Residues of Carbadox Metabolites in Edible Pork Products

  • A. J. Baars
  • L. P. Jager
  • Th. J. Spierenberg
  • G. J. de Graaf
  • J. W. Seinhorst
Part of the Archives of Toxicology book series (TOXICOLOGY, volume 14)

Abstract

Carbadox (methyl-3-[2-quinoxalinylmethylene]carbazate-N1, N4-dioxide; CBX) is a widely used feed additive for young pigs (Trasher et al 1969), but because of its adrenal toxicity there is some risk in using it (Van der Molen et al 1985, 1986). CBX is rapidly metabolized; known biotransformation products involve the three N-O-reduced compounds (N1-, N4-, and N1,N4-desoxycarbadox; DCBX), and quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (QCA). QCA has been identified as the major residual metabolite in pigs (Federal Register 1972; Ferrando et al 1975). Since CBX and DCBX are suspected carcinogens, CBX may only be administered to swine under the age of 4 months, and a withdrawal period of 4 weeks has been imposed.

Keywords

Toxicity HPLC Aldosterone Tral Biotransformation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aerts MML, Beek WMJ, Keukens HJ, Brinkman UATh (1988) Determination of residues of carbadox and some of its metabolites in swine tissues by HPLC using on-line pre-column enrichment and post-column derivatisation with UV/Vis detection. J Chromatogr 456:105–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baars AJ, Van Ginkel LA, Aerts MML, De Graaf GJ, Seinhorst WJ, Keukens HJ, Schwillens PLWJ, Spierenburg ThJ, Jager LP (1990) Kinetics of carbadox in pigs. In: Haagsma N, Ruiter A, Czedik-Eysenberg PB (eds) Residues of veterinary drugs in food. University of Utrecht, pp 110–113Google Scholar
  3. De Graaf GJ, Jager LP, Baars AJ, Spierenburg ThJ (1988) Some pharmacokinetic observations of carbadox medication in pigs. Vet Quarterly 10:34–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. de Graaf GJ, Spierenburg ThJ (1985) Liquid chromatographic determination of carbadox and desoxycarbadox in medicated feeds and in porcine gastrointestinal tract. J Assoc Off Anal Chern 68:658–660Google Scholar
  5. De Graaf GJ, Spierenburg ThJ, Baars AJ (1990) GC-MS determination of quinoxaline-2- carboxylic acid, the terminal metabolite of carbadox, in porcine meat, liver, and kidney. In: Haagsma N, Ruiter A, Czedik-Eysenberg PB (eds) Residues of veterinary drugs in food. University of Urecht, pp 202–205Google Scholar
  6. Federal Register (1972) Vol 37, No 192, 20683, October 3Google Scholar
  7. Ferrando R, Truhaut R, Raynaud JP, Spanoghe JP (1975) Toxicity by relay. II. Method for the assessment of safety to human consumers of carbadox, a growth-promoting additive to the feed of slaughter pigs. Toxicology 3:369–398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Keukens HJ, Binnendijk GM, Beek WMJ, Aerts MML (1990) Determination of residues of carbadox and metabolites in edible tissues – in vitro stability studies. In: Haagsma N, Ruiter A, Czedik-Eysenberg PB (eds) Residues of veterinary drugs in food. University of Utrecht, pp 235–239Google Scholar
  9. MacIntosh AI, Lauriault G, Neville GA (1985) Liquid chromatographic monitoring of the depletion of carbadox and its metabolite desoxycarbadox in swine tissues. J Assoc Off Anal Chem 68: 665–671PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Trasher GW, Shively JE, Askelson CE, Babock WE, Chalquest RR (1969) Effects of feeding carbadox upon the growth and performance of young pigs. J Anim Sci 28:208–215Google Scholar
  11. Van der Molen EJ, Baars AJ, De Graaf GJ, Jager LP (1989) Comparative study of the effect of carbadox, olaquindox and cyadox on aldosterone, sodium and potassium plasma levels in weaned pigs. Res Vet Sci 47: 11–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Van der Molen EJ, De Graaf GJ, Baars AJ, Schopman W (1986) Carbadox induced changes in aldosterone, sodium and potassium levels in the blood of weaned pigs. J Vet Med (A) 33:617–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Van der Molen EJ, Nabuurs MJA, Jager LP (1985) Clinical and pathological changes related to toxicity of carbadox in weaned pigs. J Vet Med (A) 32:540–550Google Scholar
  14. Van Ginkel LA, Schwillens PLWJ, Jacquemeyns M, Zomer G (1990) The detection and identification of quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid, a major metabolite of carbadox, in swine tissue. In: Haagsma N, Ruiter A, Czedik-Eysenberg PB (eds) Residues of veterinary drugs in food. University of Utrecht, pp 189–195Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. J. Baars
    • 1
  • L. P. Jager
    • 1
  • Th. J. Spierenberg
    • 1
  • G. J. de Graaf
    • 1
  • J. W. Seinhorst
    • 1
  1. 1.Central Veterinary InstituteLelystadThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations