Erkrankungen des Hodens

  • Bernd Hamm
Conference paper

Zusammenfassung

Die Ursachen und die Steuerung des physiologischen Descensus testis sind noch nicht völlig geklärt. Die Lagevarianten des Hodens gehören zu den häufigsten Fehlbildungen bei der Geschlechtsdifferenzierung des Mannes. 2–3, 4% aller reifen Neugeborenen zeigen einen Maldeszensus, der im frühen Säuglingsalter noch keinen Krankheitswert hat [23]. Mit Abschluß des 1. Lebensjahrs haben ca. 1,8% aller Knaben einen dann therapiebedürftigen Maldescensus testis, der bei bis zu 80% der Fälle mit einer kongenitalen Leistenhernie verbunden ist (Processus vaginalis peritonei persistens) [15].

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. 1.
    Amin M, Wheeler CS (1976) Selective testicular venography in abdominal cryptorchidism. J Urol 115:760–761PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bjerklund Johansen TE, Larmo A (1988) Ultrasonography in undescended testes. Acta Radiol Oncol 29:159–163Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Diamond AB, Meng CH, Kodroff M, Goldman SM (1977) Testicular venography in the nonpalpable testis. Am J Roentgenol 129:129–135Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dieckmann KP, Dtie W, Fiedler U (1988) Perineale Hodenektopie. Urologe A 27: 358–362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Friedland GW, Chang P (1988) The role of imaging in the management of the impalpable undescended testis. Am J Roentgenol 151:1107–1111Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fritzsche PJ, Hricak H, Kogan BA, Winkler ML, Tanagho EA (1987) Undescended testis: value of MR imaging. Radiology 164:169–173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Giyanani VL, McCarthy J, Venable DD, Terkeurst J, Fowler M (1987) Ultrasound of polyorchidism: case report and literature review. J Urol 138:863–864PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Goldberg RM, Chilcote W, Kay R, Bodie BH (1987) Sonographic findings in poly orchidism. J Clin Ultrasound 15; 412–415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Greenberg SH, Ring EJ, Oleaga J, Wein AJ (1979) Gonadal venography for preoperative localization of nonpalpable testis in adults. Urology 13:453–455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gritzmann N, Haller J (1988) Hochauflösende Sonographie bei Kryptorchismus. Urologe A 27: 279–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hederstroem E, Forsberg L, Kullendorff CM (1985) Ultrasonography of the undescended testis. Acta Radiol 26:453–456Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hinman F (1987) Survey: localization and operation for nonpalpable testes. Urology 30: 193–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hutton L, Rankin RM, Pozsinyi J (1985) High resolution ultrasound of macro-orchidism in mental retardation. J Clin Ultrasound 13:19–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Khademi M, Seebode JJ, Falla A (1980) Selective spermatic arteriography for localization of an impalpable undescended testis. Radiology 136:627–634PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kleinteich B (1979) Klinische Problematik. In: Kleinteich B, Hadziselimovic F, Hesse V, Schreiber G (Hrsg) Kongenitale Hodendystopien. Thieme, Leipzig, S 15–76Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Levitt SB, Kogan SJ, Engel RM, Weiss RM, Martin DC, Ehrlich RM (1978) The impalpable testis: a rational approach to management. J Urol 120:515–520PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Madrazo BL, Klugo RC, Parks JA, Di Loreto R (1979) Ultrasonographic demonstration of undescended testis. Radiology 133:181–183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nacey JN, Urquhart Hay D (1987) Polyorchidism. Br J Urol 59: 280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nielsen KB, Tommerup N (1981) Macroorchidism, mental retardation and the fragile X. N Engl J Med 305:1348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rifkin MD, Kurtz AB, Pasto ME, Gordberg BB (1983) Polyorchidism diagnosed preoperatively by ultrasonography. J Ultrasound Med 2: 93–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rosenfield AT, Blair DN, McCarthy S, Glickman MG, Rosenfield NS, Weiss R (1989) The pars infravaginalis gubernaculi: importance in the identification of the undescended testis. Am J Roentgenol 153:775–778Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ruvalcaba RHA, Myhre SA, Roosen-Runga EC, Beckwith JB (1977) X-linked mental deficiency megalotestes syndrome. JAMA 238:1646–1650PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Scorer CG, Farrington GH (1979) Congenital anomalies of the testis. In: Harrison JH, Gittes RF, Perlmutter AD, Stamey TA, Walsh PC (Hrsg) Campbell’s urology, 4th edn. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 1549–1565Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Turner G, Daniel A, Frost M (1980) X-linked mental retardation macro-orchidism and the Xq (27) fragile site. J Pediatr 96: 837–841PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wolverson MK, Houttuin E, Heiberg E, Sundaram M, Shields JB (1983) Comparison of computed tomography with high-resolution real-time ultrasound in the localization of the impalpable undescended testes. Radiology 146:133–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wright JE (1986) Impalpable testes: a review of 100 boys. J Pediatr Surg 21:151–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Literatur

  1. 1.
    Bajorin D, Katz A, Chan E, Geller N, Vogelzang N, Bosl G (1988) Comparison of criteria for assigning germ cell tumor patients to “good risk” and “poor risk” studies. J Clin Oncol 6: 786–792PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baker WC, Bishai MB, DeVere White RW (1988) Misleading testicular masses. Urology 31: 111–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barth RA, Littlewood Teele R, Colodny A, Retik A, Bauer S (1984) Asymptomatic scrotal masses in children. Radiology 152: 65–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baumüller A, Sommerkamp H (1982) Tödlicher Verlauf. In: Weißbach L, Hildenbrand G (Hrsg) Register und Verbundstudie Hodentumoren — Bonn. Zuckschwerdt München, S 117–121Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Benson CB (1988) The role of ultrasound in diagnosis and staging of testicular cancer. Semin Urol 6: 189–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Benson CB, Doubilet PM, Richie JP (1989) Sonography of the male genital tract. Am J Roentgenol 153: 705–713Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Berger Y, Srinivas V, Hajdu SI, Herr HW (1985) Epidermoid cysts of the testis: role of conservative surgery. J Urol 134: 962–963PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bockrath JM, Schaeffer AJ, Kies MS, Neiman HL (1983) Ultrasound identification of impalpable testicle tumor. J Urol 130: 355–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Boehle A, Studer UE, Sonntag RW, Scheidegger JR (1986) Primary or secondary extra-gonadal germ cell tumors? J Urol 135: 939–943Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bussar-Maatz R, Weißbach L (1988) Beziehungen zwischen Primärtumor und Metastasierung. Beitr Onkol 28: 170–177Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Casola G, Scheible W, Leopold GR (1984) Neuroblastoma metastatic to the testis: ultrasonographic screening as an aid to clinical staging. Radiology 151: 475–476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Daugaard G, Von der Maase H, Olsen J, Rörth M, Skakkebaeck NE (1987) Carcinoma in situ testis in patients with assumed extragonadal germ-cell tumours. Lancet ii: 528–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Depue RH, Pike MC, Henderson BE (1983) Estrogen exposure during gestation and risk of testicular cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 71: 1151–1155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dieckmann KP, Boeckmann W, Brosig W, Jonas D, Bauer HW (1986) Bilateral testicular germ-cell tumors. Report of nine cases and a review of the literature. Cancer 57: 1254–1257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dieckmann KP, Becker T, Jonas D, Bauer HW (1987) Inheritance and testicular cancer. Arguments based on a report of three cases and a review of the literature. Oncology 44: 367–377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dieckmann KP, Becker T, Bauer HW (1987) Testicular tumors: presentation and role of diagnostic delay. Urol Int 42: 241–247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dieckmann KP, Becker T, HW Bauer (1987) Metastasen als Primärsymptomatik bei Keimzelltumoren. Verh Dtsch Ges Urol 39: 232–233Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dieckmann KP, Düe W, Loy V (1988) Intrascrotal metastasis of renal cell carcinoma. Case reports and review of the literature. Eur Urol 15: 297–301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dieckmann KP, Düe W, Klän R (1989) Bilateraler Hodentumor nach Intervall von 20 Jahren. Med Welt 40: 75–76Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dixon FJ, Moore RA (1953) Testicular tumors: a clinicopathological study. Cancer 6: 427–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Düe W, Dieckmann KP, Loy V, Stein H (1989) Immunohistological determination of oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and intermediate filaments in Leydig cell tumours, Leydig cell hyperplasia, and normal Leydig cells of the human testis. J Pathol 157: 225–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Einhorn LH (1987) Treatment strategies of testicular cancer in the United States. Int J Androl 10: 399–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Emroy TH, Charboneau JW, Randall RV, Scheithauer BW, Grantham JG (1984) Occult testicular interstitial-cell tumor in a patient with gynecomastia: ultrasonic detection. Radiology 151: 472–473Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fournier GR, Laing FC, Jeffrey RB, McAninch JW (1985) High resolution scrotal ultrasonography: a highly sensitive but nonspecific diagnostic technique. J Urol 134: 490–493PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fowler JE, Whitmore WF (1981) Intratesticular germ cell tumors: observations on the effect of chemotherapy. J Urol 126: 412–414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fowler RC, Chennells PM, Ewing R (1987) Scrotal ultrasonography: a clinical evaluation. Br J Radiol 60: 649–654PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Friedman NB, Moore RA (1946) Tumors of the testis: a report on 922 cases. Milit Surg 99: 573–593Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Friedrichs R, Rübben H, Lutzeyer W (1986) Differential diagnosis and therapy of rare testicular tumors. Eur Urol 12: 217–223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fung CY, Kalish LA, Brodsky GL, Richie JP, Garnick MB (1988) Stage I nonseminomatous germ-cell testicular tumor: prediction of metastatic potential by primary histopathology. J Clin Oncol 6: 1467–1473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gabrilove JL, Nicolis GL, Mitty HA, Sohval AR (1975) Feminizing interstitial cell tumor of the testis: personal observations and a review of the literature. Cancer 35: 1184–1202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Glazer HS, Lee JK, Melson GL, McClennan BL (1982) Sonographic detection of occult testicular neoplasms. Am J Roentgenol 138: 673–675Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Goldstein AMB, Mendez R, Vartgas A, Terry R (1980) Epidermoid cysts of testis. Urology 15: 186–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gooding GA, Leonhardt W, Stein R (1987) Testicular cysts: US findings. Radiology 163: 537–538PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Grantham JG, Charboneau JW, James EM, Kirschling RJ, Kvols LK, Segura JW, Wold LE (1985) Testicular neoplasms: 29 tumors studied by high-resolution US. Radiology 157: 775–780PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Greist A, Einhorn LH, Williams SD, Donohue JP, Rowland RG (1984) Pathologic findings at orchiectomy following chemotherapy for disseminated testicular cancer. J Clin Oncol 9: 1025–1029Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gross GW, Rohner TJ, Lombard JS, Abrams CS (1986) Metastatic seminoma with regression of testicular primary: ultrasonographic detection. J Urol 136: 1086–1088PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Haller J, Gritzmann N, Czembirek H, Schmidbauer C, Leitner H, Sommer G, Tscholakoff D (1987) Der okkulte und der klinisch verdächtige Hodentumor. Abklärung mittels Real-time-Sonographie. Radiologe 27: 113–117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hamm B, Fobbe F, Loy V (1988) Testicular cysts: differentiation with US and clinical findings. Radiology 168: 19–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hendry WS, Garvie WH, Ah-See AK, Bayliss AP (1984) Ultrasonic detection of occult testicular neoplasms in patients with gynaecomastia. Br J Radiol 57: 571–572PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hermanek P (1986) Neue TNM/pTNM-Klassifikation und Stadieneinteilung urologischer Tumoren ab 1987. Urologe B 26: 193–197Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hoeltl W, Kosack D, Pont J, Hawel R, Machacek E, Schemper M, Honetz N, Marberger M (1987) Testicular cancer: prognostic implications of vascular invasion. J Urol 137: 683–685PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Jacobsen GK (1986) Histogenetic considerations concerning germ-cell tumours. Virchows Arch [A] 408: 509–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Javadpour N (1986) Overview of testicular cancer. In: Javadpour N (ed) Principles and management of testicular cancer. Thieme, New York, pp 1–12Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Klein EA, Kay R, Norris DG (1986) Noninvasive testicular screening in childhood leukemia. J Urol 136: 864–866PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kratzik C, Hainz A, Kuber W, Donner G, Lunglmayr G, Frick J, Schmoller HJ (1988) Sonographic appearance of benign intratesticular lesions. Eur Urol 15: 196–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kratzik C, Kuber W, Donner G, Lunglmayr G, Frick F, Schmoller HJ (1988) Impact of sonography on diagnosis of scrotal diseases: a multicenter study. Eur Urol 14: 270–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kromann-Andersen B, Hansen LB, Larsen PN, Lawetz K, Lynge P, Lysen D, Pors Nielson S et al. (1988) Clinical versus ultrasonographic evaluation of scrotal disorders. Br J Urol 61: 350–353PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kuber W (1982) Testicular tumor and cryptorchidism. Eur Urol 8: 280–283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lehmann HD (1988) Die Beteiligung des Urogenitalsystems am Non-Hodkin-Lymphom (Primär- und Sekundärbefall). Urologe A 27: 234–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 49a.
    Loy V, Dieckmann KP (1990) Carcinoma in situ of the testis: Intratubular germ cell neoplasia or testicular intraepithelial neoplasia? Hum Pathol 21: 457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 50.
    Lupetin AR, King W, Rich P, Lederman RB (1983) Ultrasound diagnosis of testicular leukemia. Radiology 146: 171–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 51.
    Malek RS, Rosen JS, Farrow GM (1986) Epidermoid cyst of the testis: a critical analysis. Br JUrol 58: 55–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 52.
    Mostofi FK (1973) Testicular tumors: epidemiologic etiologic, and pathologic features. Cancer 32: 1186–1201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 53.
    Mostofi FK (1977) Histological typing of testis tumours. International histological classification of tumours no 16. World Health Organization, Geneva, pp 15–36Google Scholar
  55. 54.
    Motzer RJ, Bosl GJ, Geller NL, Penenberg D, Yagoda A, Golbey R, Whitmore WF et al. (1988) Advanced seminoma: the role of chemotherapy and adjunctive surgery. Ann Intern Med 108: 513–518PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 55.
    Nachtsheim DA, Scheible FW, Gosink B (1983) Ultrasonography of testis tumors. J Urol 129: 978–981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 56.
    Petersen RO (1986) Urologie pathology. Lippincott, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  58. 57.
    Phillips G, Kumari-Subaiya S, Sawitsky A (1987) Ultrasonic evaluation of the scrotum in lymphoproliferative disease. J Ultrasound Med 6: 169–175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 58.
    Pizzocaro G, Zanoni F, Salvioni R, Milani A, Piva L, Pilotti S (1987) Dificulties of a surveillance study omitting retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy in clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ-cell tumors of the testis. J Urol 138: 1393–1396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 59.
    Portalez D, Song MY, Marty MH, Joffre F (1982) Ultrasonographic patterns of testicular non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Eur J Radiol 2: 222–225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 60.
    Poskitt KJ, Cooperberg PL, Sullivan LD (1985) Sonography and CT in staging nonseminomatous testicular tumors. Am J Roentgenol 144: 939–944Google Scholar
  62. 61.
    Pottern LM, Goedert JJ (1986) Epidemiology of testicular cancer. In: Javadpour N (ed) Principles and management of testicular cancer. Thieme, New York, pp 108–119Google Scholar
  63. 62.
    Pugh RCB (1976) Pathology of the testis. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  64. 63.
    Ramon Y, Cayal S, Pinango L, Barat A, Moldenhauer F, Olivia H (1987) Metastatic pure choriocarcinoma of the testis in an elderly man. J Urol 137: 516–519Google Scholar
  65. 64.
    Rayor RA, Scheible W, Brock WA, Leopold GR (1982) High resolution ultrasonography in the diagnosis of testicular relapse in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Urol 128: 602–603PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 65.
    Rifkin MD, Kurtz AB, Pasto ME, Rubenstein JB, Cole-Beuglet C, Baltarowich O, Goldberg BB (1984) The sonographic diagnosis of focal and diffuse infiltrating intrascrotal lesions. Urol Radiol 6: 20–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 66.
    Rifkin MD, Kurtz AB, Pasto ME, Goldberg BB (1985) Diagnostic capabilities of high-resolution scrotal ultrasonography: prospective evaluation. J Ultrasound Med 4: 13–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 67.
    Samuelsson L, Forsberg L, Olsson AM (1986) Accuracy of radiological staging procedures in non-seminomatous testis cancer compared with findings from surgical exploration and histopathologieal studies of exstirpated tissue. Br J Radiol 59: 131–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 68.
    Schlecker BA, Siegel A, Weiss J, Wein AJ (1985) Epidermoid cyst of the testis: a surgical approach for testicular preservation. J Urol 133: 610–611PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 69.
    Schnell D, Thon WF, Stief CG, Heymer B, Altwein JE (1987) Organerhaltendes Vorgehen bei gutartigem Hodentumor? Aktuel Urol 18: 127–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 70.
    Schultz HP, Von der Maase H, Rörth M, Pedersen M, Sandberg-Nielsen E, Walblom-Jörgensen S, Datecta Group (1984) Testicular seminomas in Denmark 1976–1980. Acta Radiol Oncol 23: 263–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 71.
    Schwerk WB, Schwerk WN, Rodeck G (1987) Testicular tumors: prospective analysis of real-time US patterns and abdominal staging. Radiology 164: 369–374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 72.
    Seidenwurm D, Smathers RL, Kan P, Hoffmann A (1985) Intratesticular adrenal rests diagnosed by ultrasound. Radiology 155: 479–481PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 73.
    Seppelt U (1988) Validierung verschiedener diagnostischer Methoden zur Beurteilung des Lymphknotenstatus. Beitr Onkol 28: 154–169Google Scholar
  75. 74.
    Shawker TH, Javadpour N, O’Leary T, Shapiro E, Krudy AG (1983) Ultrasonographic detection of “burned-out” primary testicular germ cell tumors in clinically normal testes. J Ultrasound Med 2: 477–479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 75.
    Skakkebaek NE, Berthelsen JG, Giwercman A, Müller J (1987) Carcinoma in situ of the testis: possible origin from gonocytes and precursor of all types of germ-cell tumours except spermatocytoma. Int J Androl 10: 19–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 76.
    Snow BW, Rowland RG, Donohue JP, Einhorn LH, Williams SD (1983) Review of delayed orchiectomy in patients with disseminated testis tumours. J Urol 129: 522–525PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 77.
    Snyder H, D’Angio GJ, Evans AE, Raney RB (1986) Pediatric oncology. In: Walsh PC, Gittes RF, Perlmutter AD, Stamey TA (eds) Campbell’s urology, 5th edn. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 2244–2297Google Scholar
  79. 78.
    Stoll S, Goldfinger M, Rothberg R et al. (1986) Incidental detection of impalpable testicular neoplasm by sonography. Am J Roentgenol 146: 349–350Google Scholar
  80. 79.
    Von der Maase H, Rörth M, Walblom-Jörgensen S, Sorensen BL, Christophersen IS, Hald T, Krag Jacobsen G et al. (1986) Carcinoma in situ of contralateral testis in patients with testicular germ-cell cancer: study of 27 cases in 500 patients. Br Med J 293: 1398–1401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 80.
    Wahl C, Hedinger C (1988) Bilaterale Keimzelltumoren des Hodens. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 118: 427–433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 81.
    Weaver DJ, Havey AD, Weinstein SH, Tully RJ (1989) Nonpalpable occult testis tumor. Urology 34: 218–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 82.
    Weißbach L (1988) Lymphknotenstatus. Beitr Onkol 28: 72–80Google Scholar
  84. 83.
    Weißbach L, Boedefeld EA (1987) Localisation of solitary and multiple metastases in stage II nonseminomatous testis tumor as a basis for a modified staging lymph node dissection in stage I. J Urol 138: 77–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 84.
    Weißbach L, Böttcher K, Sommerhoff C (1982) Kindliche Hodentumoren aus klinischer Sicht. In: Weißbach L, Hildenbrand G (Hrsg) Register und Verbundstudie Hodentumoren - Bonn. Zuckschwerdt, München, S 215–264Google Scholar
  86. 85.
    Weißbach L, Altwein JE, Stiens R (1984) Germinal testicular tumors in childhood. Eur Urol 10: 73–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 86.
    Weißbach L, Boedefeld EA, Seeber S (1985) Hodentumoren: Frühzeitige Diagnose und stadiengerechte Therapie sichern den Erfolg. Dtsch Ärztebl 82: 1340–1349Google Scholar
  88. 87.
    Williams SD, Stablein DM, Einhorn LH, Muggia FM, Weiss RB, Donohue JP, Paulson DF et al. (1987) Immediate adjuvant chemotherapy versus observation with treatment at relapse in pathological stage II testicular cancer. N Engl J Med 317: 1433–1438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Literatur

  1. 1.
    Cho CS, Kosek J (1985) Cystic dysplasia of the testis: sonographic and pathologic findings. Radiology 156: 777–778PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Doherty FJ, Mullins TL, Sant GR, Drinkwater MA, Ucci AA (1987) Testicular microlithiasis. A unique sonographic appearance. J Ultrasound Med 6: 389–392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gooding GAW, Leonhardt W, Stein R (1987) Testicular cysts: US-findings. Radiology 163: 537–538PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Grantham JG, Charboneau JW, James EM, Kirschling RJ, Kvols LK, Segura JW, Wold LE (1985) Testicular neoplasms: 29 tumors studied by high-resolution US. Radiology 157: 775–780PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hamm B, Fobbe F, Loy V (1988) Testicular cysts: differentiation with US and clinical findings. Radiology 168: 19–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jaramillo D, Perez-Atayde A, Teele RL (1989) Sonography of testicular microlithiasis. Urol Radiol 11: 55–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Leung ML, Gooding GAW, Williams RD (1984) High-resolution sonography of scrotal contents in asymptomatic subjects. Am J Roentgenol 143: 161–164Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mantilla JR, Matsuda GT (1975) Cysts of the tunica albuginea, report of 4 cases and review of the literature. J Urol 114: 730–733Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Martin B, Tubiana JM (1988) Significance of scrotal calcifications detected by sonography. J Clin Ultrasound 16: 545–552PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mennemeyer RP, Mason JT (1979) Non-neoplastic cystic lesions of the tunica albuginea: an electron microscopic and clinical study of 2 cases. J Urol 121: 373–375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mullins TL, Sant GR, Ucci AA, Doherty FJ (1986) Testicular microlithiasis occurring in postorchiopexy testis. Urology 27: 144–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nistal M, Regadera J, Paniagua R (1984) Cystic dysplasia of the testis. Light and electron microscopic study of three cases. Arch Pathol Lab Med 108: 579–583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Vick CW, Bird KI, Rosenfield AT, Viscomi GN, Taylor KJW (1983) Scrotal masses with a uniformly hyperechoic pattern. Radiology 148: 209–211PubMedGoogle Scholar

Literatur

  1. 1.
    Arday DR, Kanjarpane DD, Kelley PW (1989) Mumps in the US Army 1980–86: Should recruits be immunized? Am J Public Health 79: 471–474PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 1a.
    Beard CM, Benson RC, Kelalis PP, Elveback LR, Kurland LT (1977) The incidence and outcome of mumps orchitis in Rochester, Minnesota, 1935 to 1974. Mayo Clin Proc 52: 3–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 2.
    Benson CB, Doubilet PM, Richie JP (1989) Sonography of the male genital tract. Am J Roentgenol 153: 705–713Google Scholar
  4. 3.
    Heaton ND, Hogan B, Michell M, Thompson P, Yates-Bell AJ (1989) Tuberculous epididymo-orchitis: clinical and ultrasound observations. Br J Urol 64: 305–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 4.
    Lentini JF, Benson CB, Richie JP (1989) Sonographic features of focal orchitis. J Ultrasound Med 8: 361–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 5.
    Mevorach RA, Lerner RM, Dvoretsky PM, Rabinowitz R (1986) Testicular abscess: diagnosis by ultrasonography. J Urol 136: 1213–1216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 6.
    O’Regan S, Robitaille P (1981) Orchitis mimicking testicular torsion in Henoch-Schönlein’s purpura. J Urol 126: 834PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 7.
    Rifkin MD (1987) Scrotal ultrasound. Urol Radiol 9: 119–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 8.
    Rifkin MD, Kurtz AB, Pasto ME, Rubenstein JB, Cole-Beuglet C, Baltarowich O, Goldberg BB (1984) The sonographic diagnosis of focal and diffuse infiltrating intra-scrotal lesions. Urol Radiol 6: 20–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 9.
    See WA, Mack LA, Krieger JN (1988) Scrotal ultrasonography: a predictor of complicated epididymitis requiring orchiectomy. J Urol 139: 55–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 10.
    Subramanyam BR, Horii SC, Hilton S (1985) Diffuse testicular disease: sonographic features and significance. Am J Roentgenol 145: 1221–1224Google Scholar
  12. 11.
    Tackett RE, Ling D, Catalona WJ, Melson GL (1986) High resolution sonography in diagnosing testicular neoplasms: clinical significance of false positive scans. J Urol 135: 494–496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 12.
    Ward JP (1985) Epididymo-orchitis. In: Whitfield HN, Hendry WF (eds) Textbook of genitourinary surgery. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 567–578Google Scholar
  14. 13.
    Worthy L, Miller El, Chinn DH (1986) Evaluation of extratesticular findings in scrotal neoplasms. J Ultrasound Med 5: 261–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 14.
    Zajaczkowski T, Straube W, Schlake W (1990) Orchitis granulomatosa. Urologe A 29: 152–154PubMedGoogle Scholar

Literatur

  1. 1.
    Hricak H, Filly RA (1983) Sonography of the scrotum. Invest Radiol 18: 112–121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Krone KD, Carroll BA (1985) Scrotal ultrasound. Radiol Clin North Am 23: 121–139PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernd Hamm
    • 1
  1. 1.Radiologische KlinikUniversitätsklinikum Steglitz der Freien Universität BerlinBerlin 45Bundesrepublik Deutschland

Personalised recommendations