Human Cytomegalovirus Early Gene Expression

  • D. H. Spector
  • K. M. Klucher
  • D. K. Rabert
  • D. A. Wright
Conference paper
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 154)


Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a member of the herpesvirus group, is species specific and can establish both persistent and latent infections. The virus appears to be able to infect a number of cell types in vivo including epithelial cells, neural cells, endothelial cells, mesenchymal cells, and some subclasses of leukocytes, although viral gene expression may be limited in some of these cells. Within the past 30 years, this virus has been recognized as an important pathogen of man capable of causing disease that affects all age groups worldwide (for review, see Ho 1982; Nankervis and Kumar 1978; Rapp 1983; Spector 1985). In developed countries, it is the major viral cause of birth defects leading to mental retardation and deafness. Transmission of HCMV usually occurs via salivary secretions, sexual contact, or blood, and it remains the most common transfusion-related pathogen. Although primary infection may be asymptomatic or result in a mononucleosis-like syndrome in the immunocompetent individual, severe and sometimes fatal HCMV infections frequently develop in immunocompromised persons, particularly premature infants, organ transplant recipients, and AIDS patients. In AIDS, HCMV is a serious opportunistic infection (Drew et al. 1982; Macher et al. 1983; Marchevsky et al. 1985; Spector et al. 1984; Spector and Spector 1985) and is frequently implicated as a possible cofactor in the development or progression of the disease.


Herpes Simplex Virus Type Human Cytomegalovirus HCMV Infection EcoRI Fragment Transient Expression Assay 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anders DG, Gibson W (1988) Location, transcript analysis, and partial nucleotide sequence of the cytomegalovirus gene encoding an early DNA-binding protein with similarities to ICP8 of Herpes simplex virus Type 1. J Virol 62: 1364–1372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Anders DG, Irmiere A, Gibson W (1986) Identification and characterization of a major early cytomegalovirus DNA-binding protein. J Virol 58: 253–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Anders DG, Kidd JR, Gibson W (1987) Immunological characterization of an early cytomegalovirus single-strand DNA binding protein with similarities to the HSV major DNA-binding protein. Virology 161: 579–588.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Angel P, Imagawa M, Chiu R, Stein B, Imbra RJ, Rahmsdorf HJ, Jonat C, et al. (1987) Phorbol ester-inducible genes contain a common cis element recognized by a TPA-modulated trans-acting factor. Cell 49: 729–739.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beck S, Barrell BG (1988) Human cytomegalovirus encodes a glycoprotein homologous to MHC class-I antigens. Nature 331: 269–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boshart M, Weber F, Jahn G, Dorsch-Hasler K, Fleckenstein B, Schaffner W (1985) A very strong enhancer is located upstream of an immediate early gene of human cytomegalovirus. Cell 41: 521–530.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Briggs MR, Kadonaga JT, Bell SP, Tjian R (1986) Purification and biochemical characterization of the promoter-specific transcription factor, Spl Science 234: 47–52.Google Scholar
  8. Britt WJ, Auger D (1986) Synthesis and processing of the envelope gp55-116 complex of human cytomegalovirus. J Virol 58: 185–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Carthew RW, Chodosh LA, Sharp PA (1985) An RNA polymerase II transcription factor binds to an upstream element in the adenovirus major late promoter. Cell 43: 439–448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chang C-P, Malone CL, Stinski MF (1989) A human cytomegalovirus early gene has three inducible promoters that are regulated differentially at various times after infection. J Virol 63: 281–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Conley AJ, Knipe DM, Jones PC, Roizman B (1981) Molecular genetics of herpes simplex virus. VII. Characterization of a temperature-sensitive mutant produced by in vitro mutagenesis and defective in DNA synthesis and accumulation of a polypeptides. J Virol 37: 191–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Cranage MP, Kouzarides T, Bankier AT, Satchwell S, Weston K, Tomlinson P, Barrell B et al. (1986) Identification of the human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B gene and induction of neutralizing antibodies via its expression in recombinant vaccinia virus. EMBO J 5: 3057–3063.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cranage MP, Smith GL, Bell SE, Hart H, Brown C, Bankier AT, Tomlinson P et al. (1988) Identification and expression of a human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein with homology to the Epstein-Barr virus BXLF2 product, varicella-zoster virus gpIII, and herpes simplex virus Type 1 glycoprotein H. J Virol 62: 1416–1422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Davidson I, Fromental C, Augereau P, Wildeman A, Zenke M, Chambon P (1986) Cell-type specific protein binding to the enhancer of simian virus 40 in nuclear extracts. Nature 323:544–548.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Davis MG, Huang E-S (1985) Nucleotide sequence of a human cytomegalovirus DNA fragment encoding a 67-kilodalton phosphorylated viral protein. J Virol 56: 7–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Davis MG, Mar E-C, Wu Y-M, Huang E-S (1984) Mapping and expression of a human cytomegalovirus major viral protein. J Virol 52: 129–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Davis MG, Kenney SC, Kamine J, Pagano JS, Huang E-S (1987) Immediate-early gene region of human cytomegalovirus trans-activates the promoter of human immunodeficiency virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84: 8642–8646.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. DeMarchi JM (1981) Human cytomegalovirus DNA: restriction enzyme cleavage and map locations for immediate early, early and late RNAs. Virology 114: 23–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. DeMarchi JM (1983) Posttranscriptional control of human cytomegalovirus gene expression. Virology 124: 390–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. DeMarchi JM, Blankenship ML, Brown GD, Kaplan AS (1978) Size and complexity of human cytomegalovirus DNA. Virology 89: 643–646.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. DeMarchi JM, Schmidt CA, Kaplan AS (1980) Patterns of transcription of human cytomegalovirus in permissively infected cells. J Virol 35: 277–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Dorsch-Hasler K, Keil GM, Weber F, Jasin M, Schaffner W, Koszinowski UH (1985) A long and complex enhancer activates transcription of the gene coding for the highly abundant immediate early mRNA in murine cytomegalovirus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82: 8325–8329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Drew WL, Miner RC, Ziegler JL, Gullett JH, Abrams DI, Conant MA, Huang E-S, et al. (1982) Cytomegalovirus and Kaposi’s sarcoma in young homosexual men. Lancent 2: 125–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Everett RD (1984) A detailed analysis of an HSV-1 early promoter: sequences involved in trans-activation by viral immediate-early gene products are not early-gene specific. Nucleic Acids Res 12: 3037–3056.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Farrar GJ, Greenaway PJ (1986) Characterization of glycoprotein complexes present in human cytomegalovirus envelopes. J Gen Virol 67: 1469–1473.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fleckenstein B, Muller I, Collins J (1982) Cloning of the complete human cytomegalovirus genome in cosmids. Gene 18: 39–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Geballe AP, Mocarski ES (1988) Translation control of cytomegalovirus gene expression is mediated by upstream AUG codons. J Virol 62: 3334–3340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Geballe AP, Leach FS, Mocarski ES (1986a) Regulation of cytomegalovirus late gene expression: γ genes are controlled by posttranscriptional events. J Virol 57: 864–874.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Geballe AP, Spaete RR, Mocarski ES (1986b) A cis-acting element within the 5′ leader of a cytomegalovirus β transcript determines kinetic class. Cell 46: 865–872.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Geelen JLMC, Walig C, Wertheim P, van der Noordaa J (1978) Human cytomegalovirus DNA I. Molecular weight and infectivity. J Virol 26: 813–816.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Gibson W (1981) Immediate-early proteins of human cytomegalovirus strains AD169, Davis, and Towne differ in electrophoretic mobility. Virology 112: 350–354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gibson W (1983) Protein counterparts of human and simian cytomegaloviruses. Virology 128: 391–406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gibson W (1984) Synthesis, structure, and function of cytomegalovirus major nonvirion nuclear protein. UCLA Symp Mol Biol 21: 423–440.Google Scholar
  34. Gibson W, Murphy T, Roby C (1981) Cytomegalovirus-infected cells contain a DNA-binding protein. Virology 111:251–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Godowski PJ, Knipe DM (1983) Mutations in the major DNA-binding protein gene of herpes simplex virus type 1 result in increased levels of viral gene expression. J Virol 47: 478–486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Godowski PJ, Knipe DM (1985) Identification of a herpes simplex virus function that represses late gene expression from parental viral genomes. J Virol 55: 357–365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Godowski PJ, Knipe DM (1986) Transcriptional control of herpesvirus gene expression: gene functions required for positive and negative regulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 256–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Goins WF, Stinski MF (1986) Expression of a human cytomegalovirus late gene is posttranscriptionally regulated by a 3′-end-processing event occurring exclusively late after infection. Mol Cell Biol 6: 4202–4213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Greenaway PJ, Wilkinson GWG (1987) Nucleotide sequence of the most abundantly transcribed early gene of human cytomegalovirus strain AD169. Virus Res 7: 17–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Greenaway PJ, Oram JD, Downing RG, Patel K (1982) Human cytomegalovirus DNA: BamHI, EcoRI and PstI restriction endonuclease cleavage maps. Gene 18: 355–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gretch DR, Gehrz RC, Stinski MF (1988a) Characterization of a human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein complex (gcI). J Gen Virol 69: 1205–1215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gretch DR, Kari B, Gehrz RC, Stinski MF (1988b) A multigene family encodes the human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein complex gcII (gp 47-52 complex). J Virol 62: 1956–1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Gretch DR, Kari B, Rasmussen L, Gehrz R, Stinski MF (1988c) Identification and characterization of three distinct families of glycoprotein complexes in the envelopes of human cytomegalovirus. J Virol 62: 875–881.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Hearing JC, Levine AJ (1985) The Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen (BamHI K antigen) is a single-stranded DNA binding phosphoprotein. Virology 145: 105–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hearing JC, Nicolay J-C, Levine AJ (1984) Identification of Epstein-Barr virus sequences that encode a nuclear antigen expressed in latently infected lymphocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81: 4373–4377.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Heilbronn R, Jahn G, Burkle A, Fresse U-K, Fleckenstein B, zur Hausen H (1987) Genomic localization, sequence analysis, and transcription of the putative human cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase gene. J Virol 61: 119–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Heller M, van Santen V, Kieff E (1982) Simple repeat sequence in Epstein-Barr virus DNA is transcribed in latent and productive infections. J Virol 44: 311–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Heller M, Flemington E, Kieff E, Deininger P (1985) Repeat arrays in cellular DNA related to the Epstein-Barr virus IR3 repeat. Mol Cell Biol 5: 457–465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Hennessey K, Kieff E (1983) One of two Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigens contains a glycine-alanine copolymer domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80: 5665–5669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hermiston TW, Malone CL, Witte PR, Stinski MF (1987) Identification and characterization of the human cytomegalovirus immediate-early region 2 gene that stimulates gene expression from an inducible promoter. J Virol 61: 3214–3232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Ho M (1982) Cytomegalovirus: biology and infection. Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  52. Hutchinson NI, Tocci MJ (1986) Characterization of a major early gene from human cytomegalovirus long inverted repeat; predicted amino acid sequence of a 30-kDa protein encoded by the 1.2 kb mRNA. Virology 155: 172–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hutchinson NI, Sondermeyer RT, Tocci MJ (1986) Organization and expression of the major genes from the long inverted repeat of the human cytomegalovirus genome. Virology 155: 160–171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Imperiale MJ, Hart RP, Nevins JR (1985) An enhancer-like element in the adenovirus E2 promoter contains sequences essential for uninduced and EIA-induced transcription. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82: 381–385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Jahn G, Knust E, Schmolla H, Sarre T, Nelson JA, McDougall JK, Fleckenstein B (1984a) Predominant immediate-early transcripts of human cytomegalovirus AD169. J Virol 49: 363–370.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Jahn G, Nelson JA, Plachter B, McDougall JK, Fleckenstein B (1984b) Transcription of a human cytomegalovirus DNA region which is capable of transforming rodent cells. UCLA Symp Mol Cell Biol 21: 455–463.Google Scholar
  57. Jahn G, Kouzarides T, Mach M, Schol B-C, Plachter B, Traupe B, Preddie E, et al. (1987) Map position and nucleotide sequence of the gene for the large structural phosphoprotein of human cytomegalovirus. J Virol 61: 1358–1367.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Kari B, Lussenhop N, Goertz R, Wabuke-Burot M, Radeke M, Gehrz R (1986) Characterization of monoclonal antibodies reactive to several biochemically distinct human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein complexes. J Virol 60: 345–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Kemble GW, McCormick AL, Pereira L, Mocarski ES (1987) A cytomegalovirus protein with properties of herpes simplex virus ICP8; partial purification of the polypeptide and map position of the gene. J Virol 61: 3143–3151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Klucher KM, Rabert DK, Spector DH (1989) Sequences in the human cytomegalovirus 2.7-Kilobase promoter which mediate its regulation as an early gene. J Virol 63: 5334–5343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Kouzarides T, Bankier AT, Satchwell AC, Weston K, Tomlinson P, Barrell BG (1987a) Large-scale rearrangement of homologous regions in the genomes of HCMV and EBV. Virology 157: 397–413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kouzarides T, Bankier AT, Satchwell AC, Weston K, Tomlinson P, Barrell BG (1987b) Sequence and transcription analysis of the human cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase gene. J Virol 61: 125–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Kouzarides T, Bankier AT, Satchwell SC, Preddy E, Barrell BG (1988) An immediate early gene of human cytomegalovirus encodes a potential membrane glycoprotein. Virology 165: 151–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. LaFemina RL, Hayward GS (1980) Structural organization of the DNA molecules from human cytomegalovirus. ICN UCLA Symp Mol Cell Biol 18: 39–55.Google Scholar
  65. Lakeman AD, Osborn JE (1979) Size of infectious DNA from human and murine cytomegaloviruses. J Virol 30: 414–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Lee KAW, Green MR (1987) A cellular transcription factor E4F1 interacts with an EIA-inducible enhancer and mediates constitutive enhancer function in vitro. EMBO J 6: 1345–1353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Lee KAW, Hai TY, SivaRaman L, Thimmappaya B, Hurst HC, Jones NC, Green MR (1987) A cellular protein, activating transcription factor, activates transcription of multiple EIA-inducible adenovirus early promoters. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84: 8355–8359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lee W, Haslinger A, Karin M, Tjian R (1987a) Activation of transcription by two factors that bind promoter and enhancer sequences of the human metallothionein gene and SV40. Nature 325: 368–372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lee W, Mitchell P, Tjian R (1987b) Purified transcription factor AP-1 interacts with TPA-inducible enhancer elements. Cell 49: 741–752.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mach M, Utz U, Fleckenstein B (1986) Mapping of the major glycoprotein gene of human cytomegalovirus. J Gen Virol 67: 1461–1467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Macher AM, Reichert CM, Straus SE, Longo DL, Parillo J, Lane HC, Fauci AS, et al. (1983) Death in the AIDS patient: role of cytomegalovirus. N Engl J Med 309: 1454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Marchevsky A, Rosen MJ, Chrystal G, Kleinerman J (1985) Pulmonary complications of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Hum Pathol 16: 659–670.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Martinez J, Lahijani RS, St Jeor SC (1989) Analysis of a region of the human cytomegalovirus (AD169) genome coding for a 25-kilodalton virion protein. J Virol 63: 233–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. McDonough SH, Spector DH (1983) Transcription in human fibroblasts permissively infected by human cytomegalovirus strain AD169. Virology 125: 31–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. McDonough SH, Staprans SI, Spector DH (1985) Analysis of the major transcripts encoded by the long repeat of human cytomegalovirus strain AD169. J Virol 53: 711–718.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. McKnight S, Tjian R (1986) Transcriptional selectivity of viral genes in mammalian cells. Cell 46: 795–805.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Meyer H, Bankier AT, Landini MP, Brown CM, Barrell BG, Ruger B, Mach M (1988) Identification and procaryotic expression of the gene coding for the highly immunogenic 28-kilodalton structural phosphoprotein (pp28) of human cytomegalovirus. J Virol 62: 2243–2250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Mocarski ES, Pereira L, Michael N (1985) Precise localization of genes on large animal virus genomes: use of λgt11 and monoclonal antibodies to map the gene for a cytomegalovirus protein family. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82: 1266–1270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Mocarski ES, Pereira L, McCormick AL (1988) Human cytomegalovirus ICP22, the product of HWLF1 reading frame, is an early nuclear protein that is released from cells. J Gen Virol 69: 2613–2621.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Montminy MR, Sevarino KA, Wagner JA, Mandel G, Goodman RH (1986) Identification of a cyclic-AMP responsive element within the rat somatostatin gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 6682–6686.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Murthy SCS, Bhat GP, Thimmappaya B (1985) Adenovirus EIA promoter: transcriptional control elements and induction by the viral pre-early EIA gene, which appears to be sequence independent. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82: 2230–2234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Nabel G, Baltimore D (1987) An inducible transcription factor activates expression of human immunodeficiency virus in T cell. nature 326: 711–713.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Nankervis GA, Kumar ML (1978) Diseases produced by cytomegaloviruses. Med Clin North Am 62: 1021–1035.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Nowak B, Gmeiner A, Sarnow P, Levine AJ, Fleckenstein B (1984) Physical mapping of human cytomegalovirus genes: identification of DNA sequences coding for a virion phosphoprotein of 71 kDa and a viral 65-kDa polypeptide. Virology 134: 91–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. O’Donnell ME, Elias P, Funnell BE, Lehman IR (1987) Interaction between the DNA polymerase and single-stranded DNA-binding protein (infected cell protein 8) of herpes simplex virus 1. J Biol Chem 262: 4260–4266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Oram JD, Downing RG, Akrigg A, Dollery AA, Duggleby CJ, Wilkinson GWG, Greenaway PJ (1982) Use of recombinant plasmids to investigate the structure of the human cytomegalovirus genome. J Gen Virol 59: 111–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Orberg PK, Schaffer PA (1987) Expression of herpes simplex virus type 1 major DNA-binding protein, ICP8, in transformed cell lines: complementation of deletion mutants and inhibition of wild-type virus. J Virol 61: 1136–1146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Pande H, Baak WS, Riggs AD, Clark BR, Shively JE, Zaia JA (1984) Cloning and physical mapping of a gene fragment coding for a 64-kilodalton major late antigen of human cytomegalovirus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81: 4965–4969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Pereira L, Hoffman M (1986) Immunology of human cytomegalovirus glycoproteins. In: Lopez C, Roizman B (eds) Human herpesvirus. Raven, New York, pp 69–92.Google Scholar
  90. Pereira L, Hoffman M, Gallo D, Cremer N (1982) Monoclonal antibodies to human cytomegalovirus: three surface membrane proteins with unique immunological and electrophoretic properties specify cross-reactive determinants. Infect Immun 36: 924–932.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Pereira L, Hoffman M, Tatsuno M, Dondero D (1984) Polymorphism of human cytomegalovirus glycoproteins characterized by monoclonal antibodies. Virology 139: 73–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Picard D, Schaffner W (1984) A lymphocyte specific enhancer in the mouse immunoglobulin kappa gene. Nature 307: 80–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Pizzorno MC, O’Hare P, Sha L, LaFemina RL, Hayward GS (1988) Trans-activation and autoregulation of gene expression by immediate-early region 2 gene products of human cytomegalovirus. J Virol 62: 1167–1179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Plachter B, Traupe B, Albrecht J, Jahn G (1988) Abundant 5 kb RNA of human cytomegalovirus without a major translational reading frame. J Gen Virol 69: 2251–2266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rapp F (1983) The biology of cytomegaloviruses. In: Roizman B (ed.) The herpesviruses. Plenum, New York, pp 1–66.Google Scholar
  96. Rasmussen L, Mullenax J, Nelson R, Merigan TC (1985) Viral polypeptides detected by a complement-dependent neutralizing monoclonal antibody to human cytomegalovirus. J Virol 55: 274–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Reedman BM, Klein G (1973) Cellular localization of an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated complement-fixing antigen in producer and non-producer lymphoblastoid cell lines. Int J Cancer 11: 499–520.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Ruger B, Klages S, Walla B, Albrecht J, Fleckenstein B, Tomlinson P, Barrell B (1987) Primary structure and transcription of genes coding for the two virion phosphoproteins pp65 and pp71 of human cytomegalovirus. J Virol 61: 446–453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Ruyechan WT (1983) The major herpes simplex virus DNA-binding protein holds single-stranded DNA in an extended conformation. J Virol 46: 661–666.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Ruyechan WT, Weir AC (1984) Interaction with nucleic acids and stimulation of the viral DNA polymerase by the herpes simplex virus type 1 major DNA-binding protein. J Virol 52: 727–733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Ruyechan WT, Chytil A, Fisher CM (1986) In vitro characterization of a thermolabile herpes simplex virus DNA binding protein. J Virol 59: 31–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Sawadago M, Roeder RG (1985) Interaction of a gene-specific transcription factor with the adenovirus major late promoter upstream of the TATA box region. Cell 43: 165–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Schaffer PA, Bone DR, Courtney RJ (1976) DNA negative temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus type 1: patterns of viral DNA synthesis after temperature shift up. J Virol 17:1043–1048.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Sen R, Baltimore D (1986) Multiple nuclear factors interact with the immunoglobulin enhancer sequences. Cell 46: 705–716.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Shaw SB, Rasmussen RD, McDonough SH, Staprans SI, Vacquier JP, Spector DH (1985) Cell-related sequences in the DNA genome of human cytomegalovirus strain AD169. J Virol 55: 843–848.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Silver BJ, Bokar JA, Virgin JB, Vallen EA, Milsted A, Nilson JH (1987) Cyclic AMP regulation of the human glycoprotein hormone α subunit gene is mediated by an 18-basepair element. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84: 2198–2202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. SivaRaman L, Thimmappaya B (1987) Two promoter-specific host factors interact with adjacent sequences in an EIA-inducible adenovirus promoter. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84: 6112–6116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. SivaRaman L, Subramanian S, Thimmappaya B (1986) Identification of a factor in HeLa cells specific for an upstream transcriptional control sequence of an EIA-inducible adenovirus promoter and its relative abundance in infected and uninfected cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 5914–5918.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Spaete RR, Mocarski ES (1985) Regulation of cytomegalovirus gene expression: α and β promoters are trans-activated by viral functions in permissive fibroblasts. J Virol 56: 135–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Spector DH (1985) Molecular studies on the cytomegaloviruses of mice and men. In: Setlow JK, Hollaender A (eds) Genetic engineering: principles and methods. Plenum, New York, pp 199–234.Google Scholar
  111. Spector DH, Hock L, Tamashiro JC (1982) Cleavage maps for human cytomegalovirus DNA strain AD169 for restriction endonucleases EcoRI, BglII, and HindIII. J Virol 42: 558–582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Spector DH, Shaw SB, Hock LJ, Abrams D, Mitsuyasu RT, Gottlieb MS (1984) Association of human cytomegalovirus with Kaposi’s sarcoma. UCLA Mol Cell Biol [New Ser] 6: 109–126.Google Scholar
  113. Spector SA, Spector DH (1985) The use of DNA probes in studies of human cytomegalovirus. Clin Chem 31: 1514–1520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Staprans SI, Spector DH (1986) 2.2-kilobase class of early transcripts encoded by human cytomegalovirus strain AD169. J Virol 57: 591–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Staprans SI, Rabert DK, Spector DH (1988) Identification of sequence requirements and trans-acting functions necessary for regulated expression of a human cytomegalovirus early gene. J Virol 62:3463–3473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Stenberg RM, Thomsen DR, Stinski MF (1984) Structural analysis of the major immediate early gene of human cytomegalovirus. J Virol 49: 190–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Stenberg RM, Witte PR, Stinski MF (1985) Multiple spliced and unspliced transcripts from human cytomegalovirus immediate-early region 2 and evidence for a common initiation site within immediate-early region 1. J Virol 56: 665–675.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Stenberg RM, Depto AS, Fortney J, Nelson JA (1989) Regulated expression of early and late RNAs and proteins from the human cytomegalovirus immediate-early gene region. J Virol 63: 2699–2708.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Stinski MF (1977) Synthesis of proteins and glycoproteins in cells infected with human cytomegalovirus. J Virol 23: 751–767.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Stinski MF (1978) Sequence of protein synthesis in cells infected by human cytomegalovirus: early and late virus induced polypeptides. J Virol 26: 686–701.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Stinski MF, Roehr TJ (1985) Activation of the major immediate early gene of human cytomegalovirus by cis-acting elements in the promoter-regulatory sequence and by virus-specific trans-acting components. J Virol 55: 431–441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Stinski MF, Mocarski ES, Thomsen DR (1979) DNA of human cytomegalovirus: size heterogeneity and defectiveness resulting from serial undiluted passage. J Virol 31: 231–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Stinski MF, Thomsen DR, Stenberg RM, Goldstein LC (1983) Organization and expression of the immediate early genes of human cytomegalovirus. J Virol 46: 1–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Wathen MW, Stinski MF (1982) Temporal patterns of human cytomegalovirus transcription: mapping the viral RNAs synthesized at immediate early, early, and late times after infection. J Virol 41: 462–477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Wathen MW, Thomsen DR, Stinski MF (1981) Temporal regulation of human cytomegalovirus transcription at immediate early and early times after infection. J Virol 38: 446–451.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Weller SK, Lee KJ, Sabourin DJ, Schaffer PA (1983) Genetic analysis of temperature-sensitive mutants which define the gene for the major herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA-binding protein. J Virol 45:354–366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Weston K (1988) An enhancer element in the short unique region of human cytomegalovirus regulates the production of a group of abundant immediate early transcripts. Virology 162: 406–416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Weston K, Barrell BG (1986) Sequence of the short unique region, short repeats, and part of the long repeats of human cytomegalovirus. J Mol Biol 192: 177–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Weststrate MW, Geelen JLMC, van der Noordaa J (1980) Human cytomegalovirus DNA: physical maps for the restriction endonucleases BglIII, HindIII, and XbaI. J Gen Virol 49: 1–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Wildeman AG, Zenke M, Schatz C, Wintzerith M, Grundstrom T, Matthes H, Takahasi K, Chambon P (1986) Specific protein binding to the Simian Virus 40 enhancer in vitro. Mol Cell Biol 6: 2098–2105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Wilkinson GWG, Akrigg A, Greenaway PJ (1984) Transcription of the immediate early genes of human cytomegalovirus strain AD169. Virus Res 1: 101–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Wright DA, Spector DH (1989) Posttranscriptional regulation of a class of human cytomegalovirus phosphoproteins encoded by an early transcription unit. J Virol 63: 3117–3127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Wright DA, Staprans SI, Spector DH (1988) Four phosphoproteins with common amino termini are encoded by human cytomegalovirus AD169. J Virol 62: 331–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Yates J, Warren N, Sugden B (1985) Stable replication of plasmids derived from Epstein-Barr virus in various mammalian cells. Nature 313: 812–815.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Zenke M, Grundstrom T, Matthes H, Wintzerith M, Schatz C, Wildeman A, Chambon P (1986) Multiple sequence motifs are involved in SV40 enhancer function. EMBO J 5: 387–397.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. H. Spector
    • 1
  • K. M. Klucher
    • 1
  • D. K. Rabert
    • 1
  • D. A. Wright
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biology and Center for Molecular GeneticsUniversity of CaliforniaSan Diego, La JollaUSA

Personalised recommendations