Anthracite and Concentrations of Alkaline Feldspar (Microcline) in Flat-Lying Undeformed Paleozoic Strata: A Key to Large-Scale Vertical Crustal Uplift
On visits to the United States Professor German Müller visited localities in which the presence of anthracite and concentrations of microcline (alkaline feldspar) in flat-lying undeformed strata created problems. These occurrences were puzzling because these strata are exposed at the present Earth’s surface and the modern geothermal gradient in the area is low. These occurrences resulted from some combination of pressure and temperature that is not easily explained by the accepted geologic history of the region.
Various techniques of study, including fluid homogenization, vitrinite reflectance, oxygen isotopes, fission-track analysis on fluorite, and 40Ar/39Ar analyses on authigenic feldspar provided evidence of former deep burial followed by large amounts of uplift and erosion of these strata. Large-scale Carboniferous to Permian vertical movements of the crust and lithosphere brought deeply buried Ordovician to Devonian strata to shallow burial depth and ultimately to the present land surface.
KeywordsVitrinite Reflectance Apatite Fission Track Saddle Dolomite Appalachian Basin Catskill Mountain
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