Over the past decade there have been significant advances in the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). The introduction of intensive induction and post-remission chemotherapy programs, together with the improvement in supportive care, have resulted in a probability of long-term survival in 30%–50% of children with AML [1–4]. In 1982 the AIEOP (Italian Pediatric Hematology-Oncology Association) cooperative group began a multicenter prospective trial for pediatric AML in order to establish the value of a polychemotherapeutic regimen consisting of intensive induction followed by intensive consolidation and continuation chemotherapy.
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