Advertisement

Study on the Penetration of Tetanus Toxoid Through the Nasal Mucosa

  • E. Spranz
  • B. Siegemund
  • J. Frevert
  • H. E. Knoell
Conference paper
Part of the Archives of Toxicology book series (TOXICOLOGY, volume 14)

Abstract

Certain infections and human diseases require immediate and often repeated application of drugs (e.g. tetanus, diabetes). Parenteral application causes pain due to the route of administration, and trained adults must always be present when drugs have to be administered to children or animals. Most of the vaccines developed during the last 80 years or so must be administered parenterally, which involves the problem of infections and hyperallergic reactions.

Keywords

Nasal Mucosa Penetration Rate Tetanus Toxoid Tetanus Toxin Aminoethyl Carbazole 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bremecker KD (1986) Entwicklung eines Nasengels zur Primärimmunisierung. Sci Pharm 54:151Google Scholar
  2. Bremecker KD (1987) Published Patent Application DE 3601923 A1, Date of application: 23. 1. 1986, Date of publication: 30. 7. 1987Google Scholar
  3. Igawa T (1988) Enzyme immunoassay of human fibroblast interferon after intranasal administration with several excipients in rabbits. Chem Pharm Bull 36:3055–3059PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Spranz E (1989) Studien zur Penetration von Tetanustoxoid an der Nasenschleimhaut von Mäusen. Vet med Diss (doctoral thesis), München; in printGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Spranz
    • 1
  • B. Siegemund
    • 1
  • J. Frevert
    • 1
  • H. E. Knoell
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Toxicology and PharmacologyBattelle-Institut e.V.FrankfurtGermany

Personalised recommendations