Smoking is a behavior which helps regulate internal emotional states [1, 2]. Despite the well-known health hazards of smoking, a high percentage of adults in the world continue to smoke. There is evidence that some smokers tend to titrate their smoking depending on nicotine levels in their body [3, 4]. The use of smoking for such purpose is likely to be a joint product of learning and addiction. Habitual smokers may believe that they are incapable of change [5], or they may feel that they have no control over their health [6]. Nicotine addiction is a bona fide disorder listed in DSM III. Effective treatment should take into account these elements.


Smoking Behavior Joint Product Nicotine Addiction Nicotine Level Habitual Smoker 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. R. Viskoper
    • 1
  1. 1.The Barzilai Medical CenterAshkelonIsrael

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