Cicatricial Alopecias

  • G. Goerz
  • R. Kind
  • P. Lehmann

Abstract

Scars develop from irreversible tissue defects and from necroses of various origins. Formation of a scar may involve destruction of the epidermis but is sure to destroy the upper and middle layers of the cutis. In cicatricial alopecias the cutaneous appendages and the hair follicle — and thus the hair — are irreversibly destroyed by scarring processes. Scar formation causes replacement of preexisting tissue with firm collagenous connective tissue not only in skin but, in principle, in every other tissue or organ. The details of wound healing and scar formation have been sufficiently reviewed elsewhere (Dumphy and van Winkle 1969; Peacock and van Winkle 1970; Maibach and Rovee 1972; Tanzer 1975; Osment 1975; Clark 1985; Scharfetter et al. 1989).

Keywords

Tuberculosis Vasculitis Cataract Epoxide Acne 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abel RR, Lewis GM (1960) Postoperative (pressure) alopecia. Arch Dermatol 81:34–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alarcon-Segovia D, Cetinia JA (1974) Lupus hair. Am J Med Sci 267:241–242Google Scholar
  3. Anton A, Itani ZS (1977) Arteriitis temporalis mit Kopfhautgangrän. Z Hautkr 52:31–32Google Scholar
  4. Armas-Cruz R, Harnecker J, Dugachi G, Jail J, Gonzales F (1958) Clinical diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Am J Med 25:409–419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arndt KA (1971) Follicular syndromes with inflammation and atrophy. In: Fitzpatrick TB et al. (eds) Dermatology in general medicine. McGraw Hill, Hamburg, pp 721–724Google Scholar
  6. Baker H (1965) Atrophic alopecia due to granulomatous infiltration of scalp in systemic sarcoidosis. Proc R Med 58:243–244Google Scholar
  7. Baran R (1969) Les métastases alopéciantes scléro-atrophiques des cancers mammaires. Dermatologica 138:169–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bauer EA, Cooper TW, Tucker DR, Esterly NB (1980) Phenytoin therapy of recessive dystrophic epidermolysis. N Engl J Med 303:776–781PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bayler M AH (1972) Coiffure keloids. Br J Dermatol 86:415–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bluefarb SM, Szymanski FJ, Rosenberg A (1955) Sarcoidosis as a case of patchy alopecia. Arch Dermatol 71:602–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Braun-Falco O, Lukacs S (1973) Dermatologische Röntgentherapie. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. Broese I (1976) Narbige Alopezie und verminderte Pigmentierung nach Vakuumextraktion. Dermatol Monatsschr 162:254–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Brownstein MH, Helwig B (1972) Patterns of cutaneous metastasis. Arch Dermatol 105:862–868PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carney RG, Carney RG Jr (1970) Incontinentia pigmenti. Arch Dermatol 102:157–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Churg J, Strauss L (1951) Allergic granulomatosis, allergic angiitis and Periarteriitis nodosa. Am J Pathol 27:277–301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Clark RAF (1985) Continuing medical education. Am Acad Dermatol 13:701–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cohen E, Levy E, Schreiber H (1961) Alopecia neoplastica due to breast carcinoma. Arch Dermatol 84:490–492PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cram CDL, Kierland RR, Winkelman RK (1966) Ulcerative lichen planus of the feet. Arch Dermatol 93:692–701PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cramer JA, Schmidt WJ (1955) Incontinentia pigmenti. Arch Dermatol 71:699–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cronin E (1970) Skin changes in sarcoidosis. Postgrad Med J 46:507–509PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Curth HO, Warburton D (1965) The genetics of incontinentia pigmenti. Arch Dermatol 92:229–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Degos R (1967) Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum (Oppenheim-Urbach). Münch Med Wo-chenschr 109:1518–1523Google Scholar
  23. Degos R, Garnier G (1963) Alopécie cicatricielle survenue cinq ans après une alcolisation du ganglion Gasseri. Bull Soc Fr Dermatol Syphiligr 70:393–394Google Scholar
  24. Degos R, Rabut R, Duperrat B, Leclercq R (1951) A propos de 111 cas d’alopécies cicatricielles en petites aires (teignes exclues). L’état pseudo-peladique. Bull Soc Fr Dermatol Syphiligr 58:451–452Google Scholar
  25. Degos R, Rabut R, Hewitt J (1954) Etat pseudo-peladique dü à des métastases carcinomateuses alopéciantes. Bull Soc Fr Dermatol Syphiligr 61:509–510Google Scholar
  26. Degos R, Rabut R, Duperrat B (1955) Alopécie en petites aires. Réticulose lymphocytaire bénig-ne. Bull Soc Fr Dermatol Syphiligr 62:134–135Google Scholar
  27. Demmel U (1975) Clinical aspects of congenital skin defects. I. Congenital skin defects on the bald in the newborn. Eur J Pediatr 121:21–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Domonkos AN (1972) Alopecia neoplastica. Arch Dermatol 105:120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dowling GB, Wilson Jones E (1971) Atypical (annular) necrobiosis lipoidica of the face and scalp: a report of the clinical and histological features of seven cases. Dermatologica 135:11–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dubois EL (1966) Lupus erythematosus. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. Dumphy JE, van Winkle M Jr (1969) Repair and regeneration. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. Ebling EJG, Rook A (1972) Hair. In: Rook A, Wilkinson DS, Ebling EJG (eds) Textbook of dermatology. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  33. Ebling FJ, Rook A (1979) Keratosis pilaris atrophicans. In: Rook A et al. (eds) Textbook of dermatology. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 1290–1292Google Scholar
  34. Ebner H (1973) Lichen ruber planus mit Onychoatrophie und narbiger Alopecie. Dermatologica 147:219–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Eisen AZ (1969) Human skin collagenase: relationship to the pathogenesis of epidermolysis bullosa dystrophica. J Invest Dermatol 52:449–453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Fisher M, Schneider R (1973) Aplasia cutis congenita in 3 successive generation. Arch Dermatol 108:252–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Friederich HC (1959) Erkrankungen der Haare und des Haarbodens beim Menschen. In: Gottron HA, Schönfeld W (eds) Dermatologie und Venerologie. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  38. Gaethe G (1964) Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum of the scalp. Arch Dermatol 89:865–866PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gertler W, Wende O (1970) Durch äußere Einwirkungen verursachte Hautveränderungen. In: Gertler W (ed) Systematische Dermatologie I. VEB Thieme, Leipzig, pp 464–468Google Scholar
  40. Goerttler E (1973) Erythema elevatum diutinum mit alopecischen Veränderungen. Z Hautkr 48:809–817PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Goerz G, Ippen H (1968) Hautschäden bei bewußtlosen Patienten. Med Klin 63:2047–2049PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Goerz G, Ruzicka T (1978) Lyell-Syndrom. Derm Beruf Umwelt 26:147–155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Golitz LE, Shapiro L, Hurwitz E, Stritzler R (1973) Cicatricial alopecia of sarcoidosis. Arch Dermatol 107:758–760PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Greither A (1966) Systemische Keratosen. In: Handbuch der Haut- und Geschlechtskrankheiten, suppl III/2. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 1–306Google Scholar
  45. Hadida ME, Sayag J, Gimello J (1970) Métastase alopéciante scléro-atrophique d’un cancer du sein. Bull Soc Fr Dermatol Syphiligr 77:515–516Google Scholar
  46. Hammerstein W, Ruzicka T, Goerz G (1976) Klinische und histologische Befunde beim Lyell-Syndrom. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 169:430–438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Happle R (1980) X-gekoppelt dominante Chondrodysplasia punctata. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 128:203–207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Happle R, Phillips RJS, Roessner A, Jünemann G (1983) Homologous genes for X-linked chondrodysplasia punctata in man and mouse. Hum Genet 63:24–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hare PJ (1955) Necrobiosis lipoidica. Br J Dermatol 67:365–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hashimoto J, Anton-Lamprecht I, Gedde-Dahl T Jr, Schnyder UW (1975) Ultrastructural studies in epidermolysis bullosa hereditaria. I. Dominant dysplastic type of Pasini. Arch Dermatol Forsch 252:167–178Google Scholar
  51. Hashimoto J, Gedde Dahl T Jr, Schnyder UW, Anton-Lamprecht I (1976a) Ultrastructural studies in epidermolysis bullosa hereditaria. II. Dominant dystrophic type of Cockayne-Touraine. Arch Dermatol Res 255:285–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hashimoto J, Schnyder UW, Anton-Lamprecht I, Gedde-Dahl T Jr, Ward S (1976b) Ultrastructural studies in epidermolysis bullosa hereditaria. III. Recessive dystrophic types with dermatolytic blistering (Hallopeau-Siemens types and inverse type). Arch Dermatol Res 256:137–150Google Scholar
  53. Hayashi J, Zenshoen T (1956) Les formes alopéciques de la lèpre avec ostéite lépreuse des os ducräne. Bull Soc Fr Dermatol Syphiligr 63:379Google Scholar
  54. Hell wig EB, Hackney WC (1955) Syringadenoma papilliferum. Arch Dermatol 71:361–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hjorth N (1956) Traumatic marginal alopecia. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 36:201Google Scholar
  56. Hjorth N (1957) Traumatic marginal alopecia: a special type: alopecia Groenlandia. Br J Dermatol 69:319–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hofbauer M, Schnyder UW (1974) Zur Differentialdiagnose von autosomal-dominanter Ichthyosis vulgaris und X-chromosomaler Ichthyose. Hautarzt 25:319–325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Höfer W (1964) Sporadisches Auftreten von Alopezia parvimaculata. Dermatol Wochenschr 149:381–386Google Scholar
  59. Holton JB, Ireland JT (1975) Inborn errors of skin, hair and connective tissue. MTP, LancasterGoogle Scholar
  60. Horwitz O (1959) The localization of lupus vulgaris of the skin. Acta Tuberc Scand 47 [Suppl): 175–181Google Scholar
  61. Ippen H, Goerz G (1969) Carbon monoxide and dermal changes. JAMA 207:1718PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ippen H, Goerz G (1974) Häufige, aber wenig bekannte Arzneimittelreaktionen der Haut. Internist 14:737–748Google Scholar
  63. Ippen H, Mathies V (1970) Die „protrahierte Verätzung“(unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Hautschäden durch Epoxide und Propansulton). Berufs-Dermatosen 18:114–165Google Scholar
  64. Ippen H, Seubert A (1975) Kopfhautnekrose durch Haarbehandlung — eine Erklärungsmöglichkeit. Hautarzt 16:598Google Scholar
  65. Itani ZS (1973) Neue Erkenntnisse in der dermatologischen Parasitologic und Mykologie: Epidemiologie, Klinik, Diagnostik und Therapie. Thesis, University of DüsseldorfGoogle Scholar
  66. Keining E, Braun-Falco O (1969) Erkrankungen des Haares und des Haarwachstums. In: Gottron HA, Schönfeld W (eds) Dermatologie und Venerologie. Lehmanns, Munich, pp 617–645Google Scholar
  67. Knoth W, Füller H (1955) Zur Patho- und Histogenese der Nekrobiosis lipoidica „diabeticorum“. Arch Dermatol Syph 199:109–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Körting GW (1951) Zur Kenntnis der multiformen Keratosen. Z Haut Geschlechtskr 11:241–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Körting GW, Denk R (1974) Dermatologische Differentialdiagnose. Schattauer, Stuttgart, pp 666–674Google Scholar
  70. Kosnik EJ, Sayers P (1975) Congenital scalp defects: aplasia cutis congenita. J Neurosurg 42:32–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Krieg T, Schurig V, Braun-Falco O (1986) Hereditäre bullöse Epidermolysen. Neuere Aspekte zur Diagnostik und Therapie. Hautarzt 37:185–189Google Scholar
  72. Kubra R, Rook A (1976) Congenital triangular alopecia. Br J Dermatol 95:657–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kuske H, Krebs A (1966) Traumatische halbseitige Alopecie. Dermatologica 133:115–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Küster W, Happle R (1983) Genodermatosen bei Mensch und Tier. Hautarzt 34:539–547PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Laymon CW, Murphy RJ (1947) The cicatricial alopecias. J Invest Dermatol 8:99–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lee Dellon A, Peck GL, Chretien PB (1975) Hypopharyngeal and laryngeal involvement with Darier’s disease. Arch Dermatol 111:744–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lever WF (1949) Histopathology of the skin. Lippincott, Philadelphia, pp 153–158Google Scholar
  78. Lipnik MJ (1961) Traumatic alopecia from brush rollers. Arch Dermatol 84:493–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Loewenthal LJA, Lurie HJ (1956) An outbreak of linear scarring alopecia. Br J Dermatol 68:88–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lopresti P, Papa CM, Kligman AM (1968) Hot comb alopecia. Arch Dermatol 98:234–238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ludwig E (1961) Über die narbig-atrophischen Alopecien vom Typ der Pseudopelade Brocq. Berufs-Dermatosen 9:257–270Google Scholar
  82. Maguire HC (1975) Diseases of the hair. In: Moschella SM, Pillsbury DS, Hurley HJ Jr (eds) Dermatology. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  83. Maibach HI, Rovee DT (1972) Epidermal wound healing. Yearbook, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  84. Matheis E (1971) Exanthemische Keloide nach Varicellen. Dermatologica 143:319–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Matter P, Barclay TL, Konickova Z (1971) Research in burns. Huber, BernGoogle Scholar
  86. McNab E, Champion RH (1964) Necrobiosis lipoidica of scalp. Plasma insulin studies. Br J Dermatol 76:492–493Google Scholar
  87. Meiers HG (1968) Die Gürtelrose als Komplikation. Med Welt 19:1973–1976Google Scholar
  88. Metz G, Metz J (1977) Extrakrurale Manifestation der Necrobiosis lipoidica. Isolierter Befall des Kopfes. Hautarzt 28:359–363Google Scholar
  89. Minars N (1974) Congenital temporal alopecia. Arch Dermatol 109:395–396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Mitchell D (1967) Alopecia following panniculitis. Br J Dermatol 79:62–63Google Scholar
  91. Mitchell D (1970) Regrowth of alopecia in Weber-Christian-Panniculitis. Br J Dermatol 82:422–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Moritz AR, Henriques FC (1947) Studies of thermal injury. II. The relative importance of time and surface temperature in the causation of cutaneous burns. Am J Pathol 23:695–700Google Scholar
  93. Moschella SM (1962) Congenital defects of the scalp with keloid formation. Arch Dermatol 86:63–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Orfanos CE, Ehlert R, Gollnick H (1987) The retinoids. A review of their clinical pharmacology and therapeutic use. Drugs 34:459–503Google Scholar
  95. Osment LS (1975) In: Menaker L (ed) Biologic basis of wound healing. Harper and Row, New York, pp 275–290Google Scholar
  96. Pavlovic K, Cvijetic-Smodlaka K (1974) Incontinentia pigmenti. Report of six cases. Acta Derm Venereol Iugosl 1:157–164/Z Haut Geschlechtskr 134:326Google Scholar
  97. Peacock ER Jr, van Winkle W Jr (1970) Surgery and biology of wound repair. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  98. Pers M (1963) Congenital absence of skin: pathogenesis and relation to ring-constriction. Acta Chir Scand 126:388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Photinos P (1930) La pseudopelade de Brocq. Maloine, ParisGoogle Scholar
  100. Plewig G, Gollnik H, Meigel W, Wokalek H et al. (1981) 13-cis-Retinsäure zur Behandlung der Acne conglobata. Ergebnisse einer multizentrischen Studie. Hautarzt 32:634–646Google Scholar
  101. Raab W (1962) Dekubitalgeschwüre bei Barbituratvergiftung. Dermatol Wochenschr 146:107Google Scholar
  102. Rand R, Baden HP (1983) Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans. Arch Dermatol 119:22–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Renna FS, Freedberg IM (1973) Traction alopecia in nurses. Arch Dermatol 108:694–695PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Ross MS, Friede H (1955) Alopecia due to tick bite. Arch Dermatol 71:524–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Rubisz-Brzezinska J, Zebracka T (1974) Etat pseudopeladique. Przegl Dermatol 61:841–847/Z Haut Geschlechtskr 134:161Google Scholar
  106. Ruiz-Maldonado R, Tamayo L (1974) Aplasia cutis congeuita, spastic paralysis and mental retardation. Am J Dis Child 128:699–701PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Sabouraud R (1905) Manuel élémentaire de dermatologie topographique régionale. Masson, ParisGoogle Scholar
  108. Salamon T, Lazovic-Tepavac O (1970) Herdförmige Alopecie durch Kopfläuse. Dermatol Monatschr 156:676–682Google Scholar
  109. Sauter LS (1968) Sarcoidosis with cicatricial alopecia resembling generalized discoid lupus erythematosus. In: Jadassohn W, Schirren CG (eds) XIII Congr Int Dermatol, Munich 1967. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 1235–1236Google Scholar
  110. Savin JA (1969) Diabetes mellitus, sarcoidosis, necrobiosis lipoidica. Proc R Soc Med 62:350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Scadding JG (1967) Sarcoidosis. Engere and Spottiswood, London, p 178Google Scholar
  112. Schaller A (1970) Geburtsverletzungen bei Vakuumextraktion. Pädiatrie und Grenzgebiete, vol IX/5, pp 295–313Google Scholar
  113. Scharffetter K, Kulozik M, Stolz W, Lankat-Buttgereit B, Hatamochi A, Söhnchen R, Krieg T (1989) Localization of Collagen! (I) Gene Expression during wound healing by in situ hybridization. J Invest Dermatol (in press)Google Scholar
  114. Schnyder UW, Klunker W (1966) Erbliche Verhornungsstörungen der Haut. In: Gottron HA, Schnyder UW (eds) Vererbungen Hautkrankheiten. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 861–961 (Handbuch der Haut- und Geschlechtskrankheiten, vol 7)Google Scholar
  115. Schwartz RS (1975) Viruses and systemic lupus erythematosus. N Engl J Med 293:132–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Siemens HW (1952) Alopecia triangularis und Ophiasis als Schönheitsideal. Hautarzt 3:270–273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Singh G (1975) Traction alopecia in Sikh boy. Br J Dermatol 92:232–233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Slepyan AH (1958) Traction alopecia. Arch Dermatol 78:295–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Stevanovic O, Konstantinovic S (1959) Hyperkeratosis ichthyosiformis congenita. Arch Dermatol 80:56–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Stewart WM, Lauret P, Lecroq CL, Thomine E (1971) Pemphigoide bulleuse et alopécie cicatricielle, pemphigoide bulleuse et récidive „in situ“. Bull Soc Fr Dermatol Syphiligr 78:412–414Google Scholar
  121. Stüttgen G, Goerz G (1963) Starkstromverletzungen. Erkenntnisse und Behandlung. Berufs-Dermatosen 11:259–270Google Scholar
  122. Tanzer FS (1975) Hormones and wound healing. In: Menaker L (ed) Biologic basis of wound healing. Harper and Row, New York, pp 259–273Google Scholar
  123. Traupe H, Happle R (1983) Alopecia ichthyotica. Dermatologica 167:225–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Trumm M (1977) Rezidivierendes und metastasierendes Haemangioendotheliom der Kopfhaut. Z Hautkr 52:319–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Unna M (1925) Über Hypotrichosis congenita hereditaria. Dermatol Wochenschr 32:1167–1178Google Scholar
  126. Voigtländer V, Schnyder UW, Anton-Lamprecht S (1979) Hereditäre Epidermolysen. In: Körting GW (ed) Dermatologie in Praxis und Klinik, vol 3. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  127. Vrabec R, Konickova Z, Moserova J (1975) Basic problems in burns. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Wagner A, Plewig G (1980) 13-cis-Retinsäure. Pharmakologische und toxikologische Untersuchungen bei der Behandlung schwerster Akneformen. Münch Med Wochenschr 122:1294–1300Google Scholar
  129. Wagner G (1959) Die Epilations-Bestrahlung. In: Jadassohn J (ed) Handbuch der Haut- und Geschlechtskrankheiten, vol V/2. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 655–746Google Scholar
  130. Weidner F, Braun-Falco O (1970) Über das angioplastische Reticulosarkom der Kopfhaut bei älteren Menschen. Hautarzt 21:60–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Weippl G, Ader H (1975) Kongenitaler Skalp-Defekt in vier Generationen. Klin Pädiatr 187:84–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Welton DG (1943) Keratosis follicularis with unusual involvement of the scalp. Arch Dermatol 47:398–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Williams RM (1959) Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum with alopecia showing sarcoid-like reaction. Arch Dermatol 79:366–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Wirth G, Bindewald G, Küster W, Goerz G (1985) Hypotrichosis congenita hereditaria Marie Unna. Hautarzt 36:577–580PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Wolff HH (1983) Vasculitis allergica — Klassifikation und Ätiologie. In: Braun-Falco O (ed) Fortschritte der praktischen Dermatologie. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 297–304Google Scholar
  136. Zeiger J, Hochleitner H (1959) Verätzungen. In: Gottron HA, Schönfeld W (ed) Dermatologie und Venerologie, vol 3. Thieme, Stuttgart, pp 70–83Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Goerz
  • R. Kind
  • P. Lehmann

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations