer D D, Ralphs M H, Pfister J A (1988) Toward understanding the behavioral responses of livestock to poisonous plants. In: James L F, Ralphs M H, Nielsen D B (eds) The ecology and economic impact of poisonous plants on livestock production. Westview Press, Boulder, p 407Google Scholar
  153. Provenza F D, Burritt E A, Clausen T P, Bryant J P, Reichardt P B, Distel R A (1990) Conditioned flavor aversion: a mechanism for goats to avoid condensed tannins in blackbrush. Am Nat in pressGoogle Scholar
  154. Reichardt P B, Bryant J P, Clausen T P, Wieland G (1984) Defense of winter-dormant Alaska paper birch against snowshoe hares. Oecologia 65: 58–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Reichardt P B, Clausen T P, Bryant J P (1987) Plant secondary metabolities as feeding deterrents to vertebrate herbivores. In: Provenza F D, Flinders J T, McArthur E D (eds) Proceedings-symposium on plant herbivore Interactions. USDA For Serv Intermtn Res Sta Gen Tech Rep INT-222Google Scholar
  156. Reynolds G S (1968) A primer of operant conditioning. Scott, Foresman Co, GlenviewGoogle Scholar
  157. Rhoades D F (1979) Evolution of plant chemical defense against herbivores. In: Rosenthal G A, Janzen D H, (eds) Herbivores: their interactions with secondary plant metabolites. Academic Press, New York, p 4Google Scholar
  158. Rhoades D F, Cates R G (1976) Toward a general theory of plant antiherbivore chemistry. Rec Adv Phytochem 10: 168–213Google Scholar
  159. Richter C P (1943) Total self-regulatory functions in animals and human beings. Harvey Lecture Series 38: 63–103Google Scholar
  160. Roath L R, Krueger W C (1982) Cattle grazing and behavior on a forested range. J Range Manage 35: 332–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Roll D L, Smith J C (1972) Conditioned taste aversion in anesthetized rats. In: Seligman M E P, Hager J L (eds) Biological boundaries of learning. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, p 98Google Scholar
  162. Romesburg H C (1981) Wildlife science: gaining reliable knowledge. J Wildl Manage 45: 293–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Rozin P (1976) The selection of foods by rats, humans and other animals. In: Rosenblatt J S, Hinde R A, Shaw E, Beer C (eds) Advances in the study of behavior. Academic Press, New York, p 21Google Scholar
  164. Schluter D (1981) Does the theory of optimal diets apply in complex environments? Am Nat 118: 139–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Schwartz G J, Grill H J (1985) Comparing taste - elicited behavior in adult and neonatal rats. Appetite 6: 373–386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Senft R L, Coughenour M B, Bailey D W, Rittenhouse L R, Sala O E, Swift D M (1987) Large herbivore foraging and ecological hierarchies. Biosci 37: 789–799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Sherman J E, Hickis C F, Rice A G, Rusiniak K W, Garcia J (1983) Preferences and aversions for stimuli paired with ethanol in hungry rats. Anim Learn Behav 11: 101–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Simbayi L C, Boakes R A, Burton M J (1985) Acquired preferences for flavors mixed with nutritive and non-nutritive sweet solutions. Neurosci Letters 22 (Suppl) S158Google Scholar
  169. Skinner B F (1981) Selection by consequences. Science 213: 501–504PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Smotherman W P (1982) Odor aversion learning by the rat fetus. Physiol Behav 29: 769–771PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Smotherman W P, Robinson S R (1987) Prenatal influences on development: behavior is not a trivial aspect of fetal life. Develop Behav Pediat 8: 171–175Google Scholar
  172. Squibb R C, Provenza F D, Balph D F (1989) Effect of age of exposure on consumption of a shrub by sheep. J Anim Sci in pressGoogle Scholar
  173. Stephens D W, Krebs J R (1986) Foraging theory. Princeton Univ Press, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  174. Stickrod G, Kimble D P, Smotherman W P (1982) In utero taste/odor aversion conditioning in the rat. Physiol Behav 28: 5–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Thorhallsdottir A G, Provenza F D, Balph D F (1987) Food aversion learning in lambs with or without a mother: discrimination, novelty and persistence. Appl Anim Behav Sci 18: 327–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Thorhallsdottir A G, Provenza F D, Balph D F (1989a) Ability of lambs to learn about novel foods while observing or participating with social models. Appl Anim Behav Sci in pressGoogle Scholar
  177. Thorhallsdottir A G, Provenza F D, Balph D F (1989b) The role of the mother in the intake of harmful foods by lambs. Appl Anim Behav Sci in pressGoogle Scholar
  178. Thorhallsdottir A G, Provenza F D, Balph D F (1989c) Social influences on conditioned food aversions in sheep. Appl Anim Behav Sci in pressGoogle Scholar
  179. Tolman E C (1949) There is more than one kind of learning. Psychol Rev 56: 144–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Tordoff M G, Friedman M I (1989a) Drinking saccharin increases food intake and preference - III. Sensory and associative factors. Appetite 12: 23–36Google Scholar
  181. Tordoff M G, Friedman M I (1989b) Drinking saccharin increases food intake and preference - IV. Cephalic phase and metabolic factors. Appetite 12: 37–56Google Scholar
  182. Urness P J (1986) Use of crested wheatgrass for big game. In: Johnson K L (ed) Crested wheatgrass: its values, problems and myths. Utah State Univ, Logan, p 147Google Scholar
  183. Urness P J, Austin D D, Fierro L C (1983) Nutritional value of crested wheatgrass for wintering mule deer. J Range Manage 36: 225–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Van Dyne G M, Brockington N R, Szocs Z, Duek J, Ribic C A (1980) Large herbivore subsystem. In: Breymeryer A I, Van Dyne G M (eds) Grasslands, systems analysis and man. Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, p 269Google Scholar
  185. Van Soest P J (1982) Nutritional ecology of the ruminant. O & B Books Inc, CorvallisGoogle Scholar
  186. Waggoner V, Hinkes M (1986) Summer and fall browse utilization by an Alaskan bison herd. J Wildl Manage 50: 322–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Westoby M (1974) An analysis of diet selection by large generalist herbivores. Am Nat 108: 290–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Westoby M (1978) What are the biological bases of varied diets? Am Nat 112: 627–631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. White J (1981) Trouble on Angel Island. Outdoor Calif 42: 9–12Google Scholar
  190. Williams R J (1978) You are extraordinary. In: The art of living. Berkeley Books, New York, p 121Google Scholar
  191. Willms W, McLean A (1978) Spring forage selected by tame mule deer on big sagebrush range, British Columbia. J Range Manage 31: 192–199Google Scholar
  192. Willms W, Bailey A W, McLean A (1980) Effect of burning Agropvron spicatum in the autumn on the spring foraging behavior of mule deer and cattle. J Appl Ecol 17: 69–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Woods S C (1983) Conditioned hypoglycemia and conditioned insulin secretion. Adv Metabol Disorder 10: 485–495Google Scholar
  194. Yeates N T M, Schmidt P J (1974) Beef cattle production. Butterworth, SidneyGoogle Scholar
  195. Zahorik D M, Houpt K A (1977) The concept of nutritional wisdom: applicability of laboratory learning models to large behaviors. In: Barker L M, Best M, Domjan M (eds) Learning mechanisms in food selection. Baylor Univ Press, Waco, p 45Google Scholar
  196. Zahorik D M, Houpt K A (1981) Species differences in feeding strategies, food hazards, and the ability to learn food aversions. In: Kamil A C, Sargent T D (eds) Foraging behavior. Garland, New York, p 289Google Scholar
  197. Zahorik D M, Maier S F, Pies R W (1974) Preferences for tastes paired with recovery from thiamine deficiency in rats: appetitive conditioning or learned safety? J Comp Physiol Psychol 87: 1083–1091PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Zimmerman E A (1980) Desert ranching in central Nevada. Rangelands 2: 184–186Google Scholar
  199. Zucker W V (1983) Tannins: does structure determine function? An ecological perspective. Am Nat 121: 335–3 65Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fred D. Provenza
    • 1
  • David F. Balph
    • 1
  1. 1.Utah State UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations