Pathomechanism: Genetic and Immunological Factors

  • Georg Rajka


Evaluation of much of the early literature on heredity in atopy proves difficult mainly because of the terminology in use at that time. It was imprecise and included atopic manifestations other than the principal ones. A hereditary predisposition to atopy, as postulated by Coca and Cooke (1923), including the transferability of specific antibodies, was subsequently confirmed by several authors. These included Edgren (1943), who demonstrated an increased frequency of respiratory atopic manifestations in patients who had previously suffered from AD. Clinicians investigating atopic subjects found hereditary background of atopy, including asthma, rhinitis, and AD, in 62%–68% in their cases (Rost and Marchionini 1932; Korting 1958; Baer 1955), and, despite possible sources of error, the Scandinavian series of Hellerström and Lidman (1956) and of the author (Rajka 1960) both gave the incidence as 68%. Reports on “allergic” children gave an even higher incidence (Freeman and Johnson 1964; Kaufman and Frick 1976). These and similar findings support the conclusion that the coexistence of AD and atopic respiratory disease is genetically determined (Schwartz 1952; Schnyder 1960; Rajka 1960).


Atopic Dermatitis Allergy Clin Immunol House Dust Immunological Factor Inhalant Allergen 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aas K (1967) Studies in hypersensitivity to fish. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 29: 346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aas K (1970) Bronchial provocation test in asthma. Arch Dis Child 45: 221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aas K (1978) What makes an allergen an allergen. Allergy 33: 3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aas K (1979) Common immunochemistry in atopic dermatitis and bronchial asthma. Acta Derm Venereol [Suppl] (Stockh) 92: 64Google Scholar
  5. Aas K, Belin L (1972) Standardization of diagnostic work in allergy. Acta Allergol 27: 439Google Scholar
  6. Aas K, Elsayed S (1969) Characterization of a major allergen (cod.) Effect of enzymic hydrolysis on the allergenic activity. J Allergy 44: 333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aas K, Leegaard J, Auktrust L, Grimmer O (1980) Immediate hypersensitivity to common moulds. Allergy 35: 443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Abramson JS, Dahl MV, Walsh G, Blumenthal MN, Douglas SD, Quie PG (1982) Antista-phylococcal IgE in patients with atopic dermatitis. J Am Acad Dermatol 7: 105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Adinoff AD, Tellez P, Clark RAF (1988) Atopic dermatitis and aeroallergen contact sensitivity. J Allergy Clin Immunol 81: 736PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Alani MD, Harlov N (1972) The house dust mite: a possible source of allergen in the environment of patients with atopic dermatitis. J Natl Med Assoc 64: 302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Alberse RC, Koshte V, Clemens JGJ (1981) Immunoglobulin E antibodies that cross-react with vegetable foods, pollen and Hymenoptera venom. J Allergy Clin Immunol 68: 356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Alexander HL (1931) An evaluation of the skin test in allergy. Ann Intern Med 5: 52Google Scholar
  13. Allison JH, Bettley FR (1958) Investigations into cantharidin blisters raised on apparently normal skin in normal and abnormal subjects. Br J Dermatol 70: 331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Allison JH, Williamson DH (1960) The abnormal cantharidin blister in atopy: an explanation on its production. Br J Dermatol 72: 383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Anan S (1976) Cellules porteuses d’immunoglobulines au niveau de la peau. Études en immu-nofluorescence dans les lésions d’eczéma atopique. Rev Fr Allergol 16: 65Google Scholar
  16. Andersen E, Hjorth N (1975) B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes and phytohaemagglutinin responsiveness in atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 55: 345Google Scholar
  17. Anderson KE, Löwenstein H (1978) An investigation of the possible relationship between allergen extracts from birch pollen, hazelnut, potato and apple. Contact Dermatitis 4: 73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Angelini G, Meneghini CL (1977) Contact and bacterial allergy in children with atopic dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 3: 163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Atherton DJ (1981) Allergy and atopic eczema. II. Clin Exp Dermatol 6: 317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Atherton DJ (1982) Atopic eczema. In: Brostoff I, Challacombe SJ (eds) Food Allergy, vol 12. Saunders, London, p 77Google Scholar
  21. Atherton DJ, Sewell M, Soothill JR, Wells RS, Chivers CED (1978) A double blind controlled crossover trial of antigen avoidance diet in eczema. Lancet I: 401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Atkins FM, Steinberg SS, Metcalfe DD (1985) Evaluation of immediate adverse reactions to food in adult patients. II. A detailed analysis of reaction patterns during oral food challenge. J Allergy Clin Immunol 75: 356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. August PJ (1984) House dust mite cause atopic eczema: a preliminary study (abstract). Br J Dermatol (Suppl 26): 10Google Scholar
  24. Augustin R, Hayward BJ (1962) Grass pollen allergens. Immunology 5: 124Google Scholar
  25. Augustin R, O’Sullivan S, Davies I (1971) Isolation of grass pollen allergens failing to induce IgE reagin formation although capable of inducing IgG antibody formation. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 41: 144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Baer RL (1955) Atopic dermatitis. Lippincott, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  27. Bahna SL, Hiener DC, Myhre BA (1983) Immunoglobulin E pattern in cigarette smokers. Allergy 38: 57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Balyeat RM (1930) Allergic eczema. J Allergy 1:516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bandmann HJ, Breit R, Leutgeb C (1972) Kontaktallergie und Dermatitis atopica. Arch Dermatol Res 244: 332Google Scholar
  30. Barker JNWN, Alegre VA, MacDonald DM (1988) Surface-bound immunoglobulin E on antigen-presenting cells in cutaneous tissue of atopic dermatitis. J Invest Dermatol 90: 117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Barnetson RSC (1980) Hyperimmunoglobulinæmia E in atopic eczema (atopic dermatitis) is associated with “food allergy”. Acta Derm Venereol [Suppl] (Stockh) 92: 94Google Scholar
  32. Barnetson RSC, Drummond H, Ferguson A (1983) Precipitins to dietary proteins in atopic eczema. Br J Dermatol 109: 653PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Barnetson R, Hardie RA, Merrett TG (1981) Late onset atopic eczema and multiple food allergies after infectious mononucleosis. Br Med J 283: 1086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Barnetson RSC, Macfarlane HAF, Benton EC (1987) House-dust mite allergy and atopic eczema. Br J Dermatol 116: 857PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Barnetson RSC, Merrett TG, Merrett J, Burr M (1981) IgG 4 in atopic eczema (abstract). Br J Dermatol 108: 220Google Scholar
  36. Bazaral M, Orgel HA, Hamburger RN (1971) IgE levels in normal infants and mothers and an inheritance hypothesis. J Immunol 107: 794PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Beck HI, Hagdrup HK (1987) Atopic dermatitis, house dust mite allergy and month of birth. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 67: 448Google Scholar
  38. Beer DJ, Osband ME, McCaffrey RP, Soter NA, Rocklin RE (1982) Abnormal histamine-induced suppressor cell function in atopic subjects. N Engl J Med 306: 454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Benton EC, Barnetson RSC (1985) Skin reactions to foods in patients with atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol [Suppl] (Stockh) 92: 129Google Scholar
  40. Berg T, Johansson SGO (1969) Immunoglobulin levels during childhood with special regard to IgE Acta Pædiatr Scand 58: 513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Berglund A, Kober A, Ahlberg M, Persson E (1985) Monoclonal antibodies in IgE assays. Allergy 40 (Suppl 4): 14Google Scholar
  42. Bergquist G, Nilzén Å (1959) Gesichtspunkte zur Hauttestung mit Bakterienvakzinen bei Asthma und Ekzem (Prurigo Besnier). In: Findeisen DGR, Hansen K (eds) Aktuelle Aller-giefragen vol 4. Barth, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  43. Bergquist G, Nilzén Å (1960) The thrombocyte index after injection of staphylococcus vaccine in man. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 40: 58Google Scholar
  44. Bernstein L, Safferman RS (1970) Viable algae in house dust. Nature 227: 851PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Berrens L (1971 a) The chemistry of atopic allergens. Monogr Allergy 7Google Scholar
  46. Berrens L (1971b) An analytic approach to the frequency distribution of positive skin reactions to atopic allergens. Ann Allergy 29: 118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Berrens L, Guikers CLH (1980) RAST with human dander allergen in atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol [Suppl] (Stockh) 92: 116Google Scholar
  48. Bhalla RB et al. (1982) Serum IgE levels in a Northeast Unites States Caucasian population. In: Bensen AA (ed) Advanced interpretation of clinical laboratory data. Decker, New York, p 295Google Scholar
  49. Billewicz WZ, McGreger IA, Roberts DF, Rowe DS, Wilson RJM (1974) Family studies in immunoglobulin levels. Clin Exp Dermatol 16: 13Google Scholar
  50. Birkeland SA, Ölholm Larsen P, Schultz Larsen F (1981) Subpopulations of lymphocytes and lymphocyte transformation tests in atopic dermatitis: an evaluation of a systemic treatment with a new chromone compound and comparison with a normal group. J Invest Dermatol 76: 367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Bjerring T, Thestrup Pedersen K (1982) E-rosette formation of lymphocytes from patients with atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 62: 31Google Scholar
  52. Björksten F, Saarinen UM (1978) IgE antibodies to cow’s milk in infants fed by breast milk and milk formulas. Lancet II.: 624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Björksten F, Suoniemi I (1981) Dependence of immediate hypersensitivity on the month of birth. Allergy 36: 263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Björnberg A (1968) Skin reactions to primary irritants in patients with hand eczema. Isacson Tryckeri AB, GothenburgGoogle Scholar
  55. Blaylock WK (1976) Atopic dermatitis: diagnosis and pathobiology. J Allergy Clin Immunol 57: 62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Blumenthal F, Jaffe K (1933) Ekzem und Idiosynkrasie. Karger, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  57. Blumenthal MN, Namboodiri K, Mendell N, Gleich G, Elston RC, Yunis E (1981) Genetic transmission of serum IgE levels. Am J Med Genet 10: 219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Bock SA, Lee WY, Remigio LK, May CD (1978) Studies of hypersensitivity reactions to foods in infants and children. J Allergy Clin Immunol 62: 327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Boner AL, Antolini I, Zambelli M et al. (1985) Preliminary report on histamine release, circulating immune complexes and complement activation in children with atopic dermatitis after oral challenge with milk and egg antigens. Ann Allergy 54: 442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Bonifazi E, Garofalo L, Monterisi A, Meneghini CL (1978) Food allergy in atopic dermatitis: experimental observations. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 58: 349Google Scholar
  61. Bonnevie P (1939) Aetiologie and Pathogenese der Ekzemkrankheit. Barth, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  62. Borelli S (1970) Untersuchungen am Kranken mit atopischer Neurodermitis. Hautarzt 21: 335Google Scholar
  63. Borelli S, Berowa N (1965) Vergleichende allergologische Untersuchungen bei Neurodermitis constitutionalis atopica. Hautarzt 16: 269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Böyum A (1969) Separation of leucocytes from blood and bone marrow. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 21 (Suppl 97): 1Google Scholar
  65. Braathen LR (1980) Studies on human epidermal Langerhans’ cells. III. Induction of T lymphocyte response to nickel sulphate in sensitized individuals. Br J Dermatol 103: 517PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Braathen LR (1985) T-cell subsets in patients with mild and severe atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol [Suppl] (Stockh) 114: 133Google Scholar
  67. Braathen LR, Kaaman T (1983) Human epidermal Langerhans’ cells induce cellular immune response to trichophytin in dermatophytosis. Br J Dermatol 109: 295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Braathen LR, Thorsby E (1980) Studies on human epidermal Langerhans’ cells. I. Alloactivating and antigen-presenting capacity. Scand J Immunol 11: 401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Braathen LR, Thorsby E (1983) Human epidermal Langerhans’ cells are more potent than blood monocytes in inducing some antigen-specific T-cell response. Br J Dermatol 108: 139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Braathen LR, Förre O, Natvig JB, Eeg-Larsen T (1979) Predominance of T lymphocytes in the dermal infiltrate of atopic dermatitis. Br J Dermatol 112: 149Google Scholar
  71. Braathen LR, Berle E, Mobeck-Hansen U, Thorsby E (1980) Studies on human epidermal Langerhans’ cells. II. Activation of human T lymphocytes to herpes simplex virus. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 60: 381Google Scholar
  72. Brasher GW, Deiterman LH (1972) Salivary IgA and infection in children with atopy. Ann Allergy 30: 241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Brasher GW, Hall FF, Bourland PD (1973) Serum IgD concentrations in children with atopic diseases. J Allergy Clin Immunol 52: 167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Brostoff I, Carini C, Wraith DG, Paganelli R, Levinsky R (1979) Immune complexes in atopy. In: Pepys J, Edwards AM (eds) The mast cell: its role in health and disease. Pitman, London, p 380Google Scholar
  75. Brostoff J, Roitt I (1969) Cell-mediated (delayed) hypersensitivity in patients with summer hay fever. Lancet II: 1296Google Scholar
  76. Brunner M, Walzer M (1928) Absorption of undigested proteins in human beings: the absorption of unaltered fish protein in adults. Arch Intern Med 42: 173Google Scholar
  77. Brunsting LA (1936) Atopic dermatitis (disseminated neurodermitis) of young adults. Arch Dermatol Syph 34: 935Google Scholar
  78. Bruynzeel PLB, Berrens L (1979) IgE and IgG4 antibodies in specific human allergies. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 58: 344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Bruynzeel-Koomen C (1986) IgE on Langerhans’ cells: new insight into the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. Dermatologica 172: 181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Bruynzeel-Koomen C, van Wichen DF, Toonstra J, Berrens L, Bruynzeel PLB (1986) The presence of IgE molecules on epidermal Langerhans’ cells in patients with atopic dermatitis. Arch Dermatol Res 278: 199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Bruynzeel-Koomen CAFM, van Wichen DF, Spry C, Venge P, Bruynzeel P (1988) Active participation of eosinophils in patch test reactions to inhalant allergens in patients with atopic dermatitis. Br J Dermatol 118: 229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Buckley RH (1976) The functions and measurement of human B-and T-lymphocytes. J Invest Dermatol 67: 381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Buckley RH, Becker WG (1978) Abnormalities in the regulation of human IgE synthesis. Immunol Rev 41: 288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Buckley RH, Dees SC, O’Fallon WM (1968) Serum immunoglobulins. I. Levels in normal children and in uncomplicated childhood allergy. Pediatries 41: 600Google Scholar
  85. Burks AW jr, Brooks JR, Sampson HA (1988) Allergeni city of major component proteins of soybean determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting in children with atopic dermatitis and positive soy challenges. J Allergy Clin Immunol 81: 1135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Byrom NA (1980) Thymosin-inducible “null” cells in atopic children. Acta Derm Venereol [Suppl] (Stockh) 92: 63Google Scholar
  87. Byrom NA, Staughton RCD, Campbell MA, Timlin DM, Chooi M, Lane AM, Copeman CWM, Hobbs JR (1979) Thymosin-inducible “null” cells in atopic eczema. Br J Dermatol 100: 499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Calnan CD (1956) Nickel dermatitis. Practitioner 177: 303Google Scholar
  89. Canonica GS, Mingari MC, Mellioli G, Colombatti M, Moretta L (1979) Imbalances of T-cell subpopulations in patients with atopic diseases and effect of specific immunotherapy. J Immunol 123: 2669PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Cant A, Marsden RA, Kishaw PJ (1985) Egg and cow’s milk hypersensitivity in breast fed infants with eczema. Br Med J 291: 932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Carapeto FJ, Winkelmann RK, Jordon RE (1976) T and B lymphocytes in contact and atopic dermatitis. Arch Dermatol 112: 1095PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Caron GA (1964) Nickel sensitivity and atopy. Br J Dermatol 76: 384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Carswell F, Thompson S (1986) Does natural sensitisation in eczema occur through the skin? Lancet II: 13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Champion RH (1971) Atopic sensitivity to algæ and lichens. Br J Dermatol 85: 551PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Chapman MD, Platt-Mills TAE (1980) Purification and characterization of the major allergen from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus antigen P1. J Immunol 125: 587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Chapman MD, Rowntree S, Mitchell EB, Di Prisco Fuenmayor MC, Platt-Mills TAE (1983) Quantitative assessment of IgG and IgE antibodies to inhalant allergens in patients with atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 72: 27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Chiarelli F, Canfora G, Verrotti A, Amerio P, Morgese G (1987) Humoral and cellular immunity in children with active and quiescent atopic dermatitis. Br J Dermatol 116: 651PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Christensen OB (1982) Prognosis in nickel allergy and hand eczema. Contact Dermatitis 8: 71Google Scholar
  99. Christophersen J, Badsgaard O, Christiansen J (1986) IgE antibodies to Staphylococcus aureus. Arch Dermatol 122: 971PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Clendenning WE, Clark WE, Ogawa M, Ishizaka K (1973) Serum IgE studies in atopic dermatitis. J Invest Dermatol 61: 233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Coca AF, Cooke RA (1923) On the classification of the phenomena of hypersensitiveness. J Immunol 8: 163Google Scholar
  102. Coca FA, Grove EF (1925) Studies in hypersensitiveness. J Immunol 10: 445Google Scholar
  103. Collins-Williams C (1956) The incidence of milk allergy in pediatric patients. Pediatrics 48: 39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Cook RM, Deards MJ, Rhodes EL, Moran DM (1985) In vitro production of IgE and IgG protein by blood mononuclear cells from non-atopic and atopic donors. Allergy 40: 115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Cooke RA (1944) A consideration of some allergic problems. J Allergy 15: 203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Cooke RA (1947) Allergy in theory and praxis. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  107. Cooke EM, Buck HW (1963) Self-contamination of dermatological patients with Staphylococcus aureus. Br J Dermatol 75: 21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Cooper KD, Hanifin JM, Wuepper KD (1980) Tγ and Tµ cell subsets in atopic dermatitis (abstract). Clin Res 28: 20AGoogle Scholar
  109. Cooper KD, Kazmierowski JA, Wuepper KD, Hanifin JM (1983) Immunoregulation in atopic dermatitis: functional analysis of T-B cell interactions and the enumeration of Fc receptor-bearing T cells. J Invest Dermatol 80: 139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Cormane RH, Husz S, Hamerlinck F (1974) Immunoglobulin and complement-bearing lymphocytes in allergic contact dermatitis and atopic dermatitis (eczema). Br J Dermatol 90: 597PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Craps L, Meets P, Boncoin-Beckman S (1959) Les antistreptolysines en dermatologie. Analyse de cinq cent observations. Arch Belg Dermatol 15: 153Google Scholar
  112. Croner S, Kjellman NIM (1986) Predictors of atopic disease: cord blood IgE and month of birth. Allergy 41: 68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Croner S, Kjellman NIM, Eriksson B, Roth A (1982) IgE screening in 1701 newborn infants and the development of atopic disease during infancy. Arch Dis Child 57: 364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Cronin E, Bandmann HJ, Calnan CD, Fregert S, Hjorth N, Magnusson B, Maibach HI, Malten K, Meneghini CL, Pirila V, Wilkinson DS (1970) Contact dermatitis in the atopic. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 50: 183Google Scholar
  115. Curran WS, Goldman G (1961) Incidence of immediately reacting allergy skin test in a normal adult population. Ann Intern Med 55: 777PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Currie JM, Wright RC, Miller OG (1971) The frequency of warts in atopic patients. Cutis 8: 243Google Scholar
  117. Dahl MV, Lynn CK, Quie PG (1978) Neutrophil chemotaxis in patients with atopic dermatitis without infections. Arch Dermatol 114: 544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Dannæus A, Johansson SGO, Foucard T, Öhman S (1977) Clinical and immunological aspects of food allergy in children. I. Estimation of IgG, IgA and IgE antibodies in children with food allergy and atopic dermatitis. Acta Pædiatr Scand 66: 31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. David TJ, Longson M (1985) Herpes simplex infections in atopic eczema. Arch Dis Child 60: 338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. David TJ, Richmond SJ, Bailey AS (1987) Serological evidence of herpes simplex virus infection in atopic eczema. Arch Dis Child 62: 416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. De Besche A (1923) Studies on the reactions of asthmatics and on passive transference of hypersusceptibility. Am J Med Sci 166: 265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. De Graciansky P (1966) Eczéma constitutionnel. Soc Med Hop Paris 114: 765Google Scholar
  123. Derbes VJ, Caro MR (1957) Localized eczema induced by house dust extract injections. Arch Dermatol 75: 804Google Scholar
  124. De Shazo RD, Hase T, Wright DG, Diem JE (1982) Evidence for histamine-mediated inhibition of monocyte chemotaxis in atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 69: 429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Desmons F, Delmas-Marsalet Y, Goudemand J (1976) HLA antigens and atopic dermatitis. J Allergol Immunopathol 4: 29Google Scholar
  126. Dessaint JP, Capron A, Joseph M, Bazin H (1979) Cytophilic binding of IgE to the macrophage II. Immunologic release of lysosomal enzyme from macrophages by IgE and anti-IgE in the rat: a new mechanism of macrophage activation. Cell Immunol 46: 24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. De Week AL, Stadler B, Knutti-Müller J (1986) Regulation of IgE by lymphoid cell derived factors. In: Ring J, Burg G (eds) New trends in allergy. II. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, p 16Google Scholar
  128. Dobson RD (1963) In: Discussion of Vanderberg JJ, Epstein WL. Experimental nickel sensitivity. J Invest Dermatol 41: 416Google Scholar
  129. Dolovitch J, Hargreave FE, Chalmers R, Shier KJ, Gauldie Bienenstock J (1973) Late cutaneous responses in isolated IgE-dependent reactions. J Allergy Clin Immunol 52: 38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Dorsch W (1988) IgE and common allergic diseases. Allergy 43 (Suppl 5): 38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Dorsch W, Ring J (1981) Induction of late cutaneous reactions by skin blister fluid from allergen tested and normal skin. J Allergy Clin Immunol 67: 117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Dreborg S (1985) Application of allergen research to diagnosis and immunotherapy. In: Björksten B, Weeke B (eds) Ann Meet. Europ Acad Allergol Clin Immunol Allergy, Vol 40 (Suppl 4): 50Google Scholar
  133. Dupuy PF, Poulter LW, Zachary CB, MacDonald DM (1985) Cell mediated immune mechanisms in atopic dermatitis (abstract). Br J Dermatol 13: 763Google Scholar
  134. Dvorak AM, Mihm MC, Dvorak HF (1976) Degranulation of basophilic leukocytes in allergic contact dermatitis reactions in man. J Immunol 116: 687PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Eberhartinger C, Landes E (1960) Zur Frage der Bedeutung der Bakterien bei der Dermatitis eccematosa. Arch Klin Exp Dermatol 212: 17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Edfors-Lubs ML (1971) Allergy in 700 twin pairs. Acta Allergol 26: 249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Edgren G (1943) Prognose und Erblichkeitsmomente bei Ekzema infantum. Eine klinisch-statistische Untersuchung von Allergieerscheinungen. Acta Pædiatr Scand 30 (Suppl 2): 1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Eichenberger ME (1963) Über Vorkommen, Verlauf, Testresultate und Therapie der Neuro-dermitis. Inaugural Disseration, Juris, ZürichGoogle Scholar
  139. Einarsson R (1985) Biochemical and immunochemical methods for purification, characterization and standardization of allergen extract. In: Björksten B, Weeke B (eds) Allergy 40 (Suppl 4) Munsksgaard, Copenhagen, p35Google Scholar
  140. Elliott ST, Hanifin JM (1979) Delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity and lymphocyte transformation: dissociation in atopic dermatitis. Arch Dermatol 115: 36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Elsayed S, Apold J, Aas K, Bennich H (1976) The allergenic structure of allergen M from cod. I. Tryptic peptides of fragment TMI. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 52: 59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Elsayed S, Titlestad K, Apold J, Aas K (1980) A synthetic hexapeptide derived from allergen M imposing allergenic and antigenic reactivity. Scand J Immunol 12: 171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Engel A, Hagström IC, Salen EB (1934) Unspezifische desensibilisierende Behandlung bei al-lergischen Zuständen. Acta Med Scand (Suppl 59): 444Google Scholar
  144. Engman MF, Wander WG (1921) The application of cutaneous sensibilisation to diseases of the skin. Arch Dermatol Syph 3: 223Google Scholar
  145. Epstein S (1956) Contact dermatitis due to nickel and chromium: observations on dermal delayed (tuberculin-type) sensitivity. Arch Dermatol 73: 236Google Scholar
  146. Epstein S (1965) Neomycin sensitivity and atopy. Dermatologica 130: 280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Epstein S, Moharejin AH (1964) Incidence of contact sensitivity in atopic dermatitis. Arch Dermatol 90: 284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Epstein S, Palacek M (1951) Studies in infantile eczema. Clinical and statistical observations on the allergic background of 247 consecutive cases of infantile atopic dermatitis. Ann Allergy 9: 421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Eriksson G (1965) A non-specific effect of pollen distinguishable from the anaphylactic behaviour. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 45: 247Google Scholar
  150. Eriksson NE, Formgren H, Svenonius E (1982) Food hypersensitivity in patients with pollen allergy. Allergy 37: 437PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Falk E, Bolle R (1983 a) IgE antibodies to house dust mite in patients with scabies. Br J Dermatol 102: 283Google Scholar
  152. Falk E, Bolle R (1983 b) In vivo demonstration of specific immediate hypersensitivity to scabies mite. Br J Dermatol 103: 367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Faure MR, Nicolas JF, Thivolet J, Gaucherand MA, Czernielewski JM (1982) Studies on T cell subsets in atopic dermatitis: human T-cell subpopulations defined by specific monoclonal antibodies. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 22: 139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Feinberg M (1939) Seasonal atopic dermatitis. Arch Dermatol Syph 40: 200Google Scholar
  155. Feinberg SN, Becker RJ, Slavin RG, Reinberg AR, Sparks DB (1962) The sensitizing effects of emulsified pollen antigens in atopic subjects naturally sensitive to an unrelated antigen. J Allergy 33: 285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Ferguson AC, Salinas FA (1984) Elevated IgG immune complexes in children with atopic eczema. J Allergy Clin Immunol 74: 676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Finn R, Harvey MM, Johnson PM, Verbov JL, Barnes RMR (1985) Serum IgG antibodies to gliadin and other dietary antigens in adults with atopic eczema. Clin Exp Dermatol 10: 222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Firer MA, Hoskins CS, Hill DJ (1982) Cow’s milk allergy and eczema patterns of the antibody response to cow’s milk in allergic skin disease. Clin Allergy 12: 385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Fischer T, Rystedt I (1985) False-positive, follicular and irritant patch test reactions to metal salts. Contact Dermatitis 12: 93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Fjelde A, Kopeczka B (1967) Cell transformation and histogenic effects in blood leucocyte cultures of atopic dermatitis patients. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 47: 168Google Scholar
  161. Forsbeck M, Hovmark A, Skog E (1976) Patch testing, tuberculin testing and sensitization with dinitrochlorbenzene and nitrosodimethylaniline of patients with atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 56: 135Google Scholar
  162. Föström L, Goldyne ME, Winkelmann RK (1975) IgE in human eccrine sweat. J Invest Dermatol 64: 156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Frajman M, Gonzalez L, Alvaredo A et al. (1987) Cellular immunity and IgE levels in atopic patients. Allergy 42: 81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Frankland AL (1968) The pathogenesis of asthma, hay fever and atopic diseases. In: Gell PGH, Coombs RRA (eds) Clinical aspects of immunology,2nd edn. Blackwell, Oxford, p 648Google Scholar
  165. Freedman S, Sellars W (1959) Food sensitivity. A study of 150 allergic children. J Allergy 30: 42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Freeman GL, Johnson S (1964) Allergic diseases in adolescence. I. Description of survey: prevalence of allergy. Am J Dis Child 107: 549PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Friedman SJ, Schroeter AL, Homburger HA (1985) IgE antibodies to Staphylococcus aureus. Arch Dermatol 121: 869PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Fries JH (1959) Components of milk and their significance to the allergic child. Ann Allergy 17: 1PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Fritz KA, Norris DA, Morris RL, Weston WL (1980) ADCC effector function in patients with atopic dermatitis. J Am Acad Dermatol 3: 167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Fuchs O (1960) Ergebnisse der Kutan-und Intrakutantestungen beim endogenen Ekzem. Ärztl Fortbild 54: 1050Google Scholar
  171. Fulton R, Thivolet J, Garcier F, Gaucherand M (1981) Les sous-populations de lymphocytes T helper et suppressor étudiés par les anticorps monocloneaux dans diverses dermatoses. Ann Dermatol Venereol 108: 243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Furukawa CT, Altman LC (1978) Defective monocyte and polymorphous leukocyte chemotaxis in atopic disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol 61: 288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Gabrielsen TO, Brandtzæg P (1985) Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for iso-type-specific quantitation of antibodies to Staphylococcus aureus in patients with atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol [Suppl] (Stockh) 114: 61Google Scholar
  174. Ganpule M, Garrets M (1971) Molluscum contagiosum and sarcoidosis: report of a case. Br J Dermatol 85: 587PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Geha RS, Leung DYM (1986) Cellular abnormalities in patients with elevated serum IgE levels. J Allergy Clin Immunol 78: 995PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Geha RS, Twarog F, Rappaport J, Parkman R, Rosen S (1980) Increased serum IgE levels following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. J Allergy Clin Immunol 66: 78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Geha RS, Reinherz E, Leung DYM, McKee KT, Schlossman S, Rosen FS (1981) Deficiency of suppressor T cells in the hyperimmunoglobulinaemia E syndrome. J Clin Invest 68: 783PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Gerrard JW, Horne S, Vickers P, McKenzie JWA, Goluboff N, Carson JZ, Maningas CS (1974) Serum IgE levels in parents and children. J Pediatr 85: 660PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Giannetti A (1987) Viral skin diseases in atopic dermatitis. In: Happle R, Grosshans E (eds) Pediatric dermatology. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, p 110Google Scholar
  180. Glaser J (1965) The prevention of eczema. J Pediatr 66 (2): 262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Gleich GJ (1982) The late phase of immunoglobulin E-mediated reaction -a line between anaphylaxis and common allergic disease? J Allergy Clin Immunol 70: 160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Gleich GJ, Adolphson CR, Yunginger JW (1980) The mini-RAST: comparison with other varieties of the radioallergosorbent test for the measurement of immunoglobulin E antibodies. J Allergy Clin Immunol 65: 20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Goertler E, Schnyder UW (1975) Zur Erbprognose der Neurodermitis atopica. Hautarzt 26: 18Google Scholar
  184. Goldman AS, Anderson DW, Sellers WA, Saperstein S, Kniker WJ et al. (1963) Milk allergy. I. Oral challenge with milk and isolated milk proteins in allergic children. Pediatrics 32: 425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Gondo A, Saeki N, Tokuda Y (1986) Challenge reactions in atopic dermatitis after percutaneous entry of mite antigen. Br J Dermatol 115: 485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Gondo A, Saeki N, Tokuda Y (1987) IgG4 antibodies in patients with atopic dermatitis. Br J Dermatol 117:301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Good RA, Kelly WD, Rotstein I, Varco RL (1962) Immunologic deficiency diseases. Progress in allergy, vol 6. Karger, Basel, p 187Google Scholar
  188. Gottlieb BR, Hanifin JM (1974) Circulating T cell deficiency in atopic dermatitis (abstract). Clin Res 22: 159Google Scholar
  189. Gottlieb PM, Stupniker S, Askovitz ST (1960) The reproducibility of intradermal skin tests, a controlled study. Ann Allergy 18: 949PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Goverman J, Hunkapiller T, Hood LA (1986) A speculative view of the multicomponent nature of T cell antigen recognition. Cell 45: 475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Grove DI, Reid JG, Forbes IJ (1975) Humoral and cellular immunity in atopic eczema. Br J Dermatol 92: 611PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Grulee CG, Sanford HN (1936) Influence of breast and artificial feeding on infantile eczema. J Pediatr 9: 223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Guilhou JJ, Clot J, Bousquet J, Teot M, Meynadier J (1978) Étude in vitro de l’immunité cellulaire dans l’eczéma constitutionnel et dans l’eczéma de contact. Ann Dermatol Venereol 105: 513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Gupta S, Frenkel R, Rosenstein M, Grieco MH (1975) Lymphocyte subpopulations, serum IgE and total eosinophil counts in patients with bronchial asthma. Clin Exp Immunol 22: 438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Gurevitch AW, Heiner DC, Reisner R (1973) IgE in atopic dermatitis and other common dermatoses. Arch Dermatol 107: 712PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Gustafsson D, Danielsson D (1981) In vitro diagnosis of atopic allergy in children. Allergy 43: 105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Halpern SR, Sellars WA, Johnson RB, Anderson DW, Saperstein S, Reisch JS (1973) Development of childhood allergy in infants fed breast, soy or milk. J Allergy Clin Immunol 51: 139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Hammar H (1977) Provocation with cow’s milk and cereals in atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 57: 159Google Scholar
  199. Hampton SF, Cooke RA (1941) The sensitivity of man to human dander, with particular reference to eczema (allergic dermatitis). J Allergy 13: 63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Hanifin JM (1986) Staphylococcal colonization, infection and atopic dermatitis, association not etiology (Editorial). J Allergy Clin Immunol 78: 563PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Hanifin JM, Rajka G (1980) Diagnostic features of atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol [Suppl] (Stockh) 92: 44Google Scholar
  202. Hanifin JM, Rogge JL, Bauman RH (1980) Chemotaxis inhibition by plasma from patients with atopic dermatitis: dissociation in atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol [Suppl] (Stockh) 92: 52Google Scholar
  203. Hannuksela M (1980) Results of food testing in atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol [Suppl] (Stockh) 92: 87Google Scholar
  204. Hannuksela M, Lahti A (1977) Immediate reactions to fruits and vegetables. Contact Dermatitis 3: 79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Hansel FK (1953) Clinical allergy. Mosby, St Louis, p 129Google Scholar
  206. Hansen LA, Ahlstedt S, Carlsson B, Fahlström SP (1977) Secretory IgA antibodies against cow’s milk proteins in human milk and their possible effect in mixed feeding. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 54: 457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Hard S (1950) Hypersensitivity to horse serum provoked by anticatarrh vaccine. Acta Allergol 3: 129Google Scholar
  208. Harnack K, Lenz U (1970) Familienprognose beim endogenen Ekzem. Dermatol Wochenschr 156: 530Google Scholar
  209. Harvald B, Hauge M (1956) A catamnestic investigation of Danish twins. Dan Med Bull 3: 150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Hashem N, Hirschhorn K, Sedlis E, Holt E (1963) Infantile eczema: evidence of autoimmunity to human skin. Lancet II: 269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Haskins K, Kubo R, White J, Pigeon M, Kappler J, Marrack P (1983) The major histocompatibility complex-restricted antigen receptors on T cells. J Exp Med 157: 1149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Hattevig G, Kjellman B, Björksten B, Johansson SGO (1984) Clinical symptoms and IgE responses to common food proteins in atopic and healthy children. Clin Allergy 14: 551PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Hauser C, Wütrich B, Matter L, Wilhelm JA, Schopfer K (1985) Immune response to Staphylo coccus aureus in atopic dermatitis. Dermatologica 170: 114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Haxthausen H (1925) Le prurigo de Besnier. Ann Dermatol Syphiligr 6:312Google Scholar
  215. Haxthausen H (1957) Interpretation and value of skin tests in atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Dermatology vol 3, p 6Google Scholar
  216. Haynal A, Schnyder UU (1960) Fünfunddreißig auslesefrei Zwillinge mit Asthma bronchiale, Rhinitis atopica und Neurodermitis. Arch Vererbungsforschung Sozialanthropologie Rasshygiene 35: 435Google Scholar
  217. Heite HJ, Kleinhans D (1961) Über die Cignolin-Erythemschwelle bei einigen Dermatosen. Arch Klin Exp Dermatol 212: 431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Hellerström S, Lidman H (1956) Studies of Besnier’s prurigo (atopic dermatitis). Acta Derm Venereol 36: 11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Hemady Z, Blomberg F, Gellis S, Rocklin RE (1983) IgE production in vitro by human blood mononuclear cells: a comparison between atopic and nonatopic subjects. J Allergy Clin Immunol 71: 324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Hénocq E, Bazin JC, Girard J (1966) Les allergènes poussière de maison et squames humaines. Étude comparative dans l’eczéma atopique. Rev Fr Allergol 6: 213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Hénocq E. Hewitt B, Guerin B (1982) Staphylococcal and human dander IgE antibodies in superinfected atopic dermatitis. Clin Allergy 12: 113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Herlin T, Kragballe K (1980) Impaired monocyte cyclic AMP responses and monocyte cyto-toxicity in atopic dermatitis. Allergy 35: 647PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Hill HR, Quie PG (1974) Raised serum IgE levels and defective neutrophil chemotaxis in three children with eczema and recurrent bacterial infections. Lancet I: 183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Hill LW (1934) The value of protein test in infantile eczema. JAMA 103: 1430Google Scholar
  225. Hill LW (1937) Sensitivity to house dust and goose feathers in infantile eczema. J Allergy 9: 37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Hill LW (1955) The treatment of eczema in infants and children. J Pediatr 47: 141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Hill LW, Sulzberger MB (1935) Evolution of atopic dermatitis. Arch Dermatol Syph 32: 451Google Scholar
  228. Hobbs RJ (1968) Immune imbalance in dysgammaglobulinaemia type IV. Lancet I: 110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Hodgkinson GI, Everall JD, Smith HV (1977) Immunofluorescent patterns in the skin in Besnier’s prurigo. Br J Dermatol 96: 357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Hoffman DR, Yamamoto FY, Geller B, Haddad Z (1975) Specific IgE antibodies in atopic eczema. J Allergy Clin Immunol 55: 256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Holti G (1966) Candida allergy. In: Winner HI, Hurley R (eds) Symposium on Candida infection. Churchill Livingstone, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  232. Hopkins JG, Kesten BM (1935) Allergic eczema initiated by sensitization to foods. Am J Dis Child 49: 1511Google Scholar
  233. Horsmanheimo M, Horsmanheimo A (1979) Leukocyte migration inhibition factor in atopic dermatitis: induction by concanavalin A in vitro. J Invest Dermatol 72: 128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Hovmark A (1975) An in vitro and in vivo study of cell mediated immunity in atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 55: 181Google Scholar
  235. Hovmark A (1977 a) An in vitro study of depressed cell-mediated immunity and of T and B lymphocytes in atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 57: 237Google Scholar
  236. Hovmark A (1977b) Acid napthyl acetate esterase staining of T lymphocytes in human skin. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 57: 497Google Scholar
  237. Hovmark A (1979) An in vitro study of IgE production in severe atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 59: 223Google Scholar
  238. Hsieh KH (1976) Study of E rosettes, serum IgE and eosinophilia in asthmatic children. Ann Allergy 37: 383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Huber A, Fartasch M, Diepgen TL, Baurle G, Hornstein OP (1987) Auftreten von Kontaktal-lergien beim atopischen Ekzem. Dermatosen 35: 119Google Scholar
  240. Hubscher T, Watson IJ, Godfriend L (1970) Target cells of human ragweed binding antibodies in monkey skin. J Immunol 104: 1196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Huntley CC, Lyerly A, Winston-Salem NC (1963) Immune globulin determination on allergic children. Am J Dis Child 106: 545PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Huriez C (1966) Actualités sur les eczémas. Rev Med SupplGoogle Scholar
  243. Husby S, Schultz Larsen F, Ahlstedt S, Svehag SE (1986) Humoral immunity to dietary antigens in atopic dermatitis. Allergy 41: 386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Hwang KC, Fikrig SM, Friedman HM, Gupta S (1983) Autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction in man. Allergy 38: 113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Inganäs M, Johansson SGO (1981) Influence of alternative protein-A interaction of the precipitation between human monoclonal immunoglobulins and protein-A from Staphylococcus aureus. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 65: 91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Inganäs M, Johansson SGO, Bennich H (1981) Anti-IgE antibodies in human serum: occurrence and specificity. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 65: 51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Ishizaka K (1984) Regulation of IgE synthesis. Annu Rev Immunol 2: 159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Ishizaka K, Ishizaka T (1968) Reversed-type allergic reactions by anti-IgE globulin antibodies in humans and monkeys. J Immunol 100: 554PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Ishizaka K, Ishizaka T, Holbrook MM (1967) Identification of gamma-E antibodies as a carrier of reaginic activity. J Immunol 99: 1187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Ishizaka K, Ishizaka T, Orange RP, Austen KF (1970) The capacity of human antiglobulin γE to mediate the relase of histamine and slow reacting substance to anaphylaxis (SRS-A) from monkey lung. J Immunol 104: 335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Jadassohn W (1958) Évolution et aspects cliniques des dermatoses atopiques. In: Halpen BN, Holtzer A (eds) Proc 3d Congress Int d’allergologie. Flammarion, Paris, p 605Google Scholar
  252. James J, Warin RF (1971) An assessment of the role of Candida albicans and food yeasts in chronic urticaria. Br J Dermatol 84: 227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Jansen CT, Hapalahti J, Hopsu-Havu VK (1973) Immunoglobulin E in the human atopic skin. Arch Dermatol Forsch 246: 229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Janossy G, Duke O, Poulter LW, Panayi G, Bofill M, Goldstein G (1981) Rheumatoid arthritis: a disease of T lymphocyte/macrophage dysfunction. Lancet II: 839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Jarrett EEE (1977) Activation of IgE regulatory mechanisms by transmucosal absorption of antigen. LancetI. 223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Järvinen KAJ, Pirila V, Björksten F et al. (1979) Unsuitability of bakery work for a person with atopy: a study of 234 bakery workers. Ann Allergy 42: 192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Jensen JR (1985) Reduction of active natural killer cells in patients with atopic dermatitis estimated at the single cell level. Acta Derm Venereol [Suppl] (Stockh) 114: 105Google Scholar
  258. Jensen JR, Cramers M, Thestrup-Pedersen K (1981) Subpopulation of T lymphocytes and non-specific suppressor cell activity in patients with atopic dermatitis. Clin Exp Immunol 45: 118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Jensen JR, Sand TT, Jörgensen AS, Thestrup-Pedersen K (1984) Modulation of natural killer cell activity in patients with atopic dermatitis. J Invest Dermatol 82: 30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Jillson OF (1957) Allergic dermatitis produced by pathogenic and saprophytic fungi. Ann Allergy 15: 14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Jillson OF, Curwan WL, Alexander BR (1959) Problems of contact dermatitis in the atopic individual with reference to neomycin and ragweed sensitivity. Ann Allergy 17: 215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Johansson SGO (1981) The clinical significance of IgE. In: Franklin EC (ed) Clinical immunology update. Elsevier, New York, p 123Google Scholar
  263. Johansson SGO (1984) Anti-IgE antibodies in human serum (Editorial). J Allergy Clin Immunol 77: 555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Johansson SGO (1986) IgE and allergic diseases. In: Ring J, Burg G (eds) New trends in allergy. II. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, p 39Google Scholar
  265. Johansson SGO, Bennich H (1967 a) Immunological studies of an atypical (myeloma) immunoglobulin. Immunology 13: 381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Johansson SGO, Bennich H (1967 b) Studies on a new class of human immunoglobulins. I. Immunological properties. Nobel symposium 3. Gamma globulin. Structure and control of biosynthesis. Almqvist and Wiksell, Stockholm, p 193Google Scholar
  267. Johansson SGO, Bennich H, Wide L (1968) A new class of immunoglobulins in human serum. Immunology 14: 265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Johansson SGO, Bennich H, Berg T, Högman C (1970) Some factors influencing the serum IgE level in atopic diseases. Clin Exp Immunol 6: 43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Johansson SGO, Juhlin L (1970) Immunoglobulin E in “healed” atopic dermatitis and after treatment with corticosteroids and azathioprine. Br J Dermatol 82: 10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Johnson EE, Irons JS, Patterson R, Roberts M (1974) Serum IgE concentration in atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 54: 94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Jones HE, Lewis CW, McMarlin SL (1973a) Allergic contact sensitivity in atopic dermatitis. Arch Dermatol 107: 217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Jones HE, Rinaldi MG, Chai H, Kahn G (1973 b) Apparent cross-reactivity of airborne molds and the dermatophytic fungi. J Allergy Clin Immunol 52: 346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Jones HE, Inouye JC, McGerity JL, Lewis CW (1975) Atopic disease and serum immunoglo-bulin-E. Br J Dermatol 92: 17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Juhlin L, Johansson SGO, Bennich H, Högman C, Thyresson N (1969) Immunoglobulin E in dermatoses. Arch Dermatol 100: 12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Juto P, Strannegard Ö (1979) T-lymphocytes and blood eosinophils in early infancy in relation to heredity for allergy and type of feeding. J Allergy Clin Immunol 64: 38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Juto P, Engberg S, Winberg J (1978) Treatment of infantile atopic eczema with a strict elimination diet. Clin Allergy 8: 493PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Kaaber K (1976) Occurrence of malignant neoplasms in patients with atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 56: 445Google Scholar
  278. Kaliner M (1984) Hypotheses on the contribution of late phase allergic responses to the understanding and treatment of allergic diseases. J Allergy Clin Immunol 73: 311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Kaufman HS (1971) Allergy in the newborn: skin test reactions confirmed by the Prausnitz-Küstner test at birth. Clin Allergy 1: 363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Kaufman HS, Frick OL (1976) The development of allergy in infants of allergic parents. A prospective study concerning the role of heredity. Ann Allergy 37: 410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Kalveram KJ (1985) Neue Entwicklungen bei RAST-Untersuchungen und ihre Beurteilung. Z Hautkr 6l: 1363Google Scholar
  282. Kapp A, Gillitzer R, Kirchner H, Schöpf E (1987) Production of interferon and lymphopro-liferative response in whole blood cultures derived from patients with atopic dermatitis. Arch Dermatol Res 279: S55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Kapp A, Kemper A, Schöpf E, Deicher H (1986) Detection of circulating immune complexes in patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 66: 121Google Scholar
  284. Kazmierowski JA, Peizner DS, Hanifin JM, Wuepper KD (1981) Atopic dermatitis: identification of IgE-containing immune complexes during active disease (abstract). J Invest Dermatol 76: 310Google Scholar
  285. Keller P (1924) Beitrag zu den Beziehungen von Asthma und Ekzem. Arch Dermatol Syph 148: 82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Kerr RM, Wilson MR, Anicetti VR, Lehrer SB, Butcher BT, Salvaggio JE (1981) An approach to fungal antigen relationships by radioallergosorbent test inhibition. J Allergy Clin Immunol 67: 194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Kesten B (1954) Allergic eczema. New York State Medicine 54: 2441Google Scholar
  288. Khan A, Sellers WA, Pflanzer J, Hill JM, Thometz D, Haenke J (1976) Asthma and T-cell immunodeficiency: improvement with transfer factor and immunopeptide. 1. Ann Allergy 37: 267Google Scholar
  289. Kim CW, Schöpf E (1976) A comparative study of nickel hypersensitivity by the lymphocyte transformation test in atopic and nonatopic dermatitis. Arch Dermatol Res 257: 57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. King TP (1980) Purification and characterization of atopic allergens. Allergy 35: 169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Kind LS, Banovitz J, Menzel A, Nilsson B (1967) A factor in pollen which enhance vascular permeability. J Allergy 39: 17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. Kjellman B, Petterson R (1983) The problem of furred pets in childhood atopic disease. Allergy 38: 65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Kjellman NIM (1976) Predictive value of high IgE levels in children. Acta Paediatr Scand 65: 465PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Kjellman NIM, Johansson SGO (1979) Soy versus milk in infants with a bi-parental history of atopic disease: development of atopic disease in immunoglobulins from birth to four years of age. Clin Allergy 9: 347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Kjellman NIM, Johansson SGO, Roth A (1976) Serum IgE levels in healthy children quantified by a sandwich technique (PRIST). Clin Allergy 6: 51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. Klareskog L, Tjernlund U, Forsum V, Peterson PA (1977) Epidermal Langerhans’ cell express Ia antigens. Nature 268: 248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. Klene U, Gollnick H, Bauer R, Orfanos CE (1986) Subpopulationen peripherer T-Lymphozyten (Th/Ts) bei atopischer Dermatitis und bei Psoriasis. Hautarzt 37: 17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. Kletter B, Gerry J, Freier S, Noah Z, Davis MA (1971) Immunoglobulin E antibodies to milk proteins. Clin Allergy 1: 249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. Kligman AM, Wooding WM (1967) A method for measurement and evaluation of irritants on human skin. J Invest Dermatol 49: 78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. Kohler PF, Farr RS (1967) Quantitative comparison of immunoglobulins in atopic (reaginic) individuals: higher D levels in atopic sera. J Allergy 39: 311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. Korting HG (1958) Das endogene Ekzem. In: Gottron HA, Schönfeld W (eds) Dermatologie und Venereologie, vol 3/1. Thieme, Stuttgart, p 549Google Scholar
  302. Kragballe K, Borregaard N (1981) Mechanisms of decreased antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity by monocytes and neutrophiles in atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh)61: 11Google Scholar
  303. Kragballe K, Herlin T, Jensen JR (1980) Impaired monocyte-mediated cytotoxicity in atopic dermatitis. Arch Dermatol Res 269: 21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. Krain LS, Terasaki PI (1973) HLA-antigens in atopic dermatitis. Lancet I: 1059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. Kramer MS, Moroz B (1981) Do breast-feeding and delayed introduction of solid foods protect against subsequent atopic eczema? J Pediatr 98: 546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. Kusaimi NT, Trentin JJ (1982) Natural cell-mediated cytotoxic activity in the peripheral blood of patients with atopic dermatitis. Arch Dermatol 118: 568PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. Lahti A, \Björksten F, Hannuksela M (1980) Allergy to birch pollen and apple and cross reactivity of the allergens studied with the RAST. Allergy 35: 297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. Lammintausta K, Kalimo K, Havu VR (1982) Contact allergy in atopics who perform wet work in hospital. Derm Beruf Umwelt 30: 184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. Langeland T (1982 a) A clinical and immunological study of allergy to hen’s egg white. II. Antigens in hen’s egg white studied by crossed immunoelectrophoresis (CIE). Allergy 37: 323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. Langeland T (1982b) A clinical and immunological study of allergy to hen’s egg white. III. Allergens in hen’s egg white studied by crossed radio-immunoelectrophoresis (Crie). Allergy 37: 521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. Langeland T (1983) A clinical and immunological study of allergy to hen’s egg white. I. A clinical study of egg allergy. Clin Allergy 13: 371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. Langeland T, Braathen LR, Borck M (1989) Studies on atopic patch tests. Acta Derm Venereol (Suppl 144) (Stockh) (in press)Google Scholar
  313. Lea T, Braathen LR, Moen T (1980) Class and subclass distribution of specific antibodies to codfish allergen in a patient with atopic allergy. Acta Derm Venereol [Suppl] (Stockh) 92: 73Google Scholar
  314. Leiferman KM, Peterson EA, Fujisawa T, Gray BH, Gleich GJ (1989) Differences between atopic dermatitis and the IgE-mediated neutrophil degranulation in atopic dermatitis (abstract) J invest Dermatol 92: 469Google Scholar
  315. Lemanske RF, Guthman DA, Kaliner M (1983) The biologic activity of mast cell granules. VII. The effect of anti-neutrophil antibody-induced neutropenia on rat cutaneous late phase reactions. J Immunol 131: 929PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. Leskowitz S, Lowell FC (1961) A comparison in the immune and physiologic response of normal and allergic individuals. J Allergy 32: 152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. Leung DYM, Geha RS (1986) Immunoregulatory abnormalities in atopic dermatitis. Clin Rev Allergy 4: 67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. Leung DYM, Rhodes AR, Geha RS (1981) Enumeration of the T cell subsets in atopic dermatitis using monoclonal antibodies. J Allergy Clin Immunol 67: 450PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. Leung DYM, Parkman R, Feller J, Wood N, Geha RS (1982) Cell mediated cytotoxicity against skin fibroblasts in atopic dermatitis. J Immunol 128: 1736PubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. Leung DYM, Bhan AK, Schneeberger EE, Geha RS (1983) Characterization of the mononu-clear cell infiltrate in atopic dermatitis using monoclonal antibodies. Dermatologica 169: 330Google Scholar
  321. Lever RS, Lesko MJ, MacKie RM, Parrott DM (1985) Natural killer cell activity in atopic dermatitis: a sequential study. Clin Allergy 15: 479PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. Lever RS, Turbitt M, Sanderson A, MacKie R (1987) Immunophenotyping of the cutaneous infiltrate and of the mononuclear cells in the peripheral blood in patients with atopic dermatitis. J Invest Dermatol 89: 4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. Lichtenstein ML, Osier AO (1964) Studies on the mechanism of hypersensitivity phenomena. IX. Histamine release from human leukocytes by ragweed pollen antigen. J Exp Med 120: 507PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. Lind P, Löwenstein H (1983) Identification of allergens in Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus mite body extract by crossed immunoelectrophoresis with two different antibody pools. Scand J Immunol 17: 263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. Lind P, Weeke R, Löwenstein H (1984) A reference allergen preparation of house dust mite D. pteronyssinus ,produced from whole mite culture. A part of the DAS/76 study. Comparison with allergen preparations from other raw materials. Allergology 39: 259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. Lindblad JH, Farr J (1961) The incidence of positive intradermal reactions and the demonstration of skin sensitizing antibody to extracts of ragweed and dust in humans without history of rhinitis or asthma. J Allergy 32: 392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. Livingood CS, Pillsbury DM (1949) Specific sensitivity to foods as factors in various types of eczematous dermatitis. Arch Dermatol Syph 60: 1090Google Scholar
  328. Lobitz WC, Honeyman JF, Winkler NW (1972) Suppressed cell-mediated immunity in two adults with atopic dermatitis. Br J Dermatol 86: 317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. Lobitz WC, Jillson OF (1958) Anecdotes of an agnostic allergist. Arch Dermatol 78: 458Google Scholar
  330. Löwenstein H, Lind P, Weeke B (1985) Identification and clinical significance of allergenic molecules of cat origin. Part of the DAS/76 study. Allergy 40: 430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. Luckasen JR, Sabad A, Goltz RW, Kersey JH (1974) T and B lymphocytes in atopic eczema. Arch Dermatol 110: 375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. Lynfield YL (1974) Skin diseases in twins. Arch Dermatol 110: 722PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. MacKie RM, Dick HM (1979) A study of HLA antigen distribution in families with atopic dermatitis. Allergy 34: 19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. MacKie RM, Cobb SJ, Cochran REI, Thomson J (1979) Total and specific IgE levels in patients with atopic dermatitis: correlation between prick testing, clinical history of allergy and in vitro quantification of IgE during clinical exacerbation and remission. Clin Exp Dermatol 4: 187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. Magnusson B (1954) Human dander and atopic dermatitis. Acta Allergol 7: 294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. Malten KE (1968) The occurrence of hybrids between contact allergic eczema and atopic dermatitis (and vice versa) and their significance. Dermatologica 136: 395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. Malten KE (1971) Nickel-allergic contact dermatitis and atopy. Dermatologica 142: 113Google Scholar
  338. Marcussen PV (1959) Specificity of patch test with 5% nickel sulphate. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh)39: 187Google Scholar
  339. Marghescu S (1985) Patch test reactions in atopic patients. Acta Derm Venereol [Suppl] (Stockh) 114: 113Google Scholar
  340. Marsh DG, Mayers DA, Bias WB (1981) The epidemiology and genetics of atopic allergy. N Eng J Med 305: 1551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. Martinez JD, Santos J, Stechschulte DJ, Abdon NI (1979) Nonspecific suppressor cell function in atopic subjects. J Allergy clin Immunol 64: 385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. Massicot JG, Ishizaka K (1986) Workshop on measurement of in vitro IgE synthesis and regulation of IgE snythesis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 77: 544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. Mathew DJ, Norman AP, Taylor B, Turner MW, Soothill JF (1977) Prevention of eczema. Lancet I: 321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. Maunsell K, Wraith DG, Cunnington AM (1968) Mites and house-dust allergy in bronchial asthma. Lancet I: 1267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  345. McGeady SJ, Buckley RH (1975) Depression of cell-mediated immunity in atopic eczema. J Allergy Clin Immunol 56: 393PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. McGeady S, Saraclar Y, Mansmann HC (1976) Normal T-cell numbers found in atopic children. J Allergy Clin Immunol 57: 194Google Scholar
  347. Meara RH (1955) Skin reactions in atopic eczema. Br J Dermatol 67: 60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  348. Meneghini CL, Bonifazi E (1985) Correlation between clinical and immunological findings in atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol [Suppl] (Stockh) 114: 10Google Scholar
  349. Menné T (1978) The revalence of nickel allergy among women. An epidemiological study in hospitalized female patients. Dermatosen 26: 123Google Scholar
  350. Miadonna A, Tedeschi A, Leggieri E, Cottini M, Menni S, Froldi M, Zanussi C (1985) Characterization of T cell subsets in patients with atopic dermatitis using OKT monoclonal antibodies. Ann Allergy 54: 321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  351. Michaelsson G (1973) Decreased phagocytic capacity of the neutrophil leukocytes in patients with atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 53: 279Google Scholar
  352. Michel FB, Bousquet J, Greillier P, Robinet-Levy M, Coulomb Y (1980) Comparison of cord blood immunoglobulin E concentration and maternal allergy for the prediction of atopic diseases in infancy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 65: 422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. Mihm MC, Soter NA, Dvorak HF, Austen KF (1976) The structure of normal skin and the morphology of atopic eczema. J Invest Dermatol 67: 305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  354. Minor JD, Tolber SG, Frick OL (1980) Leukocyte inhibition factor in delayed onset food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 66: 314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. Mitchell EB, Chapman MD, Pope FM, Crow J, Jouhal SS, Platt-Mills TAE (1982) Basophils in allergen induced patch test sites in atopic dermatitis. Lancet I: 127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. Mitchell EB, Crow J, Williams G, Platt-Mills TAE (1986) Increase in skin mast cells following chronic house dust mite exposure. Br J Dermatol 114: 65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. Miyachi S, Lessof MH, Kemeny DM, Green IA (1979) Comparison of the atopic background between allergic and non-allergic beekeepers. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 58: 160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  358. Mizoguchi M, Furusawa S, Okitsu S, Yoshino K (1985) Macrophage-derived interleukin-1 activity in atopic dermatitis. J Invest Dermatol 84: 303Google Scholar
  359. Möller H, Svensson A (1986) Metal sensitivity: positive history but negative test indicates atopy. Contact Dermatitis 14: 57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  360. Momma K (1965) Immunochemical semiquantitative estimation of gamma M and gamma A immunoglobulin in healthy and diseased children. 3. Immunoglobulin levels in infectious diseases and liver cirrhosis. Acta Pediatr Jpn 7: 1Google Scholar
  361. Moretta L, Ferrarini M, Mirgari MC, Moretta A, Webb SR (1976) Subpopulations of human T cells identified by receptors for immunoglobulins and mitogen responsiveness. J Immunol 117: 2171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  362. Motala C, Potter PC, Weinberg EG, Malherbe D, Hughes J (1986) Anti-Staphylococcus aureus-specific IgE in atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 78: 583PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  363. Murray AB (1983) The frequency and severity of cat allergy versus dog allergy in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol 72: 145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  364. Musso E, Brun F, Hunziker N (1959) Un allergène pour decèler l’atopie. Acta Allergol 13: 174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  365. Mustakallio KK (1966) Antistaphylolysin (Asta) level of the blood in relation to barrier function of the skin. Ann Med Exp Biol Fenn 44 (Suppl): 7Google Scholar
  366. Nexmand PH (1948) Clinical studies of prurigo Besnier. Rosenkilde and Bagger, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  367. Niermann H (1964) Zwillingsdermatologie. Springer, Berlin GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  368. Nilzén Å (1958) Experimental background of some abnormal vascular reactions in atopic dermatitis and significances of skin tests in man. In: Halpern BN, Holtzer A (eds) Proc 3d Congrès International d’Allergologie. Flammarion, Paris, p 635Google Scholar
  369. Norris PG, Schofield O, Camp RDR (1988) A study of the role of house dust mite in atopic dermatitis. Br J Dermatol 118: 435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  370. Norrlind R (1946) Prurigo Besnier (atopic dermatitis). Acta Derm Venereol Suppl 13 (Stockh)Google Scholar
  371. Numata T, Mizuno N, Yoshida K, Toda T (1973) Serum IgE level and white dermographia in atopic dermatitis, atopic skin and in infantile eczema. 8th Int Congr Allergol, Tokyo. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, p 16Google Scholar
  372. Oddoze L (1959) Note statistique du prurigo de Besnier en France. Acta Allergol 13: 410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  373. Ogawa M, Berger PA, McIntyre OR, Clendenning WE, Ishizaka K (1971) IgE in atopic dermatitis. Arch Dermatol 103: 575PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  374. Ogden BE, Krueger GG, Hill HR (1979) Lymphocyte suppressor activity in atopic eczema. Clin Exp Immunol 35: 269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  375. Öhman S (1971) Immunoglobulin E in atopic dermatitis. Thesis. Offset Center, UppsalaGoogle Scholar
  376. Öhman S, Johansson SGO (1974) Allergen-specific IgE in atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 54: 283Google Scholar
  377. Öhman S, Juhlin L, Johansson SGO (1972) Immunoglobulins in atopic dermatitis. In: Charpin J, Boutin C, Aubert J, Frankland AW (eds) Allergology. Proceedings of the 8th European congress of Allergology. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, p 119Google Scholar
  378. O’Keefe E, Rackemann F (1929) Asthma. JAMA 92: 883Google Scholar
  379. O’Loughlin S, Diaz-Perez JL, Gleich GJ, Winkelmann RK (1977) Serum IgE in dermatitis and dermatosis. Arch Dermatol 113: 309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  380. Oprée W, Krause H, Stockberg H (1972) Genetic aspects of serum IgE levels in atopic families. Acta Allergol 27: 247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  381. Ortiz F (1968) Serum levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA) in atopic patients. Allergie Asthma 14: 116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  382. Osborne ED, Murray PF (1953) Atopic dermatitis. A study of its natural course and of wool as a dominant allergenic factor. Arch Dermatol Syph 68: 619Google Scholar
  383. Österballe O, Weeke B (1979) A new lancet for skin prick testing. Allergy 34: 209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  384. Paganelli R, Levinsky RJ, Atherton DJ (1981) Detection of specific antigen within circulating immune complexes: validation of the assay and its application to food antigen-antibody complexes formed in healthy and food-allergic subjects. Clin Exp Immunol 46: 44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  385. Palacios J, Fuller EW, Blaylock WK (1966) Immunological capabilities with atopic dermatitis. J Invest Dermatol 47: 484PubMedGoogle Scholar
  386. Parish WE (1967) Release of histamine and slow-reacting substance with mast cells. Changes after challenge of human lung sensitized passively with reagin in vitro. Nature 215: 738PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  387. Parish WE (1970) Short-term anaphylactic IgG antibodies in human sera. Lancet II: 591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  388. Parish WE (1981) The clinical relevance of heat stable short term sensitizing anaphylactic IgG antibodies (IgG S-TS) and of related activities of IgG4 and IgG2. Br J Dermatol 105: 223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  389. Parish WE, Champion RH (1973) Atopic dermatitis. In: Rook A (ed) Recent advances in dermatology, vol 3. Churchill Livingstone, LondonGoogle Scholar
  390. Pass R, Larsen WG, Lobitz WC jr (1966) The cultured lymphocytes of atopic patients. Ann Allergy 24: 426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  391. Pauly CR, Artis WM, Jones HE (1978) Atopic dermatitis, impaired cellular immunity and molluscum contagiosum. Arch Dermatol 114: 391PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  392. Pepys J (1969) Hypersensitivity diseases of the lungs due to fungi and organic dust. Monographs in Allergy, vol 4. Karger, Basel New YorkGoogle Scholar
  393. Pepys J, Chan M, Hargreaves FM (1968) Mites and house-dust allergy. Lancet I: 1270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  394. Perlman F (1958) Insects as inhalant allergens. Considerations on aerobiology, biochemistry, preparation of material and clinical observations. J Allergy 29: 302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  395. Petersen M, Goos M, Küster W, Sterry W (1986) Genetics of atopy (abstract). J Invest Dermatol 86: 332Google Scholar
  396. Peterson RDA (1965) Immunological responses in infantile eczema. J Pediatr 66 (2): 225Google Scholar
  397. Pigatto PD, Polenghi MM, Altomare GF (1987) Occupational dermatitis in bakers: a clue for atopic contact dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 16: 263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  398. Prahl P (1981) Allergens in cow hair and dander. Allergy 36: 561PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  399. Prausnitz C, Küstner H (1921) Studien über die Überempfìndlichkeit. Zentralbl Bakteriol Parasitenkd Infektionskr Hygiene 86: 160Google Scholar
  400. Prince HE (1961) Molds and bacteria in the etiology of respiratory diseases. XX. Studies with mold extracts produced from cultures grown in modified synthetic media. Ann Allergy 19: 259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  401. Prystowski SD, Allen AA, Smith RW, Nonomura JH, Odom RB, Akers WA (1979) Allergic contact hypersensitivity to nickel, neomycin, ethylenediamine and benzocaine. Arch Dermatol 107: 217Google Scholar
  402. Quinti I, Brozek C, Geha RS, Leung DYM (1984) Circulating IgG antibodies to IgE in atopic syndromes. Clin Research 32: 146AGoogle Scholar
  403. Rachelefsky GS, Opelz G, Mickey MR, Kiuchi M, Terasaki PI, Siegel SC, Stiehm RE (1976) Defective T-cell function in atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 57: 569PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  404. Rademecker M, Maldague MP (1981) Depression of neutrophil chemotaxis in atopic individuals. An H2 histamine receptor response. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 65: 144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  405. Rajka G (1960) Prurigo Besnier (atopic dermatitis) with special reference to the role of allergic factors. I. The influence of atopic hereditary factors. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 40: 285Google Scholar
  406. Rajka G (1961) Prurigo Besnier (atopic dermatitis) with special reference to the role of allergic factors. II. The evaluation of skin reactions. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 41: 1Google Scholar
  407. Rajka G (1962) Discussion to Blank: The structure, biochemical and physiological defense mechanisms of the skin. In: Pillsbury DM, Livingsod CS (eds) Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Dermatology Washington, vol 1. Excerpta medica, Amsterdam, p480Google Scholar
  408. Rajka G (1963) Studies in hypersensitivity to molds and staphylococci in prurigo Besnier (atopic dermatitis). Acta Derm Venereol [Suppl] (Stockh) 13: 54Google Scholar
  409. Rajka G (1967) Delayed dermal and epicutaneous reactivity in atopic dermatitis (Prurigo Besnier). I. Delayed reactivity to bacterial and mold allergens. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 47: 158Google Scholar
  410. Rajka G (1968) Delayed dermal and epidermal reactivity in atopic dermatitis (prurigo Besnier). III. Further studies with bacterial and viral allergens. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 48: 186Google Scholar
  411. Rajka G (1975) Atopic dermatitis. Saunders, LondonGoogle Scholar
  412. Rajka G (1980) Itch and IgE in atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol [Suppl] (Stockh) 92: 38Google Scholar
  413. Rajka G, Barlinn C (1979) On the significance of the trichophytin reactivity in atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 59: 45Google Scholar
  414. Räsänen L, Lehto M, Reunala T, Jansen C, Lehtinen M, Leinikki P (1987) Langerhans’ cell and T lymphocyte functions in patients with atopic dermatitis with disseminated cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection. J Invest Dermatol 89: 15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  415. Ratner B, Collins-Williams C (1958) Protein skin reactivity in infantile and childhood eczema. Am J Dis Childr 96: 184Google Scholar
  416. Ratner B, Untracht S (1952) Egg allergy in children. Am J Dis Child 83: 309Google Scholar
  417. Reinherz EL, Schlossman SF (1980) Regulation of the immune response-inducer and suppressor T lymphocyte subsets in human beings. N Engl J Med 303: 370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  418. Reinhold U, Wehrmann W, Bauer R, Kreysel HW (1986) Defizit natürlicher Killerzellen (NK-Zellen) im peripheren Blut bei atopischer Dermatitis. Hautarzt 37: 438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  419. Reitamo S, Visa K, Kähonen K, Käyhkö K, Stubb S, Salo OB (1986) Eczematous reactions in atopic patients caused by epicutaneous testing with inhalant allergens. Br J Dermatol 114: 303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  420. Ring J (1985) Beeinflussung des RAST durch Glukokortikoide. Hautarzt 36: 645Google Scholar
  421. Ring J, Lutz J (1983) Decreased release of lysosomal enzymes from peripheral leukocytes of patients with atopic dermatitis. J Am Acad Dermatol 8: 378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  422. Ring J, Przybilla B, Senner H (1987) In vitro IgE Sekretion in Lymphozytenkulturen von Patienten mit atopischem Ekzem und Kontrollpersonen. Allergologie 10: 211Google Scholar
  423. Ringden O, Persson U, Johansson SGO (1983) Are increased levels a signal of an acute graft-versus-host reaction? Immunol Rev 71: 57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  424. Rocha C, Maubeuge J de, Sarfati M, Song M, Delespesse G (1984) Characterization of cellular infiltrates in ski lesions of atopic eczema by means of monoclonal antibodies. Dermatologica 169: 330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  425. Rogge L, Hanifin JM (1976) Immunodeficiencies in severe atopic dermatitis. Arch Dermatol 112: 1391PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  426. Rola-Pleszczynski M, Blanchard R (1981) Abnormal suppressor cell function in atopic dermatitis. J Invest Dermatol 76: 279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  427. Rost AG (1929) Über Erfahrungen mit der allergenfreien Kammer nach Storm van Leeuwen, insbesondere in der Spätperiode der exsudativen Diathese. Arch Dermatol Syph 155: 297Google Scholar
  428. Rost G, Marchionini A (1932) Asthma-Eksem, Asthma-Prurigo und Neurodermitis als aller-gische Hautkrankheiten. Würz Abh Gesamtgeb Prakt Med 27: 10Google Scholar
  429. Rostenberg A, Solomon L (1968) Infantile eczema and systemic disease. Arch Dermatol 98: 41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  430. Rostenberg A, Solomon LM (1971) Atopic dermatitis and infantile eczema. In: Sherman WB (ed) Immunological diseases, 2nd edn, vol II. Little and Brown, Boston, p 920Google Scholar
  431. Rostenberg A, Sulzberger MB (1937) Some results of patch tests: compilation and discussion of cutaneous reactions to about 500 different substances as elicited by over 10,000 tests in approximately 1000 patients. Arch Dermatol Syph 35: 433Google Scholar
  432. Rothberg RM, Farr RS (1965) Anti-bovine serum albumin and anti-alpha lactalbumin in the serum of children and adults. Pediatrics 35: 571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  433. Rowe AH (1946) Dermatitis of the hands due to atopic allergy to pollen. Arch Dermatol Syph 53: 437Google Scholar
  434. Rowe AH, Rowe AH (1951) Atopic dermatitis in infants and children. J Pediatr 39: 80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  435. Rowntree S, Platt-Mills TAE, Cogswell J, Mitchell EB (1987) A subclass IgG4-specific antigen-binding radioimmunoassay (RIA): comparison between IgG and IgG4 antibodies to food and inhaled antigens in adult atopic dermatitis after desensitization treatment and during development of antibody responses in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol 80: 622PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  436. Rudzki E, Moskalewska K, Maciejowska E (1965) Bakterienallergie bei Hautkrankheiten. III. Bakterienallergie bei Ekzeme, Urticara and Prurigo. Arch Klin Exp Dermatol 223: 243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  437. Ruiz-Moreno C (1959) Alimentary and gastro-intestinal allergy. In: Jamar JM (ed) Textbook of allergy. Blackwell, Oxford, p 481Google Scholar
  438. Rystedt I (1985) Contact sensitivity in adults with atopic dermatitis in childhood. Contact Dermatitis 13: 1PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  439. Salvaggio JE, Cavanaugh JJA, Lowell FC, Leskowitz S (1964) A comparison of the immu-nologic response of normal and atopic individuals to intranasally administered antigen. J Allergy 35: 62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  440. Sampson H (1983) Role of immediate food hypersensitivity in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 71: 473PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  441. Sampson HA (1988) The role of food allergy and mediator release in atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 81: 635PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  442. Sampson H, Albergo R (1984) Comparison of results of skin tests, RAST and double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges in children with atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 74: 26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  443. Sampson HA, Jolie PI (1984) Increased plasma histamine concentrations after food challenges in children with atopic dermatitis. N Engl J Med 311: 372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  444. Saraclar Y, McGeady SJ, Mansmann HC (1977) Lymphocyte subpopulations of atopic children and effect of therapy upon them. J Allergy Clin Immunol 60: 301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  445. Saryan JA, Leung DYM, Geha RS (1983) Induction of human IgE synthesis by a factor derived from T cells of patients with hyper IgE states. J Immunol 130: 242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  446. Sauder DN, Dinarello CA, Morhenn VB (1984) Langerhans’ cell production of interleukin-1. J Invest Dermatol 82: 605PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  447. Saurat JH, Woodley D, Heifer N (1985) Cutaneous symptoms in primary immunodeficiencies. Curr Probl Dermatol 13: 50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  448. Schnyder UW (1957) The importance of intracutaneous tests in various types of constitutional neurodermitis. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 11: 64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  449. Schnyder UW (1960) Neurodermitis-Asthma-Rhinitis. Karger, BaselGoogle Scholar
  450. Schnyder UW (1972) Zur Humangenetik der Neurodermitis atopica. Arch Dermatol Forsch 244: 345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  451. Schnyder UW, Borelli S (1965) Neurodermatitis constitutionalis sive atopica. In: Miescher C, Storck H (eds) Entzündliche Dermatosen. II. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, p 228 (Handbuch der Haut-und Geschlechtskrankheiten, vol II/l)Google Scholar
  452. Scholtz S, Ziegler E, Wüster H, Braun-Falco O, Albert ED (1977) HLA family studies in patients with atopic dermatitis. Monogr Allergy 11: 44Google Scholar
  453. Schöpf E, Boehringer D (1974) IgE and cell-mediated immunity in atopic dermatitis. J Dermatol 1: 333Google Scholar
  454. Schöpf E, Kapp A (1987) Chemiluminescence response of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in atopic dermatitis. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 82: 380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  455. Schöpf E, Kapp A, Kim CW (1978) T cell function in atopic dermatitis. Controlled examination of Concanavalin A dose-response relations in cultured lymphocytes. Arch Dermatol Res 262: 37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  456. Schopfer K, Baerlocher K, Price P et al. (1979) Staphylococcal IgE antibodies, hyperimmu-noglobulinaemia E and Staphylococcus aureus infections. N Engl Med J 300: 835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  457. Schröder H, Thalberg K, Lundberg A (1985) New techniques in specific IgE antibody measurement. Allergy 40 (Suppl 4): 14Google Scholar
  458. Schubert H, Berova N, Czernielewski A, Hegyi E et al. (1987) Epidemiology of nickel allergy. Contact Dermatitis 16: 122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  459. Schultz Larsen F (1985) Atopic dermatitis. Etiological studies based on a twin population. Lægeforeningens, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  460. Schultz Larsen F, Holm NV, Henningsen K (1986) Atopic dermatitis. A genetic-epidemiologic study in a population based twin sample. J Am Acad Dermatol 15: 487Google Scholar
  461. Schultz Larsen F, Jörgensen AS, Grunnet N (1985) Natural killer cell function in atopic dermatitis. Clin Exp Dermatol 10: 104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  462. Schur S, Hyde JS, Wypich JL (1974) Egg-white sensitivity in atopic eczema. J Allergy Clin Immunol 54: 174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  463. Schuster DL, Bongiovanni BA, Peterson DL, Barbaro JF, Wong DTO, Levinson AL (1980) Selective deficiency of a Tcell subpopulation in active atopic dermatitis. J Immunol 124: 1662PubMedGoogle Scholar
  464. Schwartz M (1952) The heredity in bronchial asthma. Acta Allergol (Suppl 2)Google Scholar
  465. Secher L, Permin H, Juhl F (1978) Immunofluorescence of the skin in allergic diseases: an investigation of patients with contact dermatitis, allergic vasculitis and atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 58: 117Google Scholar
  466. Sedlis E (1965) Some challenge studies with foods. J Pediatr 66: 153–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  467. Sedlis E, Prose PH, Holt LE (1966) Infantile eczema. Postgrad Med J 40: 63Google Scholar
  468. Shakib F, Morrow Brown H, Readhead R et al. (1985) IgE and IgG4 antibodies to bovine milk fat globule membrane in atopic eczema patients: a study of their occurrence, relevance and antigenic specificity. Clin Allergy 15: 265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  469. Shelley WB, Juhlin L (1977) Selective uptake of contact allergens by the Langerhans’ cells. Arch Dermatol 113: 187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  470. Shohat B, Metzker A, Trainin N (1980) Cell-mediated immunity and the in vitro effect of thymic humoral factor (THF) on blood lymphocytes of children with atopic dermatitis. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 15: 646PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  471. Siemens HW (1924) Die Zwillingspathologie. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  472. Silberberg I (1973) Apposition of mononuclear cells to Langerhans’ cells in contact allergic reactions. An ultrastructural study. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 53: 1Google Scholar
  473. Sillevis Smith JH, Bos JD, Hulsebosch HJ, Krieg SR (1986) In situ immunophagotyping of antigen presenting cells and T cell subsets in atopic dermatitis. Clin Exp Dermatol 11: 159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  474. Silvennoinen-Kassinen S (1981) The specificity of a nickel sulphate reaction in vitro: a family study and a study of chromium-allergic subjects. Scand J Immunol 13: 231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  475. Simon FA (1944) On the allergen in human dander. J Allergy 15: 338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  476. Simon FA (1949) Allergy to human dander in infantile eczema. In: Progr Allergy 2: 246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  477. Simon FA, Rackemann FM (1934a) The development of hypersensitiveness in man. I. Following intradermal injection of the antigen. J Allergy 5: 439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  478. Simon FA, Rackemann FM (1934b) The development of hypersensitiveness in man. II. Absorption of antigen through nasal mucous membrane. J Allergy 5: 451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  479. Skog E (1960) Primary irritant and eczematous reaction induced in patients with dermatoses. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 50: 183Google Scholar
  480. Skog E, Thyresson N (1953) The occupational significance of some common contact allergens. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 33: 65Google Scholar
  481. Snyderman R, Rogers E, Buckley RH (1977) Abnormalities of leukotaxis in atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 60: 121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  482. Solomon LM, Telner P (1966) Eruptive molluscum contagiosum in atopic dermatitis. Can Med Assoc J 95: 978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  483. Sonck CE, Widholm O (1954) Zur Frage der Antistreptolysin-und Antistaphylolysintiter bei einigen Hautkrankheiten. Z Haut Geschlechtskr 17: 175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  484. Soothill JF (1974) Immunodeficiency and allergy. In: Brostoff I (ed) Clinical immunology-allergy in paediatric medicine, vol 1. Blackwell, Oxford, p 21Google Scholar
  485. Spaich D, Ostertag M (1936) Untersuchungen über allergische Erkrankungen bei Zwillingen. Z Menschl Vererb Konstitutionsl 19: 731Google Scholar
  486. Spiegelberg HL (1986) IgE receptors in lymphocytes. In: Ring J, Burg G (eds) New trends in allergy II. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, p 33Google Scholar
  487. Stanworth DR (1957) The use of gel-precipitation technique in the identification of horse dandruff antigen and in the study of serological relationship between horse dandruff and horse serum proteins. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 2: 170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  488. Stanworth DR (1963) Reaginic antibodies. Adv Immunol 3: 181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  489. Steigleder GK (ed) (1979) Kölner RAST symposium, 1979. Grosse, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  490. Steigleder GK (ed) (1981) Kölner RAST symposium, 1981. Grosse, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  491. Stingl G, Gazze LA, Czarneski N, Wolff K (1981) T cell abnormalities in atopic dermatitis patients: imbalance in T cell subpopulations and impaired generation of Con-A induced suppressor cells. J Invest Dermatol 76: 478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  492. Stone SP, Gleich GJ, Muller SA (1976) Atopic dermatitis and IgE. Arch Dermatol 112: 1254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  493. Storck H (1954) Eksemreaktion durch Inhalation des Allergens. Dermatologica 108: 411PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  494. Storck H (1955) Eksem durch Inhalation. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 85: 608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  495. Storck H (1961) Le rôle de la prédisposition, du système neurovégétatif et de l’allergie dans le prurigo de Besnier. Arch Belg Dermatol 17: 95Google Scholar
  496. Storck H (1979) Geklärtes und ungeklärtes der dermatologischen Immunologie. Hautarzt 30: 62Google Scholar
  497. Storck H, Schnyder UW, Schwartz K (1960) Neurodermitis disseminata mit Verschlimmerung im Sommer. Aufflammen nach Inhalation von Pollenallergenen. Dermatologica 121: 150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  498. Strannegård IL, Strannegård Ö (1977) Increased sensitivity of lymphocytes from atopic individuals to histamine-induced suppression. Scand J Immunol 6: 1225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  499. Strannegård IL, Strannegård Ö (1980) Natural killer cells and interferon production in atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol [Suppl] (Stockh) 92: 48Google Scholar
  500. Strannegård IL, Lindholm L, Strannegård Ö (1976) Studies of T lymphocytes in atopic children. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 50: 684PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  501. Strannegård Ö, Strannegård IL (1978) T lymphocyte numbers and function in human IgE-mediated allergy. Immunol Rev 41: 149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  502. Strannegård Ö, Strannegård IL, Rystedt I (1985) Viral infections in atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol [Suppl] (Stockh) 114: 121Google Scholar
  503. Strauss MB (1960) Allergens. In: Prigal SJ (ed) Fundamentals of modern allergy. McGraw Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  504. Strauss J, Kligman AM (1957) Relationship of atopic allergy and dermatitis. Arch Dermatol 75: 806Google Scholar
  505. Sulzberger MB (1936) The relative importance of specific skin hypersensitivity in adult dermatitis. JAMA 106: 1000Google Scholar
  506. Sulzberger MB (1940) Dermatologic allergy. Thomas, SpringfieldGoogle Scholar
  507. Sulzberger MB, Spain WC, Sammis F, Shahon HF (1932) Studies in hypersensitiveness in certain dermatoses (disseminated type). J Allergy 3: 423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  508. Swainson JA, Wilson PB, Dore P, Pumphrey RSH (1985) Evidence for circulating complexes containing IgE in patients with atopic dermatitis. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 76: 237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  509. Swineford O, Holman J (1949) Studies on bactrial allergy. III. Results of 3680 cutaneous tests with 34 crude polysaccharide and nucleoprotein fractions of 14 different bacteria. J Allergy 20: 420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  510. Tada T (1975) Regulation of reaginic antibody information in animals. Progr Allergy 19: 122Google Scholar
  511. Tada T, Ishizaka K (1970) Distribution of E-forming cells in lymphoid tissues of the human and monkey. J Immunol 104: 377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  512. Takahashi I, Aliyama T, Yamamura M, Sasaoka K, Anan S (1977) Evaluation of RAST in atopic dermatitis. J Dermatol 4: 217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  513. Takigawa M, Tamamori T, Horiguchi D, Sakamoto T, Yamada M (1989) Fcε receptor positive cells in atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol (suppl 144) (Stockh) (in press)Google Scholar
  514. Tanaka V, Tanaka M, Anan S, Yoshida H (1989) Immunohistochemical studies on dust mite antigen in the positive reaction site of the patch test. Acta Derm Venereol (Suppl 144) (Stockh) (in press)Google Scholar
  515. Taylor B, Norman AP, Orgel HA, Stokes CR, Turner MW, Soothill JF (1973) Transient IgA deficiency and pathogenesis of infantile atopy. Lancet II: 111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  516. Thestrup Pedersen KK, Ellegård J, Thulin H, Zachariae H (1977) PPD and mitogen responsiveness of patients with atopic dermatitis. Clin Exp Immunol 27: 118Google Scholar
  517. Thulin H, Hanifin JM, Bryant R (1980) Leucocyte adherence in atopic dermatitis: diminished responses to histamine and isoproterenol. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 60: 235Google Scholar
  518. Ting S, Dunsky EH, Lavker RM, Zweiman B (1980) Patterns of mast cell alterations and in vivo mediator release in human allergic skin reactions. J Allergy Clin Immunol 66: 417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  519. Tovey ER, Chapman MD, Wells CW, Platt-Mills TAE (1981) The distribution of dust mite allergen in houses of patients with asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 124: 630PubMedGoogle Scholar
  520. Tuft L (1949) Importance of inhalant allergens in atopic dermatitis. J Invest Dermatol 12: 211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  521. Tuft L, Heck VM (1952) Studies in atopic dermatitis. IV. Importance of seasonal inhalant allergen, especially ragweed. J Allergy 23: 528PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  522. Turk JL (1970) Contribution of modern immunological concepts to an understanding of diseases of the skin. Br Med J II: 363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  523. Turner MW, Brostoff J, Wells RS, Stokes CR, Soothill F (1977) HLA in eczema and hay fever. Clin Exp Immunol 27: 43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  524. Uehara M (1980) Tuberculin reaction in atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol [Suppl] (Stockh) 92: 70Google Scholar
  525. Uehara M (1986) Heterogeneity of serum IgE levels in atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 66: 404Google Scholar
  526. Uehara M, Ofuji S (1974) The leukocyte migration test in atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 54: 279Google Scholar
  527. Uehara M, Ofuji S (1976) Patch test reactions to human dander in atopic dermatitis. Arch Dermatol 112:951PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  528. Uehara M, Takahashi C, Ofuji S (1975) Pustular patch test reactions in atopic dermatitis. Arch Dermatol 111: 1154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  529. Uno H, Hanifin JM (1980) Langerhans’ cells in acute and chronic epidermal lesions of atopic dermatitis, observed by L-dopa histofluorescence, glycol methacrylate thin section and electron microscopy. J Invest Dermatol 75: 52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  530. Van Arsdal PP, Motulsky AG (1959) Frequency and hereditability of asthma and allergic rhinitis in college students. Acta Genet Stat Med 9: 101Google Scholar
  531. Van der Bijl WJF (1960) Studies on the technique of skin testing in allergy. Thomas, SpringfieldGoogle Scholar
  532. Varelzidis A, Wilson AB, Meara RH, Turk L (1966) Immunoglobulin levels in atopic eczema. Br Med J II: 925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  533. Vaughan W (1929) The interpretation of borderline allergic reactions. K Lab Clin Med 14: 433Google Scholar
  534. Vestey JP, Howie SEM, Norval M, Maingay JP, Neill WA (1988) Immune response to herpes simplex virus in patients with facial herpes simplex and those with eczema herpeticum. Br J Dermatol 118: 775PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  535. Viander M, Uksila J, Lassila O, Jansen CT (1982) Natural killer cell activity in atopic dermatitis. Arch Dermatol Res 274: 283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  536. Vogel F, Dorn H (1964) Krankheiten der Haut und ihrer Anhanggebiete. In: Becker PE (ed) Humangenetik, vol 14. Thieme, Stuttgart, p 346Google Scholar
  537. Vogel F, Matulsky AG (1979) Human genetics. Problems and approaches. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  538. Voorhorst R (1962) Basic facts of allergy. Stenfert Kroese, LeidenGoogle Scholar
  539. Voorhorst R, Spieksma FTM, Varekamp H, Leupen MJ, Lyklema AW (1967) The house dust mite (dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) and the allergens it produces. Identity with the house dust allergen. J Allergy 39: 325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  540. Wahlberg JE, Skog E (1971) Nickel allergy and atopy. Threshold of nickel sensitivity and immunoglobulin E determinations. Br J Dermatol 85: 97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  541. Wahn U, Herold U, Danielsen K, Löwenstein H (1982) Allergoprints in horse allergic children. Allergy 37: 335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  542. Watt TL, Baumann RR (1968) Nickel earlobe dermatitis. Arch Dermatol 98: 155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  543. Wells GC (1956) Effects of nickel on the skin. Br J Dermatol 68: 237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  544. Werner M (1972) Panel on food allergy. In: Allergology. Proc 8th Europ Cong of Allergy Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, p 370Google Scholar
  545. White MI, Noble WC (1985) The cutaneous reaction to staphylococcal protein A in normal subjects and patients with atopic dermatitis or psoriasis. Br J Dermatol 113: 179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  546. Wide L, Porath J (1966) Radioimmunoassay of proteins with the use of Sephadex-coupled antibodies. Acta Biochem Biophysic 130: 257Google Scholar
  547. Wide L, Bennich H, Johansson SGO (1967) Diagnosis of allergy by an in-vitro test or allergen antibodies. II: 1105Google Scholar
  548. Wide L, Aronsen T, Fagerberg E, Zetterstrom Ö (1972) Radioimmunoassay of allergen-specific IgE. In: Charpin J, Boutin C, Aubert J, Frankland AW (eds) Allergology. Proceedings of the 8th European Congress of Allergology. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, p 85Google Scholar
  549. Wiener AS, Zieve I, Fries JH (1936) The inheritance of allergic disease. Ann Eugenics 7: 141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  550. Willemze R, De Graaff-Reitsma CB, Crossen J, Van Vloten WA, Meijer CJLM (1983) Characterization of T cell subpopulations in skin and peripheral blood of patients with cutaneous T cell lymphomas and benign inflammatory dermatoses. J Invest Dermatol 80: 60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  551. Williams RC, Griffiths RW, Emmons JD, Field RC (1972) Naturally occurring human anti-globulin with specificity for IgE. J Clin Invest 51: 955PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  552. Wilson HTH (1956) Nickel dermatitis. Br J Dermatol 68: 229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  553. Wittig HJ, Beloit F, Filippi ID, Royal G (1980) Age-related serum immunoglobulin E levels in healthy subjects and in patients with allergic disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol 66: 305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  554. Wraith DG, Merrett J, Roth A, Yman L, Merrett TG (1979) Recognition of food-allergic patients and their allergens by the RAST technique and clinical investigation. Clin Allergy 9: 25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  555. Wütrich B (1974) Allergenspezifische IgE im Radioallergosorbenttest bei Neurodermitis. Hautarzt25: 603Google Scholar
  556. Wütrich B (1975) Zur Immunpathologie der Neurodermitis constitutionalis. Huber, BernGoogle Scholar
  557. Wütrich B (1987) Neuere Aspekte zur Diagnostik und Therapie der Nahrungsmittelallergie. Allergologie 9: 370Google Scholar
  558. Wütrich B, Baumann E, Fries RA, Schnyder UW (1981) Total and specific IgE (RAST) in atopic twins. Clin Allergy 11: 147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  559. Wütrich B, Benz A, Skvaril F (1983) IgE and IgG4 levels in children with atopic dermatitis. Dermatologica 166: 229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  560. Wütrich B, Kopper E, Virchow C (1973) IgE-Bestimmung bei Neurodermitis und anderen Dermatosen. Hautarzt 24: 381Google Scholar
  561. Yman L (1985) New developments in serum IgE measurement. Allergy 40 (Suppl 4): 10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  562. Yocum MW, Strong DM, Lakin JD (1976) Competent cellular immunity in allergic rhinitis patients with elevated IgE. J Allergy Clin Immunol 57: 384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  563. Young E, Bruynzeel-Koomen C, Berrens L (1985) Delayed type hypersensitivity in atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol [Suppl] (Stockh) 114: 77Google Scholar
  564. Young E, Pepper M, Everard J, Shaw S, Wilkinson DM (1986) Attitudes to additives -a preliminary report. Br J Dermatol (Suppl 30): 36Google Scholar
  565. Yunginger JW, Jones RT, Gleich GJ (1976) Studies on alternaria allergens. II. Measurements of the relative potency of commercial Alternaria extracts by the direct RAST inhibition. J Allergy Clin Immunol 58: 405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  566. Zachary CB, Allen MH, MacDonald DM (1985 a) In situ quantification of T-lymphocyte subsets and Langerhans’ cells in the inflammatory infiltrate of atopic eczema. Br J Dermatol 112: 149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  567. Zachary CB, Poulter LW, MacDonald DM (1985 b) Cell mediated immune responses in atopic dermatitis: the relevance of antigen-presenting cells. Br J Dermatol (Suppl 114): 77Google Scholar
  568. Zakon SJ, Taub SJ (1938) The inhalation of house and horse danders as an etiologic factor in atopic dermatitis. J Allergy 9: 523Google Scholar
  569. Zetterstrom Ö, Osterman K, Machado L, Johansson SGO (1981) Another smoking hazard: raised serum IgE concentration and increased risk for occupational allergy. Br Med J 283: 1215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  570. Zezschwitz KA (1957) Antistreptolysintiterbestimmungen bei Dermatosen. Derm Wochenschr 135: 185Google Scholar
  571. Zimmermann T (1987) Reduzierung der Hausstaubmilbenallergens nach Zimmer-und Bettsa-nierung. Untersuchung mit einem Teststreifensystem (Acarex). Allergologie 10: 31Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Georg Rajka
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of DermatologyRikshospitaletOslo 1Norway

Personalised recommendations