Bombesin and Gastrin-Releasing Peptide: Neuropeptides, Secretogogues, and Growth Factors

  • A.-M. Lebacq-Verheyden
  • J. Trepel
  • E. A. Sausville
  • J. F. Battey
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 95 / 2)

Abstract

In the early 1960s, V. Erspamer and colleagues observed that crude methanol extracts of amphibian skin exerted a wide range of pharmacological actions on vascular and extravascular smooth muscle, on external and internal secretions, and on renal circulation and function. This observation prompted the isolation of numerous bioactive peptides that were remarkably abundant in amphibian skin. The knowledge gained from their structure and function often helped to identify homologous peptides in mammalian tissues, where they existed only in minute amounts. Structurally related peptides had the same pharmacological profile and were grouped into families. The major families included the tachykinins, the caeruleins, and the bombesins (Erspamer and Melchiorri 1973). Peptides of these families were originally identified as digestive hormones and as central modulators of metabolism and behavior; more recently, they became also known as growth factors. The present review deals with bombesin and with its mammalian homolog, the gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP).

Keywords

Polypeptide Thrombin Hyperglycemia Atropine Bradykinin 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abe H, Chihara K, Minamitani N, Iwasaki J, Chiba T, Matsukura S, Fujita T (1981) Stimulation by bombesin of immunoreactive somatostatin release into rat hypophysial portal blood. Endocrinology 109: 229–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adrian TE, Bloom SR, Hermansen K, Iversen J (1978) Pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon and insulin secretion from the isolated perfused canine pancreas. Diabetologia 14: 413–417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alonso T, Morgan, Marvizon JC, Zarbl H, Santos E (1988) Malignant transformation by ras and other oncogenes produces common alteration in inositol phospholipid signalling pathways. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85: 4271–4275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Al-Saffar A (1984) Somatostatin inhibits bombesin-induced effects on migrating myoelectric complexes in the small intestine of the rat. Regul Pept 9: 11–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anastasi A, Erspamer V, Bucci M (1971) Isolation and structure of bombesin and alytesin, two analogous active peptides from the skin of the European amphibians Bombina and Alytes. Experientia 27: 166–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anastasi A, Erspamer V, Bucci M (1972) Isolation and amino acid sequences of alytesin and bombesin, two analogous active tetradecapeptides from the skin of European discoglossid frogs. Arch Biochem Biophys 148: 443–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Angel F, Go VLW, Szurszewski JH (1984) Innervation of the muscularis mucosae of canine proximal colon. J Physiol (Lond) 357: 93–108Google Scholar
  8. Annibale B, Corleto V, Severi C, de Magistris L, de Toma G, Delle Fave G (1985) Evidence that bombesin releases extragastric gastrin in man. Regul Pept 11: 43–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Avery DD, Calisher SB (1982) The effects of injections of bombesin into the cerebral ventricles on food intake and body temperature in food-deprived rats. Neuropharmacology 21: 1059–1063PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Avery DD, Hawkins MF, Wunder BA (1981) The effects of injections of bombesin into the cerebral ventricles on behavioral thermoregulation. Neuropharmacology 20: 23–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Babcock AM, Wunder BA (1984) Effects of bombesin on body temperature and oxygen consumption in food-deprived rats. Neuropharmacology 23: 1357–1358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bartness TJ, Morley JE, Levine AS (1986) Photoperiod-peptide interactions in the energy intake of Siberian hamsters. Peptide 7: 1079–1085Google Scholar
  13. Basso N, Giri S, Improta G, Lezoche E, Melchiorri P, Percoco M, Speranza V (1975a) External pancreatic secretion after bombesin infusion in man. Gut 16:994–998PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Basso N, Lezoche E, Materia A, Giri S, Speranza V (1975b) Effect of bombesin on extragastric gastrin in man. Am J Dig Dis 20: 923–927CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Basso N, Giri S, Lezoche N, Materia A, Melchiorri P, Speranza V (1976) Effects of secretin, glucagon and duodenal acidification on bombesin-induced hypergastrinemia in man. Am J Gastroentero166: 448–451Google Scholar
  16. Battey JF, Lebacq-Verheyden AM, Krystal G, Markowitz SD, Sartor O, Way J (1988) Regulation of the expression of the human preprogastrin-releasing peptide gene and post-translational processing of its gene product. Ann NY Acad Sci 547: 30–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Berridge MJ (1987) Inositol trisphosphate and diacylglycerol: two interacting second messengers. Annu Rev Biochem 56: 159–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bertaccini G, Impicciatore M (1975) Action of bombesin on the motility of the stomach. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmaco1289: 149–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bertaccini G, Erspamer V, Impicciatore M (1973) The actions of bombesin on gastric secretion of the dog and the rat. Br J Pharmaco149: 437–444Google Scholar
  20. Bertaccini G, Erspamer V, Melchiorri P, Sopranzi N (1974a) Gastrin release by bombesin in the dog. Br J Pharmacol 52: 219–225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bertaccini G, Impicciatore M, Molina E, Zappia L (1974b) Action of bombesin on human gastrointestinal motility. Rend Gastroentero16: 45–51Google Scholar
  22. Bicknell RJ, Chapman C (1983) Bombesin stimulates growth hormone secretion from cultured bovine pituitary cells. Neuroendocrinology 36: 33–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bishop JF, Moody TW, O’Donohue TL (1986) Peptide transmitters of primary sensory neurons: similar actions of tachykinins and bombesin-like peptides. Peptides 7: 835–842PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bjoro T, Torjesen PA, Ostberg BC, Sand O, Iversen JG, Gautvik KM, Haug E (1987) Bombesin stimulates prolactin secretion from cultured rat pituitary tumour cells (GH,C1) via activation of phospholipase C. Regul Pept 19: 169–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bloom SR, Edwards AV, Ghatei MA (1983) Endocrine responses to exogenous bombesin and gastrin releasing peptide in conscious calves. J Physiol (Lond) 344: 37–48Google Scholar
  26. Bostwick DG, Roth KA, Evans CJ, Barchas JD, Bensch KG (1984) Gastrin-releasing peptide, a mammalian analog of bombesin, is present in human neuroendocrine lung tumors. Am J Patho1117: 195–200Google Scholar
  27. Bravo R, MacDonald-Bravo H, Muller R, Hubsch D, Almendral JM (1987) Bombesin induced c fos and c-myc expression in quiescent 3T3 cells. Exp Cell Res 170: 103–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Broccardo M, Erspamer GF, Melchiorri P, Negri L, de Castiglione R (1975) Relative potency of bombesin-like peptides. Br J Pharmacol 55: 221–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Brown AM, Birnbaumer L (1988) Direct G-protein gating of ion channels. Am J Physiol 254: H401–H410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Brown KD, Blay J, Irvine RF, Heslop JP, Berridge MJ (1984) Reduction of epidermal growth factor receptor affinity by heterologous ligands: evidence for a mechanism involving the breakdown of phosphoinositide and the activation of protein kinase C. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 123: 377–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Brown KD, Blakely DM, Hamon MH, Stuart-Laurie M, Corps AN (1987) Protein kinase C-mediated negative-feed back inhibition of unstimulated and bombesinstimulated polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis in Swiss-mouse 3T3 cells. Biochem J 245: 631–639PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Brown MR (1982) Bombesin and somatostatin related peptides: effects on oxygen consumption. Brain Res 242: 243–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Brown MR (1983) Central nervous system sites of action of bombesin and somatostatin to influence plasma epinephrine levels. Brain Res 276: 253–257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Brown MR, Rivier J, Vale W (1977a) Bombesin: potent effects on thermoregulation in the rat. Science 196: 998–1000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Brown MR, Rivier J, Vale W (1977b) Actions of bombesin, thyrotropin releasing factor, prostaglandin E2 and naloxone on thermoregulation in the rat. Life Sci 20: 1681–1688PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Brown MR, Rivier J, Vale W (1977c) Bombesin affects the central nervous system to produce hyperglycemia in rats. Life Sci 21: 1729–1734PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Brown MR, Allen R, Villarreal J, Rivier J, Vale W (1978) Bombesin-like activity: radioimmunologic assessment in biological tissues. Life Sci 23: 2721–2728PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Brown MR, Tache Y, Fischer D (1979) Central nervous system action of bombesin: mechanism to induce hyperglycemia. Endocrinology 105: 660–665PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Brown MR, Marki W, Rivier J (1980) Is gastrin releasing peptide mammalian bombesin? Life Sci 27: 125–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Brown MR, Allen R, Fisher L (1987) Bombesin alters the sympathetic nervous system response to cold exposure. Brain Res 400: 35–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Bruzzone R, Tamburrano G, Lala A, Mauceri M, Annibale B, Severi C, de Magistris L, Leonetti F, Delle Fave G (1983) Effect of bombesin on plasma insulin, pancreatic glucagon and gut glucagon in man. J Clin Endocrinol 56: 643–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Buffa R, Solovieva I, Fiocca R, Giorgino S, Rindi G, Solcia E, Mochizuchi T, Yanaihara C, Yanaihara N (1982) Localization of bombesin and GRP (gastrin releasing peptide) sequences in gut nerves or endocrine cells. Histochemistry 76: 457–467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Bunnett NW, Clark B, Debas HT, del Milton RC, Kovacs TOG, Orloff MS, Pappas TN, Reeve JR Jr, Rivier JE, Walsh JH (1985) Canine bombesin-like gastrin releasing peptides stimulate gastrin release and acid secretion in the dog. J Physiol (Lond) 365: 121–130Google Scholar
  44. Calisher SB, Avery DD (1984) Injections of bombesin into the substantia nigra produce hypothermia and hypophagia in food-reprived rats. Neuropharmacology 23: 1201–1206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Caprilli R, Melchiorri P, Improta G, Vernia P, Frieri G (1975) Effects of bombesin and bombesin-like peptides on gastrointestinal myoelectric activity. Gastroenterology 68: 1228–1235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Carney DN, Gazdar AF, Bepler G, Guccion JG, Marangos PJ, Moody TW, Zweig MH, Minna JD (1985) Establishment and identification of small cell lung cancer cell lines having classic and variant features. Cancer Res 45: 2913–2923PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Carney DN, Cuttitta F, Moody TW, Minna JD (1987) Selective stimulation of small cell lung cancer clonal growth by bombesin and gastrin-releasing peptide. Cancer Res 47: 821–825PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Casey PJ, Gilman AG (1988) G-protein involvement in receptor-effector coupling. J Biol Chem 263: 2577–2580PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Chejfec G, Lee I, Warren WH, Gould VE (1985) Bombesin in human neuroendocrine (NE) neoplasms. Peptides [Suppl 3]6: 107–112Google Scholar
  50. Chiba T, Taminato T, Kadowaki S, Inoue Y, Mori K, Seino Y, Abe H, Chihara K, Matsukura S, Fujita T, Goto Y (1980) Effects of various gastrointestinal peptides on gastric somatostatin release. Endocrinology 106: 145–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Chiu WT, Lin LS, Shih CJ, Lin MT (1987) Bombesin-induced hypothermia: possible involvement of cholinergic and dopaminergic receptors in the rat hypothalamus. Exp Neuro195: 368–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Cirillo DM, Gaudino G, Naldini L, Comoglio PM (1986) Receptor for bombesin with associated tyrosine kinase activity. Mol Cell Bio16: 4641–4649Google Scholar
  53. Corps AN, Rees LH, Brown KD (1985) A peptide that inhibits the mitogenic stimulation of Swiss 3T3 cells by bombesin or vasopressin. Biochem J 231: 781–784PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Costa M, Furness J, Yanaihara N, Yanaihara C, Moody TW (1984) Distribution and projections of neurons with immunoreactivity for both gastrin-releasing peptide and bombesin in the guinea pig small intestine. Cell Tissue Res 235: 285–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Cowan A, Khunawat P, Zu Zhu X, Gmerek DE (1985) Effects of bombesin on behavior. Life Sci 37: 135–145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Coy DH, Heinz-Erian P, Jiang Y, Sasaki Y, Taylor J, Moreau J-P, Wolfrey WT, Gardner JD, Jensen RT (1988) Probing peptide backbone function in bombesin. A reduced peptide bond analog with potent and specific receptor activity. J Biol Chem 263: 5056–5060Google Scholar
  57. Crawley JN, Moody TW (1983) Anxiolytics block excessive grooming behavior induced by ACTH 124 and bombesin. Brain Res Bull 10: 399–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Cuttitta F, Carney DN, Mulshine J, Moody TW, Fedorko J, Fischler A, Minna JD (1985) Bombesin-like peptides can function as autocrine growth factors in human small-cell lung cancer. Nature 316: 823–826PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Cuttitta F, Fedorko J, Gu J, Lebacq-Verheyden AM, Linnoila RI, Battey JF (1988) Gastrin-releasing peptide gene-associated peptides are expressed in normal human fetal lung and small cell lung cancer: a novel peptide family found in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 67: 576–583PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Cutz E, Chan W, Track NS (1981) Bombesin, calcitonin and leu-enkephalin immunoreactivity in endocrine cells of human lung. Experientia 37: 765–767PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Cwikel BJ, Habener JF (1987) Provasopressin-neurophysin II processing is cell-specific in heterologous cell lines expressing a metallothionein-vasopressin fusion gene. J Biol Chem 262: 14235–14240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Dalsgaard CJ, Hokfelt T, Schultzberg M, Lundberg JM, Terenius L, Dockray GJ, Goldstein M (1983) Origin of peptide-containing fibers in the inferior mesenteric ganglion of the guinea pig: immunohistochemical studies with antisera to substance P, enkephalin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, cholecystokinin and bombesin. Neuroscience 9: 191–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Damge C, Hajri A, Lhoste E, Aprahamian M (1988) Comparative effect of chronic bombesin, gastrin-releasing peptide and caerulein on the rat pancreas. Regul Pept 20: 141–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Dayer AM, de Mey J, Will JA (1985) Localization of somatostatin, bombesin- and serotonin-like immunoreactivity in the lung of the fetal rhesus monkey. Cell Tissue Res 239: 621–625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. De Beaurepaire R, Suaudeau C (1988) Anorectic effect of calcitonin, neurotensin and bombesin infused in the area of the rostral part of the nucleus of the tractus solitarius in the rat. Peptides 9: 729–733PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. De Graef J, Woussen-Colle MC (1985) Effects of sham feeding, bethanechol, and bombesin on somatostatin release in dogs. Am J Physio1248: G1–G7Google Scholar
  67. De Jong AJL, Klamer M, Jansen JBMJ, Lamers CBHW (1987a) Effect of atropine and somatostatin on bombesin-stimulated plasma gastrin, cholecystokinin and pancreatic polypeptide in man. Regul Pept 17: 285–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. De Jong AJL, Singer MV, Lamers CBH (1987b) Effect of pancreatic polypeptide antiserum on bombesin-stimulated pancreatic exocrine secretion in dogs. Peptides 8: 973–976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Delle Fave G, Kohn A, de Magistris L, Mancuso M, Sparvoli C (1980) Effect of bombesin-stimulated gastrin on gastric acid secretion in man. Life Sci 27: 993–999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. De Magistris L, Delle Fave G, Kohn A, Schwartz TW (1981) Differential stimulation of pancreatic-polypeptide and gastrin secretion by bombesin in man. Life Sci 28: 2617–2621PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Deschodt-Lanckman M, Robberecht P, de Neef P, Lammens M, Christophe J (1976) In vitro action of bombesin and bombesin-like peptides on amylase secretion, calcium efflux, and adenylate cyclase activity in the rat pancreas. A comparison with other secretagogues. J Clin Invest 58: 891–898Google Scholar
  72. Dockray GJ, Vaillant C, Walsh JH (1979) The neuronal origin of bombesin-like immunoreactivity in the rat gastrointestinal tract. Neuroscience 4: 1561–1568PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Dorflinger LJ, Schonbrunn A (1983) Somatostatin inhibits vasoactive intestinal peptide stimulated cyclic adenosine monophosphate accumulation in GH pituitary cells. Endocrinology 113: 1541–1550PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Dubrasquet M, Roze C, Ling N, Florencio H (1982) Inhibition of gastric and pancreatic secretions by cerebroventricular injections of gastrin-releasing peptide and bombesin in rats. Regul Pept 3: 105–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Du Val JW, Saffouri B, Weir GC, Walsh JH, Arimura A, Makhlouf GM (1981) Stimulation of gastrin and somatostatin secretion from the isolated rat stomach by bombesin. Am J Physiol 241: G242–G247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Ekblad E, Ekman R, Hakanson R, Sundler F (1984) GRP neurones in the rat small intestine issue long anal projections. Regul Pept 9: 279–287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. El-Salhy M, Grimelius L, Wilander E, Abu-Sinna G, Lundqvist G (1981) Histological and immunohistochemical studies of the endocrine cells of the gastrointestinal mucosa of the toad (Bufo regularis). Histochemistry 71: 53–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Endean R, Erspamer V, Erspamer GF, Improta G, Melchiorri P, Negri L, Sopranzi N (1975) Parallel bioassay of bombesin and litorin, a bombesin-like peptide from the skin of Litoria aurea. Br J Pharmaco155: 213–219Google Scholar
  79. Erisman MD, Linnoila RI, Hernandez O, DiAugustine RP, Lazarus LH (1982) Human lung small-cell carcinoma contains bombesin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79: 2379–2383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Erspamer V, Melchiorri P (1973) Active polypeptides of the amphibian skin and their synthetic analogues. Pure Appl Chem 35: 463–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Erspamer V, Erspamer GF, Inselvini M, Negri L (1972a) Occurrence of bombesin and alytesin in extracts of the skin of three European discoglossid frogs and pharmacological actions of bombesin on extravascular smooth muscle. Br J Pharmacol 45: 333–348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Erspamer V, Melchiorri P, Sopranzi N (1972b) The action of bombesin on the systemic arterial blood pressure of some experimental animals. Br J Pharmaco145: 442–450Google Scholar
  83. Erspamer V, Melchiorri P, Sopranzi N (1973) The action of bombesin on the kidney of the anesthetized dog. Br J Pharmaco148: 438–455Google Scholar
  84. Erspamer V, Improta G, Melchiorri P, Sopranzi N (1974) Evidence of cholecystokinin release by bombesin in the dog. Br J Pharmacol 52: 227–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Erspamer V, Erspamer GF, Melchiorri P, Negri L (1979) Occurrence and polymorphism of bombesin-like peptides in the gastrointestinal tract of birds and mammals. Gut 20: 1047–1056PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Erspamer GF, Severini C, Erspamer V, Melchiorri P, delle Fave G, Nakajima T (1988) Parallel bioassay of 27 bombesin-like peptides on 9 smooth muscle preparations. Structure-activity relationships and bombesin receptor subtypes. Regul Pept 21: 1–11Google Scholar
  87. Fain JN, Wallace MA, Wojcikiewicz RJH (1988) Evidence for involvement of guanine nucleotide binding regulatory proteins in the activation of phospholipases by hormones. FASEB J 2: 2569–2574PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Fallucca F, Delle Fave GF, Gambardella S, Mirabella C, de Magistris L, Carratu R (1977) Glucagon secretion induced by bombesin in man. Lancet 2: 609–610PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ferri GL, Adrian TE, Ghatei MA, O’Shaughnessy DJ, Probert L, Lee YC, Buchan AMJ, Polak JM, Bloom SR (1983) Tissue localization and relative distribution of regulatory peptides in separated layers from the human bowel. Gastroenterology 84: 777–786PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Figlewicz DP, Stein LJ, Woods SC, Porte D Jr (1985) Acute and chronic gastrinreleasing peptide decreases food intake in baboons. Am J Physio1248: R578–583Google Scholar
  91. Figlewicz DP, Sipols A, Porte D Jr, Woods SC (1986) Intraventricular bombesin can decrease single meal size in the baboon. Brain Res Bull 17: 535–537PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Fischer JB, Schonbrunn A (1988) The bombesin receptor is coupled to a guanine nucleotide-binding protein which is insensitive to pertussis and cholera toxins. J Biol Chem 263: 2808–2816PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Fisher LA, Brown MR (1984) Bombesin-induced stimulation of cardiac parasympathetic innervation. Regul Pept 8: 335–343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Fisher LA, Cave CR, Brown MR (1985) Central nervous system cardiovascular effects of bombesin in conscious rats. Am J Physio1248: H425–H431Google Scholar
  95. Fletcher DR, Shulkes A, Bladin PHD, Hardy KJ (1983) The effect of atropine on bombesin and gastrin releasing peptide stimulated gastrin, pancreatic polypeptide and neurotensin release in man. Regul Pept 7: 31–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Flood JF, Morley JE (1988) Effects of bombesin and gastrin-releasing peptide on memory processing. Brain Res 460: 314–322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Fox JET, McDonald TJ (1984) Motor effects of gastrin releasing peptide ( GRP) and bombesin in the canine stomach and small intestine. Life Sci 35: 1667–1673Google Scholar
  98. Francesconi R, Mager M (1981) Thermoregulatory effects of centrally administered bombesin, bradykinin and methionine-enkephalin. Brain Res Bull 7: 63–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Fulginiti JT, Porreca F, Burks TF (1984) Centrally administered bombesin stimulates intestinal motility. Proc West Pharmacol Soc 27: 141–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Fuxe K, Agnati LF, McDonald T, Locatelli V, Hokfelt T, Dalsgaard CJ, Battistini N, Yanaihara N, Mutt V, Cuello AG (1983) Immunohistochemical indications of gastrin-releasing peptide-bombesin-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of the rat. Codistribution with substance P-like immunoreactive nerve terminal systems and coexistence with substance P-like immunoreactivity in dorsal root ganglion cell bodies. Neurosci Lett 37: 17–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Galizzi JP, Qar J, Fosset M, van Renteryhens C, Lazdunski M (1987) Regulation of calcium channels in aortic muscle cells by protein kinase C activators (diacylglycerol and phorbol esters) and by peptides (vasopressin and bombesin) that stimulate phosphoinositide breakdown. J Biol Chem 262: 6947–6950PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Gaudino G, Cirillo D, Naldini L, Rossino P, Comoglio PM (1988) Activation of the protein-tyrosine kinase associated with the bombesin receptor complex in small cell lung carcinomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85: 2166–2170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Geary N, Smith GP, Gibbs J (1986) Pancreatic glucagon and bombesin inhibit meal size in ventromedial hypothalamus-lesioned rats. Regul Pept 15: 261–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Ghatei MA, Jung RT, Stevenson JC, Hillyard CJ, Adrian TE, Lee YC, Christofides ND, Sarson DL, Mashiter K, MacIntyre I, Bloom SR (1982a) Bombesin: action on gut hormones and calcium in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 54: 980–985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Ghatei MA, Sheppard MN, O’Shaughnessy DJ, Adrian TE, McGregor GP, Polak JM, Bloom SR (1982b) Regulatory peptides in the mammalian respiratory tract. Endocrinology 111: 1248–1254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Ghatei MA, Sheppard MN, Henzen-Logman S, Blank MA, Polak JM, Bloom SR (1983) Bombesin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the developing lung: marked changes in acute respiratory distress syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 57: 1226–1232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Ghatei MA, Bloom SR, Langevin H, McGregor GP, Lee YC, Adrian TE, O’Shaughnessy DJ, Blank MA, Uttenthal LO (1984a) Regional distribution of bombesin and seven other regulatory peptides in the human brain. Brain Res 293: 101–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Ghatei MA, George SK, Major JH, Carlei F, Polak JM, Bloom SR (1984b) Bombesinlike immunoreactivity in the pancreas of man and other mammalian species. Experientia 40: 884–886PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Ghatei MA, Gu J, Allen JM, Polak JM, Bloom SR (1985a) Bombesin-like immunoreactivity in female rat genito-urinary tract. Neurosci Lett 54: 13–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Ghatei MA, Springall DR, Nicholl CG, Polak JM, Bloom SR (1985b) Gastrinreleasing peptide-like immunoreactivity in medullary thyroid carcinoma. Am J Clin Pathol 84: 581–586PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Gibbs J, Fauser DJ, Rowe EA, Rolls BJ, Rolls ET, Maddison SP (1979) Bombesin suppresses feeding in rats. Nature 282: 208–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Gibbs J, Kulkosky PJ, Smith GP (1981) Effects of peripheral and central bombesin on feeding behavior of rats. Peptides [Suppl 2]2: 179–183Google Scholar
  113. Gillati M, Moody T (1984) The development of rat brain bombesin-like peptides and their receptors. Brain Res 15: 286–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Gilman AG (1987) G proteins: Transducers of receptor-generated signals. Annu Rev Biochem 56: 615–649PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Girard F, Aube C, St-Pierre S, Jolicoeur FB (1983) Structure-activity studies on neurobehavioral effects of bombesin (BB) and gastrin-releasing peptide ( GRP ). Neuropeptides 3: 443–452Google Scholar
  116. Girard F, Bachelard H, St-Pierre S, Rioux F (1984) The contractile effect of bombesin, gastrin releasing peptide and various fragments in the rat stomach strip. Eur J Pharmacol 102: 489–497PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Giraud AS, Soll AH, Cuttitta F, Walsh JH (1987) Bombesin stimulation of gastrin release from canine gastrin cells in primary culture. Am J Physiol 252: G413–G420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Gmerek DE, Cowan A (1983) Studies on bombesin-induced grooming in rats. Peptides 4: 907–913PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Gmerek DE, Cowan A (1984) Pituitary-adrenal mediation of bombesin-induced inhibition of gastrointestinal transit in rats. Regul Pept 9: 299–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Gmerek DE, Cowan A, Vaught JL (1983) Intrathecal bombesin in rats: effects on behaviour and gastrointestinal transit. Eur J Pharmaco194: 141–143Google Scholar
  121. Greeley GH Jr, Thompson JC (1984) Insulinotropic and gastrin-releasing action of gastrin-releasing peptide ( GRP ). Regul Pept 8: 97–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Greeley GH Jr, Partin M, Spannagel A, Dinh T, Hill FLC, Trowbridge J, Salter M, Chuo HF, Thompson JC (1986a) Distribution of bombesin-like peptides in the alimentary canal of several vertebrate species. Regul Pept 16: 169–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Greeley GH Jr, Spannagel A, Hill FLC, Thompson JC (1986b) Comparison of the actions of bombesin, gastrin-releasing peptide-27, neuromedin B, and gastrin- releasing peptide-10 in causing release of gastrin and gastric inhibitory peptide in rat. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 183: 136–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Guglietta A, Strunk CL, Irons BJ, Lazarus LH (1985) Central neuromodulation of gastric acid secretion by bombesin-like peptides. Peptides [Suppl 3]6: 75–81Google Scholar
  125. Gullner HG, Owen WW, Yajima H (1982) Effect of porcine gastrin releasing peptide on anterior pituitary hormone release. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 106: 831–835PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Gunion MW, Grijalva CV, Tache Y, Novin D (1984) Lateral hypothalamic lesions or transections block bombesin hyperglycemia in rats. Brain Res 299: 239–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Guo YS, Mok L, Cooper CW, Greeley GH Jr, Thompson JC, Singh P (1987) Effect of gastrin-releasing peptide analogues on gastrin and somatostatin release from isolated rat stomach. Am J Physio1253: G206–G210Google Scholar
  128. Hamaji M, Kawai Y, Kawashima Y, Tohyama M (1987) Projections of bombesin-like immunoreactive fibers from the rat stomach to the celiac ganglion revealed by a double-labeling technique. Brain Res 416: 192–194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Hamid QA, Addis BJ, Springall DR, Ibrahim NBN, Ghatei MA, Bloom SR, Polak JM (1987) Expression of the C-terminal peptide of human pro-bombesin in 361 lung endocrine tumours, a reliable marker and possible prognostic indicator for small cell carcinoma. Virchows Arch 411: 185–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Hamid QA, Bishop AE, Springall DR, Adams C, Giaid A, Denny P, Ghatei M, Legon S, Cuttitta F, Rode J, Spindel E, Bloom SR, Polak JM (1989) Detection of human probombesin mRNA in neuroendocrine (small cell) carcinoma of the lung. In situ hybridization with cRNA probe. Cancer 63: 266–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Harrison FA, Wahuta EM (1982) The presence of bombesin-like and substance P-like immunoreactivity in the ovine digestive tract. J Physiol (Loud) 322: 55–56 PGoogle Scholar
  132. Hawkins MF, Avery DD (1983) Effects of centrally-administered bombesin and adrenalectomy on behavioral thermoregulation and locomotor activity. Neuropharmacology 22: 1249–1255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Hedner J, Mueller RA, Hedner T, McCown TJ, Breese GR (1985) A centrally elicited respiratory stimulant effect by bombesin in the rat. Eur J Pharmaco1115: 21–29Google Scholar
  134. Heikkila R, Trepel JB, Cuttitta F, Neckers LM, Sausville EA (1987) Bombesin-related peptides induce calcium mobilization in a subset of human small cell lung cancer cell lines. J Biol Chem 262: 16456–16460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Heimbrook DC, Boyer ME, Garsky VM, Balishin NL, Kiefer DM, Oliff A, Riemen MW (1988) Minimal ligand analysis of gastrin releasing peptide-receptor binding and mitogenesis. J Biol Chem 263: 7016–7019PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Heinz-Erian P, Coy DH, Tamura M, Jones SW, Gardner JD, Jensen RT (1987) [DPhe12]bombesin analogues: a new class of bombesin receptor antagonists. Am J Physio1252:G439–G442Google Scholar
  137. Helen P, Panula P, Yang HYT, Rapoport SI (1984) Bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP)- and Met’-enkephalin-Arg6–Gly’-Leu8–like immunoreactivities in small intensely fluorescent ( SIF) cells and nerve fibers of rat sympathetic ganglia. J Histochem Cytochem 32: 1131–1138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Hendley B, Mamrack MD (1988) Differential response of normal human fibroblasts to bombesin versus thrombin. J Cell Physio1136: 486–492Google Scholar
  139. Hermansen K (1980) Effects of substance P and other peptides on the release of somatostatin, insulin and glucagon in vitro. Endocrinology 107: 256–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Heslop JP, Blakely DM, Brown KD, Irvine RF, Berridge MJ (1986) Effects of bombesin and insulin on inositol (1,4,5)trisphosphate and inositol (1,3,4) trisphosphate formation in Swiss 3T3 cells. Cell 47: 703–709PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Hirning LD, Burks TF (1984) Bombesin stimulates motility of the canine isolated small intestine by a neurogenic mechanism. Proc West Pharmacol Soc 27: 403–405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Hirschowitz BI, Gibson RG (1978) Stimulation of gastrin release and gastric secretion: effect of bombesin and a nonapeptide in fistula dogs with and without fundic vagotomy. Digestion 18: 227–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Hirschowitz BI, Molina E (1983) Relation of gastric acid and pepsin secretion to serum gastrin levels in dogs given bombesin and gastrin-17. Am J Physio 1244: G546–G551Google Scholar
  144. Holmgren S, Nilsson S (1983a) Bombesin-, gastrin/CCK-, 5–hydroxytryptamine-, neurotensin-, somatostatin-, and VIP-like immunoreactivity and catecholamine fluorescence in the gut of the elasmobranch, Squalus acanthias. Cell Tissue Res 234: 595–618PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Holmgren S, Nilsson S (1983b) VIP-, bombesin- and neurotensin-like immunoreactivity in neurons of the gut of the holostean fish Lepisosteus platyrhincus. Acta Zool (Stockh) 64: 25–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Holmgren S, Vaillant C, Dimaline R (1982) VIP-, substance P-, gastrin/CCK-, bombesin-, somatostatin- and glucagon-like immunoreactivities in the gut of the rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri. Cell Tissue Res 223: 141–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Holst JJ, Knuhtsen S, Orskov C, Skak-Nielsen T, Poulsen SS, Jensen SL, Nielsen OV (1987a) GRP nerves in pig antrum: role of GRP in vagal control of gastrin secretion. Am J Physiol 253: G643–G649PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Holst JJ, Knuhtsen S, Orskov C, Skak-Nielsen T, Poulsen SS, Nielsen OV (1987b) GRP-producing nerves control antral somatostatin and gastrin secretion in pigs. Am J Physiol 253: G767–G774PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Holtman JR Jr, Jensen RT, Buller A, Hamosh P, Taveira da Silva AM, Gillis RA (1983) Central respiratory stimulant effect of bombesin in the cat. Eur J Pharmacol 90: 449–451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Howard JM, Jensen RT, Gardner JD (1985) Bombesin-induced residual stimulation of amylase release from mouse pancreatic acini. Am J Physiol 248:GI96–G199Google Scholar
  151. Hutchison JB, Dimaline R, Dockray GJ (1981) Neuropeptides in the gut: quantification and characterization of cholecystokinin octapeptide-, bombesin- and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like immunoreactivities in the myenteric plexus of the guinea pig small intestine. Peptides 2: 23–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Iguchi A, Matsunaga H, Nomura T, Gotoh M, Sakamoto N (1984) Glucoregulatory effects of intrahypothalamic injections of bombesin and other peptides. Endocrinology 114: 2242–2246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Impicciatore M, Bertaccini G (1973) The bronchoconstrictor action of the tetradecapeptide bombesin in the guinea-pig. J Pharm Pharmaco125: 872–875Google Scholar
  154. Inoue K, McKay D, Yajima H, Rayford PL (1983) Effect of synthetic porcine gastrinreleasing peptide on plasma levels of immunoreactive cholecystokinin pancreatic polypeptide and gastrin in dogs. Peptides 4: 153–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Ipp E, Unger RH (1979) Bombesin stimulates the release of insulin and glucagon, but not pancreatic somatostatin, from the isolated perfused dog pancreas. Endocrinol Res Commun 6: 37–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Isacke CM, Meisenhelder J, Brown KD, Gould KL, Gould SJ, Hunter T (1986) Early phosphorylation events following the treatment of Swiss 3T3 cells with bombesin and the mammalian bombesin-related peptide, gastrin releasing peptide. EMBO J 5: 2889–2898PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Iwamoto Y, Nakamura R, Akanuma Y (1983) Effects of porcine gastrin-releasing peptide on amylase release, 2–deoxyglucose uptake, and a-aminoisobutyric acid uptake in mouse pancreatic acini. Endocrinology 113: 2106–2112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Iwanaga T (1983) Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP)/bombesin-like immunoreactivity in the neurons and paraneurons of the gut and lung. Biomed Res 4: 93–104Google Scholar
  159. Iwatsuki N, Petersen OH (1978) In vitro action of bombesin on amylase secretion, membrane potential, and membrane resistance in rat and mouse pancreatic acinar cells. A comparison with other secretagogues. J Clin Invest 61: 41–46Google Scholar
  160. Jain DK, Wolfe MM, McGuigan JE (1985) Functional and anatomical relationships between antral gastrin cells and gastrin-releasing peptide neurons. Histochemistry 82: 463–467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Jansen JBMJ, Lamers CBHW (1983) Molecular forms of cholecystokinin in human plasma during infusion of bombesin. Life Sci 33: 2197–2205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Jensen RT, Moody T, Pert C, Rivier JE, Gardner JD (1978) Interaction of bombesin and litorin with specific membrane receptors on pancreatic acinar cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75: 6139–6143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Jensen RT, Jones SW, Folkers K, Gardner JD (1984) A synthetic peptide that is a bombesin receptor antagonist. Nature 309: 61–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Johnson DE, Lock JE, Elde RP, Thompson TR (1982) Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells in hyaline membrane disease and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatr Res 16: 446–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Kabayama Y, Kato Y, Shimatsu A, Ohta H, Yanaihara N, Imura H (1984) Inhibition by gastrin-releasing peptide of growth hormone ( GH) secretion induced by human pancreatic GH-releasing factor in rats. Endocrinology 115: 649–653PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Kameya T, Bessho T, Tsumuraya M, Yamaguchi K, Abe K, Shimosato Y, Yanaihara N (1983a) Production of gastrin releasing peptide by medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. An immunohistochemical study. Virchows Arch 401: 99–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Kameya T, Shimosato Y, Kodama T, Tsumuraya M, Koide T, Yamaguchi K, Abe K (1983b) Peptide hormone production by adenocarcinomas of the lung: its morphologic basis and histogenetic considerations. Virchows Arch 400: 245–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Kaneto A, Kaneko T, Nakaya S, Kajinuma H, Kosaka K (1978) Effect of bombesin infused intrapancreatically on glucagon and insulin secretion. Metabolism 27: 549–553PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Kantoh M, Takahashi T, Yamamura T, Ishikawa Y, Utsunomiya J (1985) Bombesin evoked acetylcholine release from the guinea pig antrum. Life Sci 36: 2445–2452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Karashima T, Okajima T, Kato KI, Ibayashi H (1984) Suppressive effects of cholecystokinin and bombesin on growth hormone and prolactin secretion in urethane anesthetized rats. Endocrinol Jpn 31: 539–547PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Katz R (1980) Grooming elicited by intracerebroventricular bombesin and eledoisin in the mouse. Neuropharmacology 19: 143–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Kentroti S, McCann SM (1985) The effect of gastrin-releasing peptide on growth hormone secretion in the rat. Endocrinology 117: 1363–1367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Kentroti S, Aguila MC, McCann SM (1988a) The inhibition of growth hormone release by gastrin-releasing peptide involves somatostatin release. Endocrinology 122: 2407–2411PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Kentroti S, Dees WL, McCann SM (1988b) Evidence for a physiological role of hypothalamic gastrin-releasing peptide to suppress growth hormone and prolactin release in the rat. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85: 953–957PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Kita T, Chihara K, Abe H, Minamitani N, Kaji H, Kodama H, Chiba T, Fujita T, Yanaihara N (1986) Regional distribution of gastrin-releasing peptide- and somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in the rabbit hypothalamus. Brain Res 398: 18–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Kleibeuker JH, Kauffman GL Jr, Walsh JH (1985) Intravenous histamine reduces bombesin-stimulated gastrin release in dogs. Regul Pept 11: 209–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Knigge U, Holst JJ, Knuhtsen S, Petersen B, Krarup T, Holst-Pedersen J, Christiansen PM (1984) Gastrin-releasing peptide: pharmacokinetics and effects on gastroentero-pancreatic hormones and gastric secretion in normal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 59: 310–315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Knuhtsen S, Holst JJ, Knigge U, Olesen M, Nielsen OV (1984) Radioimmunoassay pharmacokinetics, and neuronal release of gastrin-releasing peptide in anesthetized pigs. Gastroenterology 87: 372–378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Knuhtsen S, Holst JJ, Jensen SL, Knigge U, Nielsen OV (1985) Gastrin-releasing peptide: effect on exocrine secretion and release from isolated perfused porcine pancreas. Am J Physio1248: G281–G286Google Scholar
  180. Knuhtsen S, Holst JJ, Baldissera FGA, Skak-Nielsen T, Poulsen SS, Jensen SL, Nielsen OV (1987a) Gastrin-releasing peptide in the porcine pancreas. Gastroenterology 92: 1153–1158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Knuhtsen S, Holst JJ, Schwartz TW, Jensen SL, Nielsen OV (1987b) The effect of gastrin-releasing peptide on the endocrine pancreas. Regul Pept 17: 269–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Kondo H, Iwanaga T, Yanaihara N (1983) On the occurrence of gastrin releasing peptide-. ( GRP)-like immunoreactive nerve fibers in the celiac ganglion of rats. Brain Res 289: 326–329PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Konturek SJ, Krol R, Tasler J (1976) Effect of bombesin and related peptides on the release and action of intestinal hormones on pancreatic secretion. J Physiol (Lond) 257: 663–672Google Scholar
  184. Korc M, Matrisian LM, Magun BE (1984) Cytosolic calcium regulates epidermal growth factor endocytosis in rat pancreas and cultured fibroblasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81: 461–465PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Koslo RJ, Gmerek DE, Cowan A, Porreca F (1986) Intrathecal bombesin-induced inhibition of gastrointestinal transit: requirement for an intact pituitary-adrenal axis. Regul Pept 14: 237–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Kris RM, Hazan R, Villines J, Moody TW, Schlessinger J (1987) Identification of the bombesin receptor on murine and human cells by cross linking experiments. J Biol Chem 262: 11215–11220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Kulkosky PJ, Gibbs J, Smith GP (1982a) Behavioral effects of bombesin administration in rats. Physiol Behav 28: 505–512PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Kulkosky PJ, Gibbs J, Smith GP (1982b) Feeding suppression and grooming repeatedly elicited by intraventricular bombesin. Brain Res 242: 194–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Kyrkouli SE, Stanley BG, Leibowitz SF (1987) Bombesin-induced anorexia: sites of action in the rat brain. Peptides 8: 237–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Lambert JR, Hansky J, Soveny C, Hunt P (1984) Comparative effects of bombesin and porcine gastrin-releasing peptide in the dog. Dig Dis Sci 29: 1036–1040PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Layton JE, Scanlon DB, Soveny C, Morstyn G (1988) Effects of bombesin antagonists on the growth of small cell lung cancer cells in vitro. Cancer Res 48: 4783–4789PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Leander S, Ekman R, Uddman R, Sundler F, Hakanson R (1984) Neuronal cholecystokinin, gastrin-releasing peptide, neurotensin, and fl-endorphin in the intestine of the guinea pig. Distribution and possible motor functions. Cell Tissue Res 235: 521–531Google Scholar
  193. Lebacq-Verheyden AM, Bertness V, Kirsch I, Hollis GF, McBride OW, Battey J (1987) Human gastrin-releasing peptide gene maps to chromosome band 18821. Somatic Cell Mol Genet 13: 81–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Lebacq-Verheyden AM, Kasprzyk PG, Raum MG, van Wyke Coelingh KA, Lebacq JA, Battey JF (1988a) Posttranslational processing of endogenous and of baculovirus-expressed human gastrin-releasing peptide precursor. Mol Cell Biol 8: 3129–3135Google Scholar
  195. Lebacq-Verheyden AM, Krystal G, Sartor O, Way J, Battey JF (1988b) The rat prepro gastrin releasing peptide gene is transcribed from two initiation sites in the brain. Mol Endocrinol 2: 556–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Lebacq-Verheyden AM, Segal S, Cuttitta F, Battey JF (1988c) Swiss 3T3 mouse embryo fibroblasts transfected with a human prepro-GRP gene synthesize and secrete pro-GRP rather than GRP. J Cell Biochem 36: 237–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Lebacq-Verheyden AM, Kasprzyk PG, Battey JF (1989) A study of post-translational processing of the human progastrin-releasing peptide in two small cell carcinoma cell lines. J Clin Endocrinol Metab (in press)Google Scholar
  198. Lechago J, Holmquist AL, Rosenquist GL, Walsh JH (1978) Localization of bombesin-like peptides in frog gastric mucosa. Gen Comp Endocrino136: 553–558Google Scholar
  199. Lee PC, Jensen RT, Gardner JD (1980) Bombesin-induced desensitization of enzyme secretion in dispersed acini from guinea pig pancreas. Am J Physiol 238: G213–G218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Lehy T, Accary JP, Labeille D, Dubrasquet M (1983) Chronic administration of bombesin stimulates antral gastrin cell proliferation in the rat. Gastroenterology 84: 914919Google Scholar
  201. Lemaire S, Chouinard L, Mercier P, Day R (1986) Bombesin-like immunoreactivity in bovine adrenal medulla. Regul Pept 13: 133–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Lenz HJ, Klapdor R, Hester SE, Webb VJ, Galyean RF, Rivier JE, Brown MR (1986) Inhibition of gastric acid secretion by brain peptides in the dog. Role of the autonomic nervous system and gastrin. Gastroenterology 91: 905–912PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Letterio JJ, Coughlin SR, Williams LT (1986) Pertussis toxin-sensitive pathway in the stimulation of c-myc expression and DNA synthesis by bombesin. Science 234: 1117–1119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Lewin KJ, Layfield L, Cheng L (1985) Disseminated bombesin-producing carcinoid tumor of pulmonary origin. Am J Surg Patho19: 129–134Google Scholar
  205. Lhoste E, Aprahamian M, Pousse A, Hoeltzel A, Stock-Damge C (1985a) Combined effect of chronic bombesin and secretin or cholecystokinin on the rat pancreas. Peptides [Suppl 3]6: 83–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Lhoste E, Aprahamian M, Pousse A, Hoeltzel A, Stock-Damge C (1985b) Trophic effect of bombesin on the rat pancreas: is it mediated by the release of gastrin or cholecystokinin? Peptides [Supp13]6: 89–97Google Scholar
  207. Lin KS, Lin MT (1986) Effects of bombesin on thermoregulatory responses and hypothalamic neuronal activities in the rat. Am J Physiol 251: R303–R309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Lipton JM, Glynn JR (1980) Central administration of peptides alters thermoregulation in the rabbit. Peptides 1: 15–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Logsdon CD, Zhang J, Guthrie J, Vigna S, Williams JA (1987) Bombesin binding and biological effects on pancreatic acinar AR42J cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 144: 463–468PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Loosen PT, Nemeroff CB, Bissette G, Burnett GB, Prange AJ Jr, Lipton MA (1978) Neurotensin-induced hypothermia in the rat: structure-activity studies. Neuropharmacology 17: 109–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Lopez-Rivas A, Mendoza SA, Nanberg E, Sinnett-Smith J, Rozengurt E (1987) Ca21 mobilizing action of platelet-derived growth factor differs from those of bombesin and vasopressin in swiss 3T3 mouse cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84: 5768–5772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Major J, Ghatei MA, Bloom SR (1983) Bombesin-like immunoreactivity in the pituitary gland. Experientia 39: 1158–1159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Marki W, Brown M, Rivier JE (1981) Bombesin analogs: effects on thermoregulation and glucose metabolism. Peptides [Suppl 2]2: 169–177Google Scholar
  214. Markowitz S, Krystal G, Lebacq-Verheyden AM, Way J, Sausville EA, Battey J (1988) Transcriptional activation and DNA’se I hypersensitive sites are associated with selective expression of the gastrin-releasing peptide gene. J Clin Invest 82: 808–815PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Martindale R, Kauffmann GL, Levin S, Walsh JH, Yamada T (1982a) Differential regulation of gastrin and somatostatin secretion from isolated perfused rat stomachs. Gastroenterology 83: 240–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Martindale R, Levin S, Alfin-Slater R (1982b) Effects of caerulein and bombesin on insulin and glucagon secretion from the isolated, perfused rat pancreas. Regul Pept 3: 313–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Mason GA, Nemeroff CB, Luttinger D, Hatley OL, Prange AJ Jr (1980) Neurotensin and bombesin: differential effects on body temperature of mice after intracisternal administration. Regul Pept 1: 53–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Massari VJ, Tizabi Y, Park CH, Moody TW, Helke CJ, O’Donohue TL (1983) Distribution and origin of bombesin, substance P and somatostatin in cat spinal cord. Peptides 4: 673–681PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Materia A, Modlin IM, Albert D, Sank A, Crochelt RF, Jaffe BM (1981) The effect of somatostatin and 16,16–dimethyl-prostaglandin E2 on bombesin-stimulated canine gastric acid, plasma gastrin and pancreatic polypeptide secretion. Regul Pept 1: 297–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Matsubayashi S, Yanaihara C, Ohkubo M, Fukata S, Hayashi Y, Tamai H, Nakagawa T, Miyauchi A, Kuma K, Abe K, Suzuki T, Yanaihara N (1984) Gastrin-releasing peptide immunoreactivity in medullary thyroid carcinoma. Cancer 53: 2472–2477PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Matsushita N, Kato Y, Katakami H, Shimatsu A, Yanaihara N, Imura H (1983) Inhibition of prolactin secretion by gastrin releasing peptide ( GRP) in the rat. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 172: 118–121Google Scholar
  222. Matsuyama T, Namba M, Nonaka K, Tarui S, Tanaka R, Shima K (1980) Decrease in blood glucose and release of gut glucagon-like immunoreactive materials by bombesin infusion in the dog. Endocrinol Jpn 1: 115–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Matuoka K, Fukami K, Nakanishi O, Kawai S, Takenawa T (1988) Mitogenesis in response to PDGF and bombesin is abolished by microinjection of antibody to PIP2. Science 239: 640–643PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. May RJ, Conlon TP, Erspamer V, Gardner JD (1978) Action of peptides isolated from amphibian skin on pancreatic acinar cells. Am J Physiol 23 5: E 112–El 18Google Scholar
  225. Mayer EA, Elashoff J, Walsh JH (1982) Characterization of bombesin effects on canine gastric muscle. Am J Physio1243: G141–G147Google Scholar
  226. Mayer EA, Reeve JR Jr, Khawaja S, Chew P, Elashoff J, Clark B, Walsh JH (1986) Potency of natural and synthetic canine gastrin-releasing decapeptide on canine antral muscle. Am J Physio1250: G581–G587Google Scholar
  227. Mazzanti G, Erspamer GF, Piccinelli D (1982) Relative potencies of porcine bombesinlike heptacosapeptide (PB-27), amphibian bombesin (B-14) and litorin, and bombesin C-terminal nonapeptide (B-9) on in vitro and in vivo smooth muscle preparations. J Pharm Pharmaco134: 120–121Google Scholar
  228. McCaffrey P, Ran W, Campisi J, Rich Rosner M (1987) Two independent growth factor-generated signals regulate c fos and c-myc RNA levels in Swiss 3T3 cells. J Biol Chem 262: 1442–1445Google Scholar
  229. McDonald TJ, Nilsson G, Vagne M, Ghatei M, Bloom SR, Mutt V (1978) A gastrin releasing peptide from the porcine non-antral gastric tissue. Gut 19: 767–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. McDonald TJ, Jornvall H, Nilsson G, Vagne M, Ghatei M, Bloom SR, Mutt V (1979) Characterization of a gastrin releasing peptide from porcine non-antral gastric tissue. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 90: 227–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. McDonald TJ, Jornvall H, Ghatei M, Bloom SR, Mutt V (1980) Characterization of an avian gastric (proventricular) peptide having sequence homology with the porcine gastrin-releasing peptide and the amphibian peptides bombesin and alytesin. FEBS Lett 122: 45–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. McDonald TJ, Ghatei MA, Bloom SR, Track NS, Radziuk J, Dupre J, Mutt V (1981) A qualitative comparison of canine plasma gastroenteropancreatic hormone responses to bombesin and the porcine gastrin-releasing peptide ( GRP ). Regul Pept 2: 293–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. McDonald TJ, Ghatei MA, Bloom SR, Adrian TE, Mochizuki T, Yanaihara C, Yanaihara N (1983) Dose-response comparisons of canine plasma gastroenteropancreatic hormone responses to bombesin and the porcine gastrinreleasing peptide. Regul Pept 5: 125–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. McLaughlin CL, Baile CA (1981) Obese mice and the satiety effects of cholecystokinin, bombesin and pancreatic polypeptide. Physiol Behav 26: 433–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Meisenberg G (1982) Short-term behavioural effects of neurohypophyseal hormones: pharmacological characteristics. Neuropharmacology 21: 309–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Meisenberg G, Simmons WH (1986) Behavioral alterations induced by substance P, bombesin and related peptides in mice. Peptides 7: 557–561PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Meldolesi J, Pozzan T (1987) Pathways of Ca2 2 influx at the plasma membrane: voltage-, receptor-, and second messenger-operated channels. Exp Cell Res 171: 217–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Mendoza SA, Schneider JA, Lopez-Rivas A, Sinnett-Smith JW, Rozengurt E (1986) Early events elicited by bombesin and structurally related peptides in quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells. II. Changes in Na’ and Ca fluxes, Na/K pump activity, and intracellular pH. J Cell Bio 1102: 2223–2233Google Scholar
  239. Merali Z, Johnston S, Zalcman S (1983) Bombesin-induced behavioural changes: antagonism by neuroleptics. Peptides 4: 693–697PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Micheletti R, Grider JR, Makhlouf GM (1988) Identification of bombesin receptors on isolated muscle cells from human intestine. Regul Pept 21: 219–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Michell RH, Kirk CJ, Jones LM, Downes CP, Creba J (1981) The stimulation of inositol lipid metabolism that accompanies calcium mobilization in stimulated cells: defined characteristics and unanswered questions. Philos Trans R Soc Lond [Biol] 296: 123–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Minamino N, Kangawa K, Matsuo H (1983) Neuromedin B: a novel bombesin-like peptide identified in porcine spinal cord. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 114: 541–548PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Minamino N, Kangawa K, Matsuo H (1984) Neuromedin C: a bombesin-like peptide identified in porcine spinal cord. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 119: 14–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Minamino N, Sudoh T, Kangawa K, Matsuo H (1985) Neuromedin B-32 and B-30: two “big” neuromedin B identified in porcine brain and spinal cord. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 130: 685–691PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Minna JD, Battey JF, Brooks BJ, Cuttitta F, Gazdar AF, Johnson BE, Ihde DC, Lebacq-Verheyden AM, Mulshine J, Nau MM, Oie HK, Sausville EA, Seifter E, Vinocour M (1987) Molecular genetic analysis reveals chromosomal deletion, gene amplification, and autocrine growth factor production in the pathogenesis of human lung cancer. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol 51: 843–853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Mitsuma T, Nogimori T, Chaya M (1985) Bombesin inhibits thyrotropin secretion in rats. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 108: 79–84Google Scholar
  247. Miyata M, Rayford PL, Thompson JC (1980) Hormonal (gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin) and secretory effects of bombesin and duodenal acidification in dogs. Surgery 87: 209–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Modlin IM, Lamers CB, Jaffe BM (1980a) Evidence for cholinergic dependence of pancreatic polypeptide release by bombesin - a possible application. Surgery 88: 75–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Modlin IM, Lamers C, Walsh JH (1980b) Mechanisms of gastrin release by bombesin and food. J Surg Res 28: 539–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Modlin IM, Lamers CBH, Walsh JH (1981a) Stimulation of canine pancreatic polypeptide, gastrin, and gastric acid secretion by ranatensin, litorin, bombesin nonapeptide and substance P. Regul Pept 1: 279–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Modlin IM, Lamers CBH, Walsh JH, Jaffe BM (1981b) Bombesin: a vagally independent stimulator of gastrin release. Am J Surg 141: 98–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Moghimzadeh E, Ekman R, Hakanson R, Yanaihara N, Sundler F (1983) Neuronal gastrin-releasing peptide in the mammalian gut and pancreas. Neuroscience 10: 553–563PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Moody TW, Pert CB (1979) Bombesin-like peptides in rat brain: quantitation and biochemical characterization. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 90: 7–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Moody TW, Pert CB, Rivier J, Brown MR (1978) Bombesin: specific binding to rat brain membranes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75: 5372–5376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Moody TW, Thoa NB, O’Donohue TL, Pert CB (1980) Bombesin-like peptides in rat brain: localization in synaptosomes and release from hypothalamic slices. Life Sci 26: 1707–1712PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Moody TW, O’Donohue TL, Jacobowitz DM (1981a) Biochemical localization and characterization of bombesin-like peptides in discrete regions of rat brain. Peptides 2: 75–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Moody TW, Pert CB, Gazdar AF, Carney DN, Minna JD (1981b) High levels of intracellular bombesin characterize human small-cell lung carcinoma. Science 214: 1246–1248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Moody TW, Thoa NB, O’Donohue TL, Jacobowitz D (1981c) Bombesin-like peptides in the rat spinal cord: biochemical characterization, localization and mechanism of release. Life Sci 29: 2273–2279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Moody TW, Crawley JN, Jensen RT (1982) Pharmacology and neurochemistry of bombesin-like peptides. Peptides 3: 559–563PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Moody TW, Bertness V, Carney DN (1983a) Bombesin-like peptides and receptors in human tumor cell lines. Peptides 4: 683–686PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Moody TW, Russel EK, O’Donohue TL, Linden CD, Gazdar AF (1983b) Bombesinlike peptides in small cell lung cancer: biochemical characterization and secretion from a cell line. Life Sci 32: 487–493PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Moody TW, Carney DN, Cuttitta F, Quattrochi K, Minna JD (1985) High affinity receptors for bombesin/GRP-like peptides on human small cell lung cancer. Life Sci 37: 105–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Moody TW, Murphy A, Mahmoud S, Fiskum G (1988) Bombesin-like peptides elevate cytosolic calcium in small cell lung cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 147: 189–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Moran TH, Moody TW, Hostetler AM, Robinson PH, Goldrich M, McHugh PR (1988) Distribution of bombesin binding sites in the rat gastrointestinal tract. Peptides 9: 643–649PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Morley JE, Levine AS (1981) Bombesin inhibits stress-induced eating. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 14: 149–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Morley JE, Varner AA, Modlin IM, Carlson HE, Braunstein GD, Walsh JH, Hershman JM (1980) Failure of bombesin to alter anterior pituitary hormone secretion in man. Clin Endocrinol 13: 369–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Morley JE, Levine AS, Oken MM, Grace M, Kneip J (1982) Neuropeptides and thermoregulation: the interactions of bombesin, neurotensin, TRH, somatostatin, naloxone and prostaglandins. Peptides 3: 1–6Google Scholar
  268. Morley JE, Levine AS, Hertel H, Tandeski T, Seal US (1986) The effect of peripheral administration of peptides on food intake, glucose and insulin in wolf pups. Peptides 7: 969–972PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Muir JG, Murray AW (1987) Bombesin and phorbol esters stimulate phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis by phospholipase C: evidence for a role of protein kinase C. J Cell Physiol 130: 382–391PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Mukai H, Kawai K, Suzuki Y, Yamashita K, Munekata E (1987) Stimulation of dog gastropancreatic hormone release by neuromedin B and its analogues. Am J Physiol 252: E765–E771PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Namba M, Ghatei MA, Adrian TE, Bacarese-Hamilton AJ, Mulderry PK, Bloom SR (1984) Effect of neuromedin B on gut hormone secretion in the rat. Biomed Res 5: 229–234Google Scholar
  272. Naylor SL, Sakaguchi AY, Spindel E, Chin WW (1987) Human gastrin-releasing peptide gene is located on chromosome 18. Somatic Cell Mol Genet 13: 87–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Negri L (1986) Satiety and scratching; effects of bombesin-like peptides. Eur J Pharmacol 132: 207–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Nemeroff CB, Osbahr AJ III, Manberg PJ, Ervin GN, Prange AJ Jr (1979) Alterations in nociception and body temperature after intracisternal administration of neurotensin, fl-endorphin, other endogenous peptides - and morphine. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76: 5368–5371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Niewoehner DE, Levine AS, Morley JE (1983) Central effects of neuropeptides in ventilation in the rat. Peptides 4: 277–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. O’Donohue TL, Massari VJ, Pazoles CJ, Chronwall BM, Shults CW, Quirion R, Chase TN, Moody TW (1984) A role for bombesin in sensory processing in the spinal cord. J Neurosci 4: 2956–2962PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. Orloff MS, Reeve JR Jr, Miller Ben-Avram C, Shively JE, Walsh JH (1984) Isolation and sequence analysis of human bombesin-like peptides. Peptides 5: 865–870PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. O’Shaughnessy DJ, McGregor GP, Ghatei MA, Blank MA, Springall DR, Gu J, Polak JM, Bloom SR (1983) Distribution of bombesin, somatostatin, substance-P and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in feline and porcine skin. Life Sci 32: 2827–2836PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Pachler JA, Law GJ, Dannies PS (1988) Bombesin stimulates inositol polyphosphate production in GH,C1 pituitary tumor cells: comparison with TRH. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 154: 654–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Palumbo AP, Rossino P, Comoglio PM (1986) Bombesin stimulation of c fos and cmyc gene expression in cultures of Swiss 3T3 cells. Exp Cell Res 167: 276–280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Pandol SJ, Jensen RT, Gardner JD (1982) Mechanism of [Tyr4]bombesin-induced desensitization in dispersed acini from guinea pig pancreas. J Biol Chem 257: 12024–12029PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. Panula PA (1986) Histochemistry and function of bombesin-like peptides. Med Biol 64: 177–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Panula PA, Yang HYT, Costa E (1982) Neuronal location of bombesin-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of the rat. Regul Pept 4: 275–283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Panula PA, Hadjiconstantinou M, Yang HYT, Costa E (1983) Immunohistochemical localization of bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide and substance P in primary sensory neurons. J Neurosci 3: 2021–2029PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. Panula PA, Yang HYT, Costa E (1984) Comparative distribution of bombesin/GRP and substance-P-like immunoreactivities in rat hypothalamus. J Comp Neurol 224: 606–617PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Pappas T, Hamel D, Debas H, Walsh JH, Tache Y (1985) Cerebroventricular bombesin inhibits gastric acid secretion in dogs. Gastroenterology 89: 43–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. Parrott RF, Baldwin BA (1982) Centrally-administered bombesin produces effects unlike short-term satiety in operant feeding pigs. Physiol Behav 28: 521–524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. Pert A, Moody TW, Pert CB, de Wald LA, Rivier J (1980) Bombesin: receptor distribution in brain and effects on nociception and locomotor activity. Brain Res 193: 209–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. Pettersson M, Ahren B (1987) Gastrin releasing peptide (GRP): effects on basal and stimulated insulin and glucagon secretion in the mouse. Peptides 8: 55–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Pettersson M, Ahren B (1988) Insulin and glucagon secretion in the rat: effects of gastrin releasing peptide. Neuropeptides 12: 159–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Phillis JW, Kirkpatrick JR (1979) Actions of various gastrointestinal peptides on the isolated amphibian spinal cord. Can J Physiol Pharmaco157: 887–899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. Phillis JW, Limacher JJ (1974) Excitation of cerebral cortical neurons by various polypeptides. Exp Neuro143: 414–423Google Scholar
  293. Pittman QJ, Tache Y, Brown MR (1980) Bombesin acts in preoptic area to produce hypothermia in rats. Life Sci 26: 725–730PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Poitras P, Tasse D, Laprise P (1983) Stimulation of motilin release by bombesin in dogs. Am J Physio1245: G249–G256Google Scholar
  295. Pontiroli AE, Alberetto M, Restelli L, Facchinetti A (1980) Effects of bombesin and ceruletide on prolactin, growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, and parathyroid hormone release in normal human males. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 51: 1303–1305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. Porreca F, Burks TF (1983) Centrally administered bombesin affects gastric emptying and small and large bowel transit in the rat. Gastroenterology 85: 313–317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. Price J, Penman E, Bourne GL, Rees LH (1983) Characterisation of bombesin-like immunoreactivity in human fetal lung. Regul Pept 7: 315–322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Price J, Penman E, Wass JAH, Rees LH (1984) Bombesin-like immunoreactivity in human gastrointestinal tract. Regul Pept 9: 1–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. Price J, Nieuwenhuijzen Kruseman AC, Doniach I, Howlett TA, Besser GM, Rees LH (1985) Bombesin-like peptides in human endocrine tumors: quantitation, biochemical characterization and secretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 60: 1097–1103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. Rasler FE (1983) Bombesin produces hypothermia in hypophysectomized rats. Life Sci 32: 2503–2507PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. Rasler FE (1984) Behavioral and electrophysiological manifestations of bombesin: excessive grooming and elimination of sleep. Brain Res 321: 187–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Reeve JR Jr, Walsh JH, Chew P, Clark B, Hawke D, Shively JE (1983) Amino acid sequences of three bombesin-like peptides from canine intestine extracts. J Biol Chem 258: 5582–5588PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. Represa JJ, Miner C, Barbosa E, Giraldez F (1988) Bombesin and other growth factors activate cell proliferation in chick embryo otic vesicles in culture. Development 102: 87–96Google Scholar
  304. Richelsen B, Rehfeld JF, Larsson LI (1983) Antral gland cell column: a method for studying release of gastric hormones. Am J Physiol 245: G463–G469PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. Rivier C, Rivier JE, Vale W (1978) The effect of bombesin and related peptides on prolactin and growth hormone secretion in the rat. Endocrinology 102: 519–522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. Rivier JE, Brown MR (1978) Bombesin, bombesin analogues and related peptides: effects on thermoregulation. Biochemistry 17: 1766–1771PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. Rodriguez-Pena A, Zachary I, Rozengurt E (1986) Rapid dephosphorylation of a MR 80,000 protein, a specific substrate of protein kinase C upon removal of phorbol esters, bombesin, and vasopressin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 140: 379–385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. Rokaeus A, Yanaihara N, McDonald TJ (1982) Increased concentration of neurotensinlike immunoreactivity ( NTLI) in rat plasma after administration of bombesin and bombesin-related peptides (porcine and chicken gastrin-releasing peptides ). Acta Physiol Scand 114: 605–610Google Scholar
  309. Roth KA, Weber E, Barchas JD (1982) Distribution of gastrin releasing peptidebombesin-like immunostaining in rat brain. Brain Res 251: 277–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. Roth KA, Evans CJ, Lorenz RG, Weber E, Barchas JD, Chang JK (1983a) Identification of gastrin releasing peptide-related substances in guinea pig and rat brain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 112: 528–536PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. Roth KA, Evans CJ, Weber E, Barchas JD, Bostwick DG, Bensch KG (1983b) Gastrin-releasing peptide-related peptides in a human malignant lung carcinoid tumor. Cancer Res 43: 5411–5415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. Rozengurt E, Sinnett-Smith J (1983) Bombesin stimulation of DNA synthesis and cell division in cultures of Swiss 3T3 cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80: 2936–2940PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. Rozengurt E, Sinnett-Smith JW (1987) Bombesin induction of c fos and c-myc protooncogenes in Swiss 3T3 cells: significance for the mitogenic response. J Cell Phys 131: 218–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. Said JW, Vimadalal S, Nash G, Shintaku IP, Heusser RC, Sassoon AF, LLoyd RV (1985) Immunoreactive neuron-specific enolase, bombesin, and chromogranin as markers for neuroendocrine lung tumors. Hum Pathol 16: 236–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. Sander LD, Porter JR (1988) Influence of bombesin, CCK, secretin and CRF on corticosterone concentration in the rat. Peptides 9: 113–117Google Scholar
  316. Sausville EA, Lebacq-Verheyden AM, Spindel ER, Cuttitta F, Gazdar AF, Battey JF (1986) Expression of the gastrin-releasing peptide gene in human small cell lung cancer: evidence for alternative processing resulting in three distinct mRNA’s. J Biol Chem 261: 2451–2457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. Sausville EA, Moyer JD, Heikkila R, Neckers LM, Trepel JB (1988) A correlation of bombesin-responsiveness with myc-family gene expression in small cell lung carcinoma cell lines. Ann NY Acad Sci 547: 310–321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. Scarpignato C, Bertaccini G (1981) Bombesin delays gastric emptying in the rat. Digestion 21: 104–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. Scarpignato C, Micali B, Vitulo F, Zimbaro G, Bertaccini G (1981) The effect of bombesin on gastric emptying of solids in man. Peptides [Supp12]2: 199–203Google Scholar
  320. Scemama JL, Zahidi A, Fourmy D, Fagot-Revurat P, Vaysse N, Pradayrol L, Ribet A (1986) Interactions of [1251]-Tyro-bombesin with specific receptors on normal human pancreatic membranes. Regul Pept 13: 125–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. Schubert ML, Saffouri B, Walsh JH, Makhlouf GM (1985) Inhibition of neurally mediated gastrin secretion by bombesin antiserum. Am J Physiol 248: G456–G462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. Schultzberg M (1983) Bombesin-like immunoreactivity in sympathetic ganglia. Neuroscience 8: 363–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. Schultzberg M, Dalsgaard CJ (1983) Enteric origin of bombesin immunoreactive fibers in the rat coeliac-superior mesenteric ganglion. Brain Res 269: 190–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. Schulz DW, Kalivas PW, Nemeroff CB, Prange AJ Jr (1984) Bombesin-induced locomotor hyperactivity: evaluation of the involvement of the mesolimbic dopamine system. Brain Res 304: 377–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. Schusdziarra V, Rouiller D, Harris V, Pfeiffer EF, Unger RH (1980) Effect of bombesin upon plasma somatostatin-like immunoreactivity, insulin, and glucagon in normal and chemically sympathectomized dogs. Regul Pept 1: 89–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. Schusdziarra V, Bender H, Pfeiffer EF (1983) Release of bombesin-like immunoreactivity from the isolated perfused rat stomach. Regul Pept 7: 21–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. Schusdziarra V, Bender H, Pfeffer A, Pfeiffer EF (1984) Modulation of acetylcholineinduced secretion of gastric bombesin-like immunoreactivity by cholinergic and histamine H2–receptors, somatostatin and intragastric pH. Regul Pept 8: 189–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. Schusdziarra V, Schmid R, Bender H, Schusdziarra M, Rivier J, Vale W, Classen M (1986) Effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide, peptide histidine isoleucine and growth hormone-releasing factor-40 on bombesin-like immunoreactivity, somatostatin and gastrin release from the perfused rat stomach. Peptides 7: 127–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. Short GM, Reel GM, Doyle JW, Wolfe MM (1985) Effect of GRP on /3–adrenergic stimulated gastrin and somatostatin release in the isolated rat stomach. Am J Physio1249: G 197–G202Google Scholar
  330. Singer V, Niebel W, Lamers C, Becker S, Vesper J, Hartmann W, Diemel J, Goebell H (1981) Effects of truncal vagotomy and antrectomy on bombesin-stimulated pancreatic secretion, release of gastrin and pancreatic polypeptide in the anesthetized dog. Dig Dis Sci 26: 871–877PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. Sorenson GD, Bloom SR, Ghatei MA, del Prete SA, Cate CC, Pettengill OS (1982) Bombesin production by human small cell carcinoma of the lung. Regul Pept 4: 59–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. Spencer SE, Talman WT (1987) Centrally administered bombesin modulates gastric motility. Peptides 8: 887–891PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. Spindel ER, Chin WW, Price J, Rees LH, Besser GM, Habener JF (1984) Cloning and characterization of cDNA encoding human gastrin-releasing peptide. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81: 5699–5703PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. Spindel ER, Zilberberg MD, Habener JF, Chin WW (1986) Two prohormones for gastrin-releasing peptide are encoded by two mRNA’s differeing by 19 nucleotides. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 19–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. Spindel ER, Sunday ME, Hofler H, Wolfe HJ, Habener JF, Chin WW (1987a) Transient elevation of messenger RNA encoding gastrin-releasing peptide, a putative pulmonary growth factor in human fetal lung. J Clin Invest 80: 1172–1179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. Spindel ER, Zilberberg MD, Chin WW (1987b) Analysis of the gene and multiple messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNA’s) encoding human gastrin-releasing peptide: alternate RNA splicing occurs in neural and endocrine tissue. Mol Endocrinol 1: 224232Google Scholar
  337. Springall DR, Ibrahim NBN, Rode J, Sharpe MS, Bloom SR, Polak JM (1986) Endocrine differentiation of extra-pulmonary small cell carcinoma demonstrated by immunohistochemistry using antibodies to PGP 9.5, neuron-specific enolase and the C-flanking peptide of human pro-bombesin. J Pathol 150: 151–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. Stahlman MT, Kasselberg AG, Orth DN, Gray ME (1985) Ontogeny of neuroendocrine cells in human fetal lung. II. An immunohistochemical study. Lab Invest 52: 52–60Google Scholar
  339. Stein LJ, Woods SC (1982) Gastrin-releasing peptide reduces meal size in rats. Peptides 3: 833–835PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. Stjernquist M, Hakanson R, Leander S, Owman C, Sundler F, Uddman R (1983) Immunohistochemical localization of substance P, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and gastrin-releasing peptide in vas deferens and seminal vesicle, and the effect of these and eight other neuropeptides on resting tension and neurally evoked contractile activity. Regul Pept 7: 67–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. Stjernquist M, Ekblad E, Owman C, Sundler F (1986) Neuronal localization and motor effects of gastrin-releasing peptide ( GRP) in rat uterus. Regul Pept 13: 197–205Google Scholar
  342. Stuckey JA, Gibbs J (1982) Lateral hypothalamic injection of bombesin decreases food intake in rats. Brain Res Bull 8: 617–621PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. Stuckey JA, Gibbs J, Smith GP (1985) Neural disconnection of gut from brain blocks bombesin-induced satiety. Peptides 6: 1249–1252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. Sugano K, Park J, Soll AH, Yamada T (1987) Stimulation of gastrin release by bombesin and canine gastrin releasing peptides. Studies with isolated canine G cells in primary culture. J Clin Invest 79: 935–942Google Scholar
  345. Sunday ME, Kaplan LM, Motoyama E, Chin WW, Spindel ER (1988a) Biology of disease. Gastrin-releasing peptide (mammalian bombesin) gene expression in health and disease. Lab Invest 59: 5–24Google Scholar
  346. Sunday ME, Wolfe HJ, Roos BA, Chin WW, Spindel ER (1988b) Gastrin-releasing peptide gene expression in developing, hyperplastic, and neoplastic human thyroid C-cells. Endocrinology 122: 1551–1558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. Suzuki M, Yamaguchi K, Abe K, Adachi N, Nagasaki K, Asanuma F, Adachi I, Kimura S, Terada M, Taya Y, Matsuzaki J, Miki K (1987) Detection of gastrin- releasing peptide mRNA in small cell lung carcinomas and medullary thyroid carcinomas using synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotide probes. Jpn J Clin Oncol 17: 157–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  348. Swope SL, Schonbrunn A (1984) Bombesin stimulates insulin secretion by a pancreatic islet cell line. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81: 1822–1826PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. Swope SL, Schonbrunn A (1987) Characterization of ligand binding and processing by bombesin receptors in an insulin-secreting cell line. Biochem J 247: 731–738PubMedGoogle Scholar
  350. Swope SL, Schonbrunn A (1988) The biphasic stimulation of insulin secretion by bombesin involves both cytosolic free calcium and protein kinase C. Biochem J 253: 193–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  351. Tache Y (1982) Bombesin: central nervous system action to increase gastric mucus in rats. Gastroenterology 83: 75–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. Tache Y (1988) CNS peptides and regulation of gastric acid secretion. Annu Rev Physiol 50: 19–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. Tache Y, Collu R (1982) CNS mediated inhibition of gastric secretion by bombesin: independence from interaction with brain catecholamingeric, and serotoninergic pathways and pituitary hormones. Regul Pept 3: 51–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  354. Tache Y, Brown M, Collu R (1979a) Effects of neuropeptides on adenohypophyseal hormone response to acute stress in male rats. Endocrinology 105: 220–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. Tache Y, Simard P, Collu R (1979b) Prevention by bombesin of cold-restraint stress induced hemorrhagic lesions in rats. Life Sci 24: 1719–1726PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. Tache Y, Pittman Q, Brown M (1980a) Bombesin-induced poikilothermy in rats. Brain Res 188: 525–530PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. Tache Y, Vale W, Rivier J, Brown M (1980b) Brain regulation of gastric secretion: influence of neuropeptides. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77: 5515–5519PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  358. Tache Y, Marki W, Rivier J, Vale W, Brown M (1981) Central nervous system inhibition of gastric secretion in the rat by gastrin-releasing peptide, a mammalian bombesin. Gastroenterology 81: 298–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  359. Takuwa N, Takuwa Y, Bollag WE, Rasmussen H (1987) The effects of bombesin on polyphosphoinositide and calcium metabolism in Swiss 3T3 cells. J Biol Chem 262: 182–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  360. Tamai S, Kameya T, Yamaguchi K, Yanai N, Abe K, Yanaihara N, Yamazaki H, Kageyama K (1983) Peripheral lung carcinoid tumor producing predominantly gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP). Morphologic and hormonal studies. Cancer 52: 273–281Google Scholar
  361. Taminato T, Seino Y, Goto Y, Matsukura S, Imura H, Sakura N, Yanaihara N (1978) Bombesin inhibits insulin release from isolated pancreatic islets of rats in vitro. Endocrinol Jpn 25: 305–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. Taylor CW, Blakely DM, Corps AN, Berridge MJ, Brown KD (1988) Effects of pertussis toxin on growth factor-stimulated inositol phosphate formation and DNA synthesis in Swiss 3T3 cells. Biochem J 249: 917–920PubMedGoogle Scholar
  363. Taylor IL, Garcia R (1985) Effects of pancreatic polypeptide, caerulein and bombesin on satiety in obese mice. Am J Physiol 248: G277–G280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  364. Taylor IL, Walsh JH, Carter D, Wood J, Grossman MI (1979) Effects of atropine and bethanechol on bombesin-stimulated release of pancreatic polypeptide and gastrin in dog. Gastroenterology 77: 714–718PubMedGoogle Scholar
  365. Thomas RM, Sander LD (1985) Influence of CCK and bombesin on ACTH and cortisol secretion in the conscious dog. Peptides 6: 703–707PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. Timson CM, Polak JM, Wharton J, Ghatei MA, Bloom SR, Usellini L, Capella C, Solcia E, Brown MR, Pearse AGE (1979) Bombesin-like immunoreactivity in the avian gut and its localisation to a distinct cell type. Histochemistry 61: 213–221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  367. Track NS, Cutz E (1982) Bombesin-like immunoreactivity in developing human lung. Life Sci 30: 1553–1556PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  368. Trepel JB, Moyer JD, Heikkila R, Sausville EA (1988a) Modulation of bombesininduced phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis in a small cell lung cancer cell line. Biochem J 255: 403–410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  369. Trepel JB, Moyer JD, Cuttitta F, Frucht H, Coy DH, Natale RB, Mulshine JL, Jensen RT, Sausville EA (1988b) A novel bombesin receptor antagonist inhibits autocrine signals in a small cell lung carcinoma cell line. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 156: 1383–1389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  370. Tsutsumi Y, Osamura RY, Watanabe K, Yanaihara N (1983) Immunohistochemical studies on gastrin-releasing peptide- and adrenocorticotropic hormone-containing cells in the human lung. Lab Invest 48: 623–632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  371. Uhlemann ER, Rottman AJ, Gardner JD (1979) Actions of peptides isolated from amphibian skin on amylase release from dispersed pancreatic acini. Am J Physiol 236: E571–E576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  372. Vagne M, Gelin ML, McDonald TJ, Chayvialle JA, Minaire Y (1982) Effect of bombesin on gastric secretion and motility in the cat. Digestion 24: 5–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  373. Vagne M, Collinet M, Cuber JC, Bernard C, Chayvialle JA, McDonald TJ, Mutt V (1987) Effect of porcine gastrin releasing peptide on gastric secretion and motility and the release of hormonal peptides in conscious cats. Peptides 8: 423–430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  374. Vaillant C, Dockray GJ, Walsh JH (1979) The avian proventriculus is an abundant source of endocrine cells with bombesin-like immunoreactivity. Histochemistry 64: 307–314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. Van Wimersma Greidanus TJB, Donker DK, van Zinnicq Bergmann FFM, Bekenkamp R, Maigret C, Spruijt B (1985a) Comparison between excessive grooming induced by bombesin or by ACTH: the differential elements of grooming and development of tolerance. Peptides 6: 369–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  376. Van Wimersma Greidanus TJB, Donker DK, Walhof R, van Grafhorst JCA, de Vries N, van Schaik SJ, Maigret C, Spruijt BM, Colbern DL (1985b) The effects of neurotensin, naloxone and haloperidol on elements of excessive grooming behavior induced by bombesin. Peptides 6: 1179–1183Google Scholar
  377. Varner AA, Modlin IM, Walsh JH (1981) High potency of bombesin for stimulation of human gastrin release and gastric acid secretion. Regul Pept 1: 289–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  378. Vaysse N, Pradayrol G, Chayvialle JA, Pignal F, Esteve JP, Susini C, Descos F, Ribet A (1981) Effects of somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28 on bombesin-stimulated release of gastrin, insulin and glucagon in the dog. Endocrinology 108: 1843–1847PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  379. Vigna SR, Mantyh CR, Giraud AS, Soll AH, Walsh JH, Mantyh PW (1987) Localization of specific binding sites for bombesin in the canine gastrointestinal tract. Gastroenterology 93: 1287–1295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  380. Villarreal JA, Brown MR (1978) Bombesin-like peptide in hypothalamus: chemical and immunological characterization. Life Sci 23: 2729–2734PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  381. Wager-Srdar SA, Morley JE, Levine AS (1986) The effect of cholecystokinin, bombesin and calcitonin on food intake in virgin, lactating and postweaning female rats. Peptides 7: 729–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  382. Wakelam MJO (1988) Inhibition of the amplified bombesin-stimulated inositol phosphate response in N-ras transformed cells by high density culturing. FEBS Lett 228: 182–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  383. Wakelam MJO, Davies SA, Houslay MD, McKay I, Marshall CJ, Hall A (1986) Normal p21 N-ras couples bombesin and other growth factor receptors to inositol phosphate production. Nature 323: 173–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  384. Walsh JH (1988) Peptides as regulators of gastric acid secretion. Annu Rev Physiol 50: 41–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  385. Walsh JH, Wong HC, Dockray GJ (1979) Bombesin-like peptides in mammals. Fed Proc 38: 2315–2319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  386. Walsh JH, Maxwell V, Ferrari J, Varner AA (1981) Bombesin stimulates human gastric function by gastrin-dependent and independent mechanisms. Peptides [Suppl 2]2: 193–198Google Scholar
  387. Weber S, Zuckerman JE, Bostwick DG, Bensch KG, Sikic BI, Raffin TA (1985) Gastrin-releasing peptide is a selective mitogen for small cell lung carcinoma in vitro. J Clin Invest 75: 306–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  388. Westendorf JM, Schonbrunn A (1982) Bombesin stimulates prolactin and growth hormone release by pituitary cells in culture. Endocrinology 110: 352–358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  389. Westendorf JM, Schonbrunn A (1983) Characterization of bombesin receptors in a rat pituitary cell line. J Biol Chem 258: 7527–7535PubMedGoogle Scholar
  390. Wharton J, Polak JM, Bloom SR, Ghatei MA, Solcia E, Brown MR, Pearse AGE (1978) Bombesin-like immunoreactivity in the lung. Nature 273: 769–770PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  391. Willey JC, Lechner JF, Harris CC (1984) Bombesin and the C-terminal tetradecapeptide of gastrin-releasing peptide are growth factors for normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Exp Cell Res 153: 245–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  392. Wolf SS, Moody TW (1985) Receptors for GRP-Bombesin-like peptides in the rat forebrain. Peptides [Suppl 1]6: 111–114Google Scholar
  393. Wolf SS, Moody TW, O’Donohue TL, Zarbin MA, Kuhar MJ (1983) Autoradiographic visualization of rat brain binding sites for Bombesin-like peptides. Eur J Pharmacol 87: 163–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  394. Wolfe MM, Short GM, McGuigan JE (1987) fl-adrenergic stimulation of gastrin release mediated by gastrin-releasing peptide in rat antral mucosa. Regul Pept 17: 133–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  395. Woll PJ, Rozengurt E (1988) [D-Argi, D-Phes, D-Trp’9, Leull] substance P, a potent bombesin antagonist in murine Swiss 3T3 cells, inhibits the growth of human small cell lung cancer cells in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85: 1859–1863PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  396. Woll PJ, Coy DH, Rozengurt E (1988) [Leu13–V-(CH2NH)Leu14]bombesin is a specific bombesin antagonist in Swiss 3T3 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 155: 359–365Google Scholar
  397. Wood SM, Wood JR, Ghatei MA, Lee YC, O’Shaughnessy D, Bloom SR (1981) Bombesin, somatostatin and neurotensin-like immunoreactivity in bronchial carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 53: 1310–1312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  398. Wood SM, Jung RT, Webster JD, Ghatei MA, Adrian TE, Yanaihara N, Yanaihara C, Bloom SR (1983) The effect of the mammalian neuropeptide, gastrin-releasing peptide ( GRP), on gastrointestinal and pancreatic hormone secretion in man. Clin Sci 65: 365–371Google Scholar
  399. Woods SC, Stein LJ, Figlewicz PD, Porte D Jr (1983) Bombesin stimulates insulin secretion and reduces food intake in the baboon. Peptides 4: 687–697PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  400. Wunder BA, Hawkins MF, Avery DD, Swan H (1980) The effects of bombesin injected into the anterior and posterior hypothalamus on body temperature and oxygen consumption. Neuropharmacology 19: 1095–1097PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  401. Yaksh TL, Michener SR, Bailey JE, Harty GJ, Lucas DL, Nelson DK, Roddy DR, Go VLW (1988) Survey of distribution of substance P, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, cholecystokinin, neurotensin, Met-enkephalin, bombesin and PHI in the spinal cord of cat, dog, sloth and monkey. Peptides 9: 357–372Google Scholar
  402. Yamada T, Takami MS, Gerner RH (1981) Bombesin-like immunoreactivity in human cerebrospinal fluid. Brain Res 223: 214–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  403. Yamaguchi K, Abe K, Kameya T, Adachi I, Taguchi S, Otsubo K, Yanaihara N (1983) Production and molecular size heterogeneity of immunoreactive gastrin-releasing peptide in fetal and adult lungs and primary lung tumors. Cancer Res 43: 3932–3939PubMedGoogle Scholar
  404. Yamaguchi K, Abe K, Adachi I, Suzuki M, Kimura S, Kameya T, Yanaihara N (1984) Concomitant production of immunoreactive gastrin-releasing peptide and calcitonin in medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. Metabolism 33: 724–727PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  405. Yanaihara N, Yanaihara C, Mochizuki T, Iwahara K, Fujita T, Iwanage T (1981) Immunoreactive GRP. Peptides [Suppl 2]: 2: 185–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  406. Yang K, Ulich T, Taylor I, Cheng L, Lewin KJ (1983) Pulmonary carcinoids. Immunohistochemical demonstration of brain-gut peptides. Cancer 52: 819–823Google Scholar
  407. Yoshizaki K, de Bock V, Solomon S (1984) Origin of Bombesin-like peptides in human fetal lung. Life Sci 34: 835–843PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  408. Yoshizaki K, de Bock V, Takai I, Wang NS, Solomon S (1986) Bombesin-like peptides in human small cell carcinoma of the lung. Regul Pept 14: 11–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  409. Zachary I, Rozengurt E (1985a) High-affinity receptors for peptides of the bombesin family in Swiss 3T3 cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82: 7616–7620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  410. Zachary I, Rozengurt E (1985b) Modulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor by mitogenic ligands: effects of bombesin and role of protein kinase C. Cancer Surv 4: 729–765PubMedGoogle Scholar
  411. Zachary I, Rozengurt E (1986) A substance P antagonist also inhibits specific binding and mitogenic effects of vasopressin and bombesin-related peptides in Swiss 3T3 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 137: 135–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  412. Zachary I, Rozengurt E (1987a) Identification of a receptor for peptides of the bombesin family in Swiss 3T3 cells by affinity cross linking. J Biol Chem 262: 3947–3950PubMedGoogle Scholar
  413. Zachary I, Rozengurt E (1987b) Internalization and degradation of peptides of the bombesin family in Swiss 3T3 cells occurs without ligand-induced receptor down regulation. EMBO J 6: 2233–2239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  414. Zachary I, Sinnett-Smith JW, Rozengurt E (1986) Early events elicited by bombesin and structurally related peptides in quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells. I. Activation of protein kinase C and inhibition of epidermal growth factor binding. J Cell Biol 102: 2211–2222Google Scholar
  415. Zachary I, Millar J, Nanberg E, Higgins T, Rozengurt E (1987) Inhibition of bombesin-induced mitogenesis by pertussis toxin: dissociation from the phospholipase C pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 146: 456–463PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  416. Zarbin MA, Kuhar MJ, O’Donohue TL, Wolf SS, Moody TW (1985) Autoradiographic localization of [125I-Tyr4] bombesin-binding sites in rat brain. J Neurosci 5: 429–437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  417. Zoeller RT, Lebacq-Verheyden AM, Battey JF (1989) Distribution of two distinct messenger ribonuclear acids encoding gastrin-releasing peptide in rat brain. Peptides 10: 415–422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • A.-M. Lebacq-Verheyden
  • J. Trepel
  • E. A. Sausville
  • J. F. Battey

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations