The Hormonal Control of Hair Growth

  • F. J. G. Ebling

Abstract

That hormones are profoundly concerned with hair growth is obvious from a wide range of observational and experimental evidence. The exact ways in which they act and the adaptive advantages of many of their actions are much less easy to discern. The problem arises because of the confusing evolutionary history of the hair follicle. We do not know how, when or where hairs originated or what was their original purpose. Perhaps, as Maderson (1972) and others have suggested, they first arose as part of mechanoreceptor units, developing in the hinge regions between the scales of some reptilian ancestor. Hair follicles are still sense organs, as easily verified by tugging one’s own hair, and many animals, for example rodents and carnivores, have specialized sensory vibrissae. But hair performs more important functions. Paramount is the provision of the fur coat to which the warm-blooded mammals owe much, if not all, of their evolutionary success. Prominent is the construction of adornments such as the mane of the lion or the beard of man. Such structures are commonly described as secondary sexual characters, though it is not established whether their visual appeal is concerned with sexual as distinct from other social communication. Less apparent, but equally important, is the role of hair in the dissemination of scent from the skin glands. The odour may be produced in a glandular complex of which hairs specialized for conducting the secretion form a part, as in the abdominal gland of the gerbil. Or it may be rubbed on to the hair from glands elsewhere, as in the ring-tailed lemur, which conducts stink fights by waving its tail aloft, having first anointed it from glands on the forearms. The human axillary and pubic hair, possessed by both males and females, is almost certainly part of such an odour-disseminating system.

Keywords

Mane Oestradiol Prolactin Diol Acne 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Al-Khateeb A, Johnson E (1971a) Seasonal changes of pelage in the vole (Microtus agrestis).I. Correlation with changes in the endocrine glands. Gen Comp Endocrinol 16:217–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Khateeb A, Johnson E (1971b) Seasonal changes of pelage in the vole (Microtus agrestis).II. The effect of daylength. Gen Comp Endocrinol 16:229–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-Khateeb A, Johnson E (1971c) Seasonal changes of pelage in the vole (Microtus agrestis)III The role of the endocrine system. Gen Comp Endocrinol 16:236–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Argyris TS (1962) The growth-promoting effects of wounds on hair follicles already stimulated by plucking. Anat Ree 143:183–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Argyris TS (1964) Wound healing and the control of growth of the skin. In: Montagna W, Billingham RE (eds) Wound healing. Pergamon, Oxford, pp 213–249 (Advances in biology of skin, vol 5)Google Scholar
  6. Argyris TS (1969) Hair growth induced by damage. In: Montagna W, Dobson RL (eds) Hair growth. Pergamon, Oxford, pp 339–356 (Advances in biology of skin, vol 9)Google Scholar
  7. Argyris TS (1972) Chalones and the control of normal, regenerative and neoplastic growth of the skin. Am Zool 12:137–149Google Scholar
  8. Barman JM, Pecoraro V, Astore I, Ferrer J (1967) The first stage in the natural history of the human scalp hair cycle. J Invest Dermatol 48:138–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Barnes EW, Irvine WJ, Hunter WM, Ismail AAA (1975) Cyproterone acetate: a study involving two volunteers with idiopathic hirsutism. Clin Endocrinol 4:65–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bassett CF, Llewellyn LM (1949) The moulting and fur growth pattern in the adult mink. Am Midi Nat 42:751–756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Berman A, Volcani R (1961) Seasonal and regional variations in coat characteristics of dairy cattle. Aust J Agric Res 12:528–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bingham KD, Shaw DA (1973) The metabolism of testosterone by human male scalp skin. J Endocrinol 57:111–121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bissonnette TH (1935) Relation of hair cycles in ferrets to changes in the anterior hypophysis and to light cycles. Anat Rec 63:159–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bissonnette TH, Bailey EE (1944) Experimental modification and control of moults and changes of coat colour in weasels by controlled lighting. Ann NY Acad Sci 45:221–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bissonnette TH, Wilson E (1939) Shortening daylight periods between May 15 and September 12 and the pelt cycle of the mink. Science 89:418–419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Borum K (1954) Hair pattern and hair succession in the albino mouse. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand 34:521–541PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Braendle W, Boess J, Breckwoldt M, Leven C, Bettendorf G (1974) Wirkung und Nebenwirkung der Cyproteronacetatbehandlung. Arch Gynaekol 216:335–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bruchovsky N, Wilson JD (1968) Conversion of testosterone to 5a-androstan-17/?-ol-3-one by rat prostate in vivo and in vitro. J Biol Chem 243:2012–2021PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bullough WS (1965) Mitotic and functional homeostasis: a speculative review. Cancer Res 25:1683–1727PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Burkhardt J (1947) Transition from anoestrus in the mare and the effects of artificial lighting. J Agric Sci 37:64–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Burton JL, Ben Halim MM, Meyrich G, Jeans WD, Murphy D (1979) Male-pattern alopecia and masculinity. Br J Dermatol 100:567–571PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Butcher EO (1934) The hair cycles in the albino rat. Anat Rec 61:5–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cameron EHD, Baillie AH, Grant JK, Milne JA, Thomson J (1966) Transformation in vitro of (7α-3H) dehydroepiandrosterone to (3H) testosterone by skin from men. J Endocrinol 35:19–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chapman RE, Bassett JM (1970) The effects of prolonged administration of Cortisol on the skin of sheep on different planes of nutrition. J Endocrinol 48:649–663PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chase HB (1954) Growth of the hair. Physiol Rev 34:113–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Chase HB, Eaton GJ (1959) The growth of hair follicles in waves. Ann NY Acad Sci 83:365–368Google Scholar
  27. Chieffi M (1949) Effect of testosterone administration on the beard growth of elderly males. J Gerontol 4:200–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Cipriani R, Ruzza G, Foresta C, Veller-Fornasa C, Peserico A (1983) Sex hormone binding globulin and saliva testosterone levels in men with androgenetic alopecia. Br J Dermatol 109:249–252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cittadini E, Barreca P (1977) Use of antiandrogens in gynecology. In: Martini L, Motta M (eds) Androgens and antiandrogens. Raven, New York, pp 309–319Google Scholar
  30. Cowan I McT, Raddi AG (1972) Pelage and molt in the black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus[Rafinesque]). Can J Zool 50:639–647PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dawber RPR, Sonnex T, Ralfs I (1982) Oral anti-androgen treatment of common baldness in women. Br J Dermatol 107 (Suppl 22):20Google Scholar
  32. Donovan BT, Van Der Werff Ten Bosch JJ (1965) Physiology of puberty. Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  33. Downes AM, Wallace ALC (1965) Local effects on wool growth of intradermal injections of hormones. In: Lyne AG, Short BF (eds) Biology of skin and hair growth. Angus and Robertson, Sydney, pp 679–703Google Scholar
  34. Dry FW (1926) The coat of the mouse (Mus musculus). J Genet 16:287–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dupertuis CW, Atkinson WB, Elftman H (1945) Sex differences in pubic hair distribution. Hum Biol 17:137–142Google Scholar
  36. Dwyer PD (1963) Seasonal changes in pelage of Miniopterus schreibet si blepotis(Chiroptera) in north-eastern New South Wales. Aust J Zool 11:290–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ebling FJ (1957) The action of testosterone on the sebaceous glands and epidermis in castrated and hypophysectomized male rats. J Endocrinol 15:297–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ebling FJ (1964) The hair follicle. In: Rook A, Champion RH (eds) Progress in biological sciences in relation to dermatology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 303–323Google Scholar
  39. Ebling FJ (1965) Systemic factors affecting the periodicity of hair follicles. In: Lyne AG, Short BF (eds) Biology of skin and hair growth. Angus and Robertson, Sydney, pp 507–524Google Scholar
  40. Ebling FJ (1970) Steroid hormones and sebaceous secretion. In: Briggs MH (ed) Advances in steroids, vol 2. Academic, London, p 1Google Scholar
  41. Ebling J (1985) The mythological evolution of nudity. J Hum Evol 14:13–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ebling FJ, Hale PA (1970) The control of the mammalian moult. Mem Soc Endocrinol 18:215–237Google Scholar
  43. Ebling FJ, Harvey GR (1964) The activity of hair follicles in parabiotic rats. J Embryol Exp Morphol 12:425–438Google Scholar
  44. Ebling FJ, Johnson E (1959) Hair growth and its relation to vascular supply in rotated skin grafts and transposed flaps in the albino rat. J Embryol Exp Morphol 7:417–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Ebling FJ, Johnson E (1961) Systemic influence on activity of hair follicles in skin homografts. J Embryol Exp Morphol 9:285–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Ebling FJ, Johnson E (1964a) The control of hair growth. Symp Zool Soc Lond 12:97–130Google Scholar
  47. Ebling FJ, Johnson E (1964b) The action of hormones on spontaneous hair growth cycles in the rat. J Endocrinol 29:193–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ebling FJ, Ebling E, Skinner J (1969) The influence of pituitary hormones on the response of the sebaceous glands of the rat to testosterone. J Endocrinol 45:245–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ebling FJ, Ebling E, Randall V, Skinner J (1975 a) The sebotrophic action of bovine growth hormone (BGH) in the rat. Br J Dermatol 92:325–332Google Scholar
  50. Ebling FJ, Ebling E, Randall V, Skinner J (1975b) The synergistic action of a-MSH and testosterone on the sebaceous, prostate, preputial, Harderian and lachrymal glands and brown adipose tissue in hypophysectomized-castrated rats. J Endocrinol 66:407–412PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ebling FJ, Thomas AK, Cooke ID, Randall VA, Skinner J, Cawood M (1977) Effect of cyproterone acetate on hair growth, sebaceous secretion and endocrine parameters in a hirsute subject. Br J Dermatol 97:371–381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ebling FJ, Cooke ID, Randall VA, Sawers RS, Thomas AK, Skinner J (1979) Einfluß von Cyproteronacetat auf die Aktivität der Haarfollikel und Talgdrüsen beim Menschen. In: Hammerstein J, Lachnit-Fixon U, Neumann F, Plewig G (eds) Androgenisierungserscheinungen bei der Frau. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp 243–249Google Scholar
  53. Ebling FJG, Randall VA, Sawers RS (1984) Interrelationships between body hair growth, sebum excretion and endocrine parameters. Prostate 5:347–348Google Scholar
  54. Faredin I, Webb JL, Julesz M (1967a) The in vitro metabolism of dehydroepiandrosterone in human skin. Acta Med Hung 23:169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Faredin I, Fazekas AG, Kokai K, Toth I, Julesz M (1967b) The in vitro metabolism of 4-14Cdehydroepiandrosterone by human male pubic skin. Eur J Steroids 2:223–242Google Scholar
  56. Farooq A, Denenberg VH, Ross S, Sawin PB, Zarrow MX (1963) Maternal behaviour in the rabbit: endocrine factors involved in hair loosening. Amer J Physiol 204:271–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Farthing MJG, Mattei AM, Edwards CRW, Dawson AM (1982) Relationship between plasma testosterone and dihydrotestosterone concentrations and male facial hair growth. Br J Dermatol 107:559–564PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ferguson KA, Wallace ALC, Lindner HR (1965) Hormonal regulation of wool growth. In: Lyne AG, Short BF (eds) Biology of the skin and hair growth. Angus and Robertson, Sydney, pp 655–677Google Scholar
  59. Flamigni C, Collins WP, Koullapis EN, Craft I, Dewhurst CJ, Sommerville IF (1971) Androgen metabolism in human skin. J Clin Endocrinol 32:737–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Flux JEC (1970) Colour change of mountain hares (Lepus timidus scoticus)in northeast Scotland. J Zool 162:345–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Fraser AS, Nay T (1953) Growth of the mouse coat. II. Effect of sex and pregnancy. Aust JBiol Sci 6:645–656Google Scholar
  62. Freinkel RK, Freinkel N (1972) Hair growth and alopecia in hypothyroidism. Arch Dermatol Syphilol 106:349–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Gallegos AJ, Berliner DL (1967) Transformation and conjugation of dehydroepiandrosterone by human skin. J Clin Endocrinol 27:1214–1218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Gomez EC, Hsia SL (1968) In vitro metabolism of testosterone-4-14C and J4-androstene-3,17-dione-4-14C in human skin. Biochemistry 7:24–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Griffin JE, Wilson JD (1977) Studies on the pathogenesis of the incomplete forms of androgen resistance in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 45:1137–1143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Griffin JE, Kovacs WJ, Wilson JD (1985) Characteristics of androgen resistance. In: Bruchovsky N, Chapdelaine A, Neumann F (eds) Regulation of androgen action. Brückner, Berlin, pp 127–131Google Scholar
  67. Hale PA, Ebling FJ (1975) The effects of epilation and hormones on the activity of rat hair follicles. J Exp Zool 191:49–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hale PA, Ebling FJ (1979) The effect of a single epilation on successive hair eruptions in normal and hormone-treated rats. J Exp Zool 207:49–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hamilton J (1942) Male hormone stimulation is a prerequisite and an incitant in common baldness. Am J Anat 71:451–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hamilton JB (1951) Quantitative measurement of a secondary sex character, axillary hair. Ann NY Acad Sci 53:585–599PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hamilton JB (1958) Age, sex and genetic factors in the regulation of hair growth in man: a comparison of Caucasian and Japanese populations. In: Montagna W, Ellis RA (eds) The biology of hair growth. Academic, New York, pp 399–133Google Scholar
  72. Hamilton JB (1960) Effect of castration in adolescent and young adult males upon further changes in the proportions of bare and hairy scalp. J Clin Endocrinol 20:1309–1318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hamilton JB, Terada H, Mestler GE, Tirman W (1969) I. Coarse sternal hairs, a male secondary sex character that can be measured quantitatively: the influence of sex, age and genetic factors. II. Other sex-differing characters: relationship to age, to one another, and to values for coarse sternal hairs. In: Montagna W, Dobson RL (eds) Hair growth. Pergamon, Oxford, pp 129–151 (Advances in biology of skin, vol 9)Google Scholar
  74. Hamilton E, Potten CS (1974) The effect of repeated plucking on mouse skin cell kinetics. J Invest Dermatol 62:560–562PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hammerstein J, Cupceancu B (1969) Behandlung des Hirsutismus mit Cyproteronacetat. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 94:829–834PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hammerstein J, Meckies J, Leo-Rossberg I, Matlz L, Zielske F (1975) Use of cyproterone acetate (CPA) in the treatment of acne, hirsutism and virilism. J Steroid Biochem 6:827Google Scholar
  77. Hammond J (1953) Effects of artificial lighting on the reproductive and pelt cycles of the mink. Heffer, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  78. Hammond J (1964) The breeding season of the female ferret: on natural lighting and on days of constant length and intensity. Heffer, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  79. Hammond J (1974) The ferret: some observations on photoperiod and gonadal activity, and their role in seasonal pelt and body weight changes; the synergistic effect of oestrogen and progesterone on weight gain; and a comparative study of the corpus luteum of the ferret and the rabbit.Google Scholar
  80. Heffer, Cambridge Hart DS (1961) The effect of light-dark sequences on wool growth. J Agric Sci Camb (England) 56:235–242Google Scholar
  81. Hart DS, Bennett JW, Hutchinson JCD, Wodzicka-Tomaszewska M (1963) Reversed photoperiodic seasons and wool growth. Nature 198:310–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Harvey NE, Macfarlane WV (1958) The effects of day length on the coatshedding cycles, body weight, and reproduction of the ferret. Aust J Biol Sci 11:187–199Google Scholar
  83. Hay JB, Hodgins MB (1973) Metabolism of androgens in vitro by human facial and axillary skin. J Endocrinol 59:475–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Hay JB, Hodgins MB (1974) Metabolism of androgens by human skin in acne. Br J Dermatol 91:123–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Hay JB, Hodgins MB (1978) Distribution of androgen metabolizing enzymes in isolated tissues of the human forehead and axillary skin. J Endocrinol 70:29–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Heath HW, Lynch GR (1981) Effects of 18 weeks of daily melatonin injection on reproduction and temperature regulation in the mouse, Peromyscus leucopus.J Exp Zool 216:193–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Hewson R (1958) Moults and winter whitening in the mountain hare Lepus timidus scoticusHilzheimer. Proc Zool Soc Lond 131:99–108Google Scholar
  88. Hewson R, Watson A (1979) Winter whitening of stoats (Mustela erminea)in Scotland and north-east England. J Zool 187:55–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Hoffmann K (1973) The influence of photoperiod and melatonin on testis size, body weight and pelage color in the Djungarian hamster (.Phodopus sungorus).J Comp Physiol 85:267–282Google Scholar
  90. Hoffmann K (1978) Effects of short photoperiods on puberty, growth and moult in the Djungarian hamster(Phodopus sungorus). J Reprod Fértil 54:29–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Houssay BA (1918) Extirpación de la hipótisis en el perro. Endrocinology 2:497–498Google Scholar
  92. Houssay BA, Epper CE, Pazo JH (1965) Neurohormonal regulation of the hair cycles in rats and mice. In: Lyne AG, Short BF (eds) Biology of the skin and hair growth. Angus and Robertson, Sidney, pp 641–654Google Scholar
  93. Houssay AB, Pazo JH, Epper CE (1966) Effects of the pineal gland upon the hair cycle in mice. J Invest Dermatol 47:230–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Imperato-McGinley J (1985) The syndromes of male pseudohermaphroditism and 5a-reductase deficiency. In: Bruchovsky N, Chapdelaine A, Neumann F (eds) Regulation of androgen action. Brückner, Berlin, pp 121–126Google Scholar
  95. Ismail AAA, Davidson DW, Kirkham KE, Loraine JA (1969) Studies on sex hormone excretion in normal and hirsute women. Acta Endocrinol 61:283–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Ismail AAA, Loraine JA, Cullen DR, Irvine WJ (1970) Studies of endocrine function in a hirsute woman. In: Irvine WJ, Loraine JA (eds) Reproductive endocrinology. Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 122–131Google Scholar
  97. Jackes AD, Watson A (1975) Winter whitening of Scottish mountain hares (Lepus timidus scoticus)in relation to daylength, temperature and snow-lie. J Zool 176:403–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Jackson D, Church RE, Ebling FJ (1972) Hair diameter in female baldness. Br J Dermatol 87:361–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Jackson D, Ebling FJ (1972) The activity of hair follicles and their response to oestradiol in the guinea pigCaviaprocellusL. J Anat 111:303–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Jenkins JS, Ash S (1973) The metabolism of testosterone by human skin in disorders of hair growth. J Endocrinol 59:345–351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Jensen E (1958) Studies of hormonal regulation of the mouse hair cycle. Thesis, University of CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  102. Johnson E (1958a) Quantitative studies of hair growth in the albino rat. I. Normal males and females. J Endocrinol 16:337–350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Johnson E (1958b) Quantitative studies of hair growth in the albino rat. II. The effect of sex hormones. J Endocrinol 16:351–359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Johnson E (1958c) Quantitative studies of hair growth in the albino rat. III. The role of the adrenal glands. J Endocrinol 16:360–368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Johnson E, Ebling FJ (1964) The effect of plucking hairs during different phases of the follicular cycle. J Embryol Exp Morphol 12:465–474PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Kay RNB, Ryder ML (1978) Coat growth in red deer (Cervus elaphus)exposed to a day-length cycle of six months duration. J Zool 185:505–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Keenan BS, Meyer WJ, Hadjian A J, Jones HW, Migeon CJ (1974) Syndrome of androgen in-sensitivity in man: absence of 5a-dihydrotestosterone binding protein in skin fibroblasts. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 38:1143–1146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Kim MH, Herrmann WC (1968) In vitro metabolism of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in foreskin, abdominal skin and vaginal mucosa. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 28:187–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Kligman AM (1959) The human hair cycle. J Invest Dermatol 33:307–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Kligman AM (1961) Pathologic dynamics of human hair loss. I. Telogen effluvium. Arch Dermatol 83:175–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Kuttenn F, Mowszowicz I, Wright F, Baudot N, Jaffiol C, Robin M, Mauvais-Jarvis P (1979) Male pseudohermaphroditism: a comparative study of one case of 5a-reductase deficiency with three complete forms of testicular feminization. J Clin Endocrinol 49:861–865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Leshin M, Wilson JD (1981) Mechanisms of androgen-mediated hair growth. In: Orfanos CE, Montagna W, Stüttgen G (eds) Hair research. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 205–209Google Scholar
  113. Lincoln GA (1979) Photoperiodic control of seasonal breeding in the ram: participation of the cranial sympathetic nervous system. J Endocrinol 82:135–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Lindner HR, Ferguson KA (1956) The influence of the adrenal cortex on wool growth and its relation to “break” and “tenderness” of the fleece. Nature 177:188–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Ling JK (1965) Hair growth and moulting in the southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina(Linn.). In: Lyne AG, Short BF (eds) Biology of the skin and hair growth. Angus and Robertson, Sydney, pp 525–554Google Scholar
  116. Linzey DW, Linzey AV (1967) Maturational and seasonal moults in the golden mouse Ochro-tomys nuttalli.J Mammal 48:236–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Logan A, Weatherhead B (1978) Pelage color cycles and hair follicle tyrosinase activity in the Siberian hamster. J Invest Dermatol 71:295–298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Logan A, Weatherhead B (1980) Post-tyrosinase inhibition of melanogenesis by melatonin in hair follicles in vitro. J Invest Dermatol 74:47–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Ludwig E (1977) Classification of the types of androgenetic alopecia (common baldness) occurring in the female sex. Br J Dermatol 97:247–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Lynch GR (1973) Effect of simultaneous exposure to difference in photoperiod and temperature on the seasonal molt and reproductive system of the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus.Comp Biochem Physiol [A] 44A: 1373–1376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Lynch GR, Epstein AL (1976) Melatonin induced changes in gonads, pelage and thermogenic characters in the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus.Comp Biochem Physiol [C] 53C:67–68Google Scholar
  122. Lyne AG (1965) The hair cycle in the chinchilla. In: Lyne AG, Short BF (eds) Biology of the skin and hair growth. Angus and Robertson, Sidney, pp 467–489Google Scholar
  123. Lynfield YL (1960) Effect of pregnancy on the human hair cycle. J Invest Dermatol 35:323–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Maderson PFA (1972) When? Why? and How? Some speculations on the evolution of the vertebrate integument. Am Zool 12:159–171Google Scholar
  125. Mainwaring WIP (1969a) The binding of [l,2-3H]testosterone within nuclei of the rat prostate. J Endocrinol 44:323–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Mainwaring WIP (1969b) A soluble androgen receptor in the cytoplasm of rat prostate. J Endocrinol 45:531–541PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Marshall WA, Tanner JM (1969) Variations in pattern of pubertal changes in girls. Arch Dis Child 44:291–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Marshall WA, Tanner JM (1970) Variations in the pattern of pubertal changes in boys. Arch Dis Child 45:13–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Miller JA, Darley CR, Karkavitsas K, Kirby JD, Munro DD (1982) Low sex hormone binding globulin levels in young women with diffuse hair loss. Br J Dermatol 106:331–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Mohn MP (1958) The effect of different hormonal states on the growth of hair in rats. In: Montagna W, Ellis RA (eds) The biology of hair growth. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  131. Nay T, Fraser AS (1955) Growth of the mouse coat. V. Effects of pregnancy and lactation. Aust J Biol Sci 8:428–434Google Scholar
  132. Orentreich N (1969) Scalp hair replacement in man. In: Montagna W, Dobson RL (eds) Hair growth. Pergamon, Oxford, pp 99–108 (Advances in biology of skin, vol 9)Google Scholar
  133. Orfanos CE (1979) Alopecia androgenetica. In: Orfanos CE (ed) Haar und Haarkrankheiten. Fischer, Stuttgart, pp 573–604Google Scholar
  134. Pernetta JC (1976) A note on the moult of common shrew, Sorex araneus, and pigmy shrew, S.minutus, with observations on the patch moults of white-toothed shrew, Crocidura suaveolens.J Zool 179:216–219Google Scholar
  135. Peterson RE, Imperato-McGinley J, Gautier T, Sturla E (1977) Male pseudohermaphroditism due to steroid 5a-reductase deficiency. Am J Med 62:170–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Pinter A (1968) Hair growth responses to nutrition and photoperiod in the vole. Am J Physiol 215:828–832PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Pochi PE, Strauss JS (1974) Endocrinologic control of the development and activity of the human sebaceous gland. J Invest Dermatol 62:191–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Quay WB (1970) The significance of the pineal. In: Benson GK, Phillips JG (eds) Hormones and the environment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 423–444Google Scholar
  139. Randall VA, Ebling FJG, Constable GM (1985) Seasonal variation in human hair growth. Br J Dermatol 113:769Google Scholar
  140. Rennels EG, Callahan WP (1959) The hormonal basis for pubertal maturation of hair in the albino rat. Anat Ree 135:21–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Rivière JE, Engelhardt FR, Solomon J (1977) The relationship of thyroxine and Cortisol to the moult of the harbor sealPhoca vitulina.Gen Comp Endocrinol 31:398–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Rothschild M (1944) Pelage change of the stoat Mustela ermineaL. Nature 154:180–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Ruffer DG (1965) Juvenile molt on Onychomys leucogaster.J Mammal 46:338–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Rust CC (1962) Temperature as a modifying factor in the spring pelage change of short-tailed weasels. J Mammal 43:323–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Rust CC (1965) Hormonal control of pelage cycles in the short tailed weasel. Gen Comp Endocrinol 5:222–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Rust CC, Shackelford RM (1969) Effect of blinding on reproductive and pelage cycles in the ferret. J Exp Zool 171:443–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Rust CC, Shackelford RM, Meyer RK (1965) Hormonal control of pelage cycles in the mink. J Mammal 46:549–565PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Saitoh M, Uzuka M, Sakamoto M (1970) Human hair cycle. J Invest Dermatol 54:65–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Salamon T (1968) Genetic factors in male pattern alopecia. In: Baccaredda-Boy A, Moretti G, Frey JR (eds) Biopathology of pattern alopecia. Karger, Basel, pp 39–49Google Scholar
  150. Sansone G, Reisner RM (1971) Differential rates of conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone in acne and normal human skin — a possible pathogenic factor in acne. J Invest Dermatol 56:366–372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Sansone-Bazzano G, Reisner RM, Bazzano G (1972) Conversion of testosterone-1, 2-3H to androstenedione-3H in the isolated hair follicles of man. J Clin Metab 34:512–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Schweikert H, Wilson JD (1974a) Regulation of human hair growth by steroid hormones. I. Testosterone metabolism in isolated hair. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 38:811–819PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Schweikert HU, Wilson JD (1974b) Regulation of human hair growth by steroid hormones II Androstenedione metabolism in isolated hairs. J Clin Endocrinol 39:1012–1019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Schweikert HU, Wilson JD (1981) Androgen metabolism in isolated human hair roots. In: Orfanos CE, Montagna W, Stuttgen G (eds) Hair research. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 210–214Google Scholar
  155. Schweikert HU, Milewich L, Wilson JD (1975) Aromatization of androstenedione by isolated human hairs. J Clin Endocrinol 40:413–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Seago SV, Ebling FJG (1985) The hair cycle on the human thigh and upper arm. Br J Dermatol 113:9–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Silver AF, Chase HB, Arsenault CT (1969) Early anagen initiated by plucking compared with early spontaneous anagen. In: Montagna W, Dobson RL (eds) Hair growth. Pergamon, Oxford, pp 265–286 (Advances in biology of skin, vol 9)Google Scholar
  158. Slen SB, Connell R (1958) Wool growth in sheep as affected by the administration of certain hormones. Can J Anim Sci 38:38–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Speth RL (1969) Patterns and sequences of molts in the Great Basin pocket mouse, Perognathus parvus.J Mammal 50:284–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Stewart ME, Pochi PE, Strauss JS, Wotiz HH, Clark SJ (1977) In vitro metabolism of -testosterone by scalp and back skin: conversion of testosterone to 5a-androstane-3/?,17/?-diol. J Endocrinol 72:385–390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Takayasu S, Wakimoto H, Itami S, Sano S (1980) Activity of testosterone 5a-reductase in various tissues of human skin. J Invest Dermatol 74:187–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Tanner JM (1962) Growth at adolescence, 2nd edn. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  163. Tanner JM, Whitehouse RH (1972) The pattern of growth in children with growth hormone deficiency before, during and after treatment. In: Pecile A, Muller EE (eds) Growth and growth hormone. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp 429–451Google Scholar
  164. Thieriez C, Rougeot J (1962) Action des hormones thyroidiennes sur la croissance en longueur du brin de laine. Ann Biol Anim Biochim Biophys 2:5–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Thomas JP, Oake RJ (1974) Androgen metabolism in the skin of hirsute women. J Clin Endocrinol 38:811–819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Voigt W, Fernandez EP, Hsia SL (1970) Transformation of testosterone into 17/Miydroxy-5a-androstan-3-one by microsomal preparations of human skin. J Biol Chem 245:5594–5599PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Walsh PC, Madden JD, Harrod MJ, Goldstein JL, MacDonald PC, Wilson JD (1974) Familial incomplete male pseudohermaphroditism type 2. N Engl J Med 291:944–949PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Watson A (1963) The effect of climate on the colour changes of mountain hares in Scotland. Proc Zool Soc Lond 141:823–835Google Scholar
  169. Whiteley HJ (1958) The effect of adrenalectomy and adrenocortical hormones on the hair growth cycle in the rabbit and rat. J Endocrinol 17:167–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Wilson JD, Walker JD (1969) The conversion of testosterone to 5a-androstan-17/?-ol-3-one (di-hydrotestosterone) by skin slices of man. J Clin Invest 48:371–379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Winter JSD, Faiman C (1973) Pituitary gonadal relations in female children and adolescents. Pediat Res 7(12):948–953PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Yeates NTM (1955) Photoperiodicity in cattle. I. Seasonal changes in coat character and their importance in heat regulation. Aust J Agric Res 6:891–902CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Yeates NTM (1957) Photoperiodicity in cattle. II. The equatorial light environment and its effect on the coat of European cattle. Aust J Agric Res 8:733–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Zachmann M, Aynsley-Green A, Prader A (1976) Interrelations of the effects of growth hormone and testosterone in hypopituitarism. In: Pecile A, Muller EE (eds) Growth hormone and related peptides. Experta Medica, Amsterdam, pp 286–296Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. J. G. Ebling

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations