Advertisement

Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

  • E. Davila
  • L. M. Toonkel

Abstract

Locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) of the noninflammatory variety is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by extensive local disease in the absence of identifiable distant metastases. Despite a large body of literature on breast cancer, there is a relative paucity of data on LABC. Moreover, the terms “unresectable,” “inoperable,” and “incurable” have been variably equated with LABC by different authors.

Keywords

Breast Cancer Advanced Breast Cancer Inflammatory Breast Cancer Radical Mastectomy Local Control Rate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Beahrs OH, Myers MH (eds) Manual for staging of cancer-American joint committee on cancer. Lippincott, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Haagensen CD (1971) Diseases of the breast, 2nd edn. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rubens RD, Armitage P, Winter PJ, Tong D, Hayward JL (1977) Prognosis in inoperable stage III carcinoma of the breast. Eur J Cancer 13: 805–811PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    McWirther R (1955) Simple mastectomy and radiotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer. Br J Radiol 28: 128–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Shanta V, Krishnamurthi S, Sastry DVLN, Menon R (1985) Multimodal approach in the therapy of stage III female breast cancers. J Surg Oncol 28: 134–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fisher B, Ravdin RG, Ausman RK, Slack NH, Moore GE, Noer RJ (1968) Surgical adjuvant chemotherapy in cancer of the breast: results of a decade of cooperative investigation. Ann Surg 168: 337–356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fracchia AA, Evans JF, Eisenberg BL (1980) Stage III carcinoma of the breast: a detailed analysis. Ann Surg 192: 705–710PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Toonkel LM, Fix I, Jacobson LH, Bamberg N, Wallach CB (198) Locally advanced breast carcinoma: results with combined regional therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 12: 1583–1587Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zucali R, Uslenghi C, Kenda R, Bonadonna G (1976) Natural history and surival of inoperable breast cancer treated with radiotherapy and radiotherapy followed by radical mastectomy. Cancer 37: 1422–1431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bruckman KE, Harris JR, Levene MB, Chaffey JT, Hellman S (1979) Results of treating stage III carcinoma of the breast by primary radiation therapy. Cancer 43: 985–993PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Arnold DJ, Lesnick GJ (1979) Survival following mastectomy for stage III breast cancer. Am J Surg 137: 362–366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bedwinek J, Rao DV, Perez C, Lee J, Fineberg B (1982) Stage III and localized stage IV breast cancer: irradiation alone versus irradiation plus surgery. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 8: 31–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rao DV, Bedwinek J, Perez C, Lee J, Fineberg B (1982) Prognostic indicators in stage III and localized stage IV breast cancer. Cancer 50: 2037–2043PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Balawajder I, Antich PP, Boland J (1983) An analysis of the role of radiotherapy alone and in combination with chemotherapy and surgery in the management of advanced breast carcinoma. Cancer 51: 574–580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hortobagyi GN, Blumenschein GR, Spanos W, Montague ED, Buzder AU, Yap H-Y, Schell F (1983) Multimodal treatment of locoregionally advanced breast cancer. Cancer 51: 763–768PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Perloff M, Lesnick GJ, Korzun A, Chu F, Holland JF, Thirlwell MP, Ellison RR, Carey RW, Leone L, Weinberg V, Rice MA, Wood WC (1988) Combination chemotherapy with mastectomy or radiation therapy for stage III breast carcinoma: a cancer and leukemia group B study. J Clin Oncol 6: 261–269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chu AM, Cope O, Doucette J, Curran B (1984) Non-metastatic locally advanced cancer of the breast treated with radiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 10: 2299–2304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    DeLena M, Varini M, Zucali R, Rovini D (1981) Multimodal treatment for locally advanced breast cancer. Cancer Clin Trials 4: 229–236Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Adair F, Berg J, Joubert L, Robbins GF (1974) Long-term follow-up of breast cancer patients: the 30 years report. Cancer 33: 1145–1150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hahnel R, Woodings T, Vivian AB (1979) Prognostic value of estrogen receptors in primary breast cancer. Cancer 44: 671–675PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lippman ME, Allegra JC (1978) Receptors in breast cancer. N Engl J Med 299: 930–933PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hortobagyi G, Ames F, Buzdav A, McNeese M, Holmes F, Fraschini G, Martin R, Montague E (1987) Effective multidisciplinary therapy of inoperable stage III breast cancer. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 6: 64Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Morris D, Edwards J, Gelder F (1988) Hormone receptor levels before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced breast cancer. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 7: 26Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Haagensen CD, Stout AP (1943) Carcinoma of the breast; criteria of operability. Ann Surg 118: 859, 1032PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cade S (1949) Treatment and results in cancer of the breast. AJR 62: 326–327Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Donegan WL (1979) Primary treatment options and end results. In: Donegan WL, Spratt JS (eds) Cancer of the breast, 2nd edn. Saunders, Philadelphia, p 263Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Haagensen CD (ed) (1971) Diseases of the breast, 2nd edn. Saunders, Philadelphia, p 634Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Donegan WL (1983) The role of modified mastectomy in the treatment of carcinoma of the breast. In: McCredie KB et al. (eels) American Society of Clinical Oncology-educational symposium and educational workshops, San Diego CA, 22 May 1983. American Society of Clinical Oncology, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Baclesse F (1949) Roentgen therapy as the sole method of treatment of cancer of the breast. AJR 62: 311–319Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Atkins HL, Horrigan WD (1961) Treatment of locally advanced carcinoma of the breast with roentgen therapy and simple mastectomy. AJR 85: 869–865Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bouchard J (1965) Advanced cancer of the breast treated primarily with irradiation. Radiology 84: 823 - 842PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Fletcher GH (1972) Local results of irradiation in the primary management of localized breast cancer. Cancer 29: 545–551PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pearlman NW, Guerra O, Fracchia AA (1976) Primary inoperable cancer of the breast. Surg Gynecol Obstet 143: 909–913PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Golding P (1976) The treatment of inoperable carcinoma of the breast in Portsmouth 1960–1969. Proc R Soc Med 69: 701–703PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Langlands AO, Kerr GR, Shaw S (1976) The management of locally advanced breast cancer by X-ray therapy. Clin Oncol 2: 365–371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sponzo RW, Gray R, Damsker JI, Tormey DC, Olson JE, Cummings JF (1983) The management of nonresectable (stage III) breast cancer. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 2: 110 (C-430)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Treurniet-Donker AD, Hop WCJ, Hoed-Sijtsema S (1980) Radiation treatment of stage III mammary carcinoma: a review of 129 patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 6: 1477–1482PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Amalric R, Santamaria F, Robert F, Siegle J, Altschuler C, Kurtz JM, Spitalier JM, Brandone H, Ayme Y, Pollet JF, Burmeister R, Abed R (1982) Radiation therapy with or without primary limited surgery for operable breast cancer. Cancer 49: 30–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    DelaRue NC, Ash CL, Peters V, Fielden R (1965) Preoperative irradiation in manage¬ment of locally advanced breast cancer. Arch Surg 91: 136–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Spanos WJ, Montague ED, Fletcher GH (1980) Late complications of radiation only for advanced breast cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 6: 1473–1476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Pierquin B, Baillet F, Wilson JF (1976) Radiation therapy in the management of primary breast cancer. AJR 127: 645–648PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Alderman SJ (1976) Combination teletherapy and iridium implantation in the treatment of locally advanced breast cancer. Cancer 38: 1936–1938PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Stoker TAM, Ellis H (1972) Post-irradiation toilet mastectomy in the management of locally advanced carcinoma of the breast. Br J Radiol 45: 851–854PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Brown GR, Horiot JC, Fletcher GH, White EC, Ange DW (1974) Simple mastectomy and radiation therapy for locally advanced breast cancers technically suitable for radical mastectomy. AJR 120: 67–73Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Terz JJ, Romero CA, Kay S, Brown PW, Wassum J, King ER (1978) Preoperative radiotherapy for stage III carcinoma of the breast. Surg Gynecol Obstet 147: 497–502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Cody HS, Bretsky SS, Urban J A (1982) The continuing importance of adequate surgery for operable breast cancer: significant salvage of node-positive patients without adjuvant chemotherapy. CA 32: 242–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Yarom J, Assa J, Robinson E (1977) The survival of inoperable breast cancer treated with radiotherapy and radiotherapy followed by mastectomy. J Surg Oncol 9: 203–205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bonadonna G, Valagussa P, Zambetti M, Zucali R (1988) Locally advanced breast cancer: 10 year results after combined treatment. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 7: 9Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ragaz J, Manji M, Plenderleith IH, Knowling M, Olivotto I, Basco V, Hardman J, Worth A, Kuusk U (1988) Analysis of the British Columbia study of preoperative (neoadjuvant) therapy of breast cancer in stage III disease. In: Jacquillat C, Weil M, Khayat D (eds) Neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Colloque Inserm. Libbey, Paris, pp 249–256Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sponzo RW, Cunningham TJ, Caradonna RR, Antemann R (1979) Management of nonresectable (stage III) breast cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 5: 1475–1478PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Harris JR, Sawicka J, Gelman R, Hellman S (1983) Management of locally advanced carcinoma of the breast by primary radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 9: 345–349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Majumdar AP (1982) Results of treatment of locally advanced carcinoma breast - comparative study of different modalities: proc 13 int cancer congress. UICC Monogr Ser 563: 3224Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Swain S, Lippman M, Bagley C, Badev J, Danforth D, Steinberg S (1987) Treatment of locally advanced breast cancer using primary induction chemotherapy with hormonal synchronization followed by radiation therapy with or without debulking surgery. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 6: 50Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Jacquillat C, Weil M, Baillet F, Auderc G, Housset M, Auclerc MF, Khayat D (1987) Results of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with or without hormonotherapy and external and interstitial radiation in 98 locally advanced breast cancers. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 6: 66Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    DeLena M, Zucali R, Viganotti G, Calagussa P, Bonadonna G (1978) Combined chemotherapy-radiotherapy approach in locally advanced (T3b-T4) breast cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1: 53–59Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Rubens RD, Sexton S, Tong D, Winter PJ, Knight RK, Hayward JL (1980) Combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy for locally advanced breast cancer. Eur J Cancer 16: 351–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Casper ES, Auidera CA, Bosi GJ, Kaufman RJ, Hakes TB, Shurgot S, Fracchia AA, Kinne DW (1986) Prospective randomized trial of adjuvant combination chemotherpay with or without doxorubicin following mastectomy for locally advanced breast cancer. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 5: 66Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Serrou B, Sancho-Garnier H, Cappelaere P, Plagne R, Metz R, Schneider M, Chollet P, Namer N, Pujol H, Gary-Bobo J, Meyer G, Mathe G (1982) Follow-up results from a randomized trial for T3 and T4 breast cancer patients: previous BCG immunotherapy improves response to chemotherapy in the relapse patient. In: Mathe G, Bonadonna G, Salmon S (eds) Adjuvant therapies of cancer. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 157-161 (Recent results in cancer research, vol 80 )Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Grohn P, Heinonen E, Klefstrom P, Tarkkanen J (1984) Adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy in stage III breast cancer. Cancer 54: 670–674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Schaake-Konig C, Van der Linden EH, Hart G, Engelsman E (1985) Adjuvant chemo- and hormonal therapy in locally advanced breast cancer: a randomized clinical study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 11: 1759–1763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rubens RD, Bartelink H, Engelsman E, vander Bogaert Wd, Rotmensz N, Sylvester R, Hayward JL (1983) A trial to assess the contribution of chemotherapy and/or endocrine therapy to primary treatment of locally advanced breast cancer by raditotherapy (EORTC 10792). 3rd EORTC breast cancer working conference, Amsterdam (I 8 )Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Davila
    • 1
    • 2
  • L. M. Toonkel
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Comprehensive Cancer CenterMount Sinai Medical CenterMiami BeachUSA
  2. 2.Department of Radiation OncologyMount Sinai Medical CenterMiami BeachUSA

Personalised recommendations