Epidemiologic Studies of Populations Exposed to Motor Vehicle Exhausts and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Many epidemiologic studies over the last 3 decades have confirmed the association of workplace exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and lung cancer (Lindstedt and Sollenberg 1982). However, most of these studies were of workers with very high exposure from nonmotor vehicle sources (e.g., gas retort and coke oven workers) (Lawther et al. 1965; Lloyd 1971). In addition, exposures in these occupations may also have been qualitatively different from motor vehicle exhausts. More recent epidemiologic studies have focused on workplace exposure to motor vehicle exhaust, with the greatest amount of such work on populations exposed to diesel exhaust. These epidemiologic studies have provided useful data on human risks of lung cancer associated with exposure to diesel exhaust, but have not been useful in evaluating lung cancer risk from gasoline engine exhaust. Population-based studies are limited in their ability to evaluate causal associations of air pollution or PAHs with specific health outcomes, and do not provide useful data for assessing the lung cancer risks associated with motor vehicle exhausts.
KeywordsTransportation Hydrocarbon Nicotine Aldehyde PAHs
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Hammond SK, Smith TJ, Woskie S, Schenker MB, Speizer FE (1985) Characterization of diesel exhaust exposures for a mortality study. In: Cooke M, Dennis AP (eds) Analysis and biological fate: polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Batelle, Columbus, pp 533–541.Google Scholar
- Ishinishi N, Koizumi A, McClellan RO, Stöber W (eds) (1986) Carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of diesel engine exhaust. Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
- Kado NY, Tesluk SJ, Hammond SK, Woskie SR, Samuels SJ, Schenker MB (1987) Use of a salmonella micro pre-incubation procedure for studying personal exposure to mutagens in environmental tobacco smoke: pilot study of urine and airborne mutagenicity from passive smoking. In: Sandhu S, DeMarini D, Mass M, Moore M, Mumford J (eds) Short-term bioassays in the analysis of complex environmental mixtures, vol V. Plenum, New York, pp 375–390.Google Scholar
- Lloyd JW (1971) Long-term mortality study of steelworkers. V. Respiratory cancer in coke plant workers. J Occup Med 13:53–68.Google Scholar
- Schenker MB, Speizer FE (dy1979) A retrospective cohort study of diesel exhaust exposure in railroad workers: study design and methodologic issues. In: Pepelko WE, Danner RB, Clarke NA (eds) Health effects of diesel engine emissions. Proceedings of an International Symposium, 3–5 Dec, Cincinnati, pp 1114-1126 (Environmental Protection Agency-600/9-80-57b).Google Scholar